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April 03, 1962 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1962-04-03

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Seventy-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"

MICHIGAN'S TAX PROBLEMS:
The Continual Crisis

NEW GENERATION:

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

AY, APRIL 3, 1962

NIGHT EDITOR: CAROLINE DOW

Women's Judic or
The Student Always Loses

By FRED RUSSELL KRAMER
Daily Staff Writer
(First in a Series)
T HERE IS NOTHING new about
Michigan's present tax crisis.
The whole structure of the state's
tax system results from stopgap
measures 'taken to meet a long
string of similar crises.
This is evident when you look
at the confusing, inequitable mess
that is known as the state's tax
system. Many measures, called
temporary when they were used
to stem a growing deficit, have
been retained as part of the per-
manent tax structure.
During periods of crisis, the
ultimate "solutions" have been the
result of political hassling without
much attention to the needs of the
public.
This has led one wag to com-
ment, "If Patrick Henry thought
taxation without representation
was bad, I wish to hell he could
see what taxation with representa-
tion is like!"
* *
BEFORE the Depression Michig-
igan got along quite adequately
on a personal property tax. In

WOMEN'S JUDICIARIES are probably the
greatest single tribute to the tyranny of
the administrative forces on this campus.
On the surface, nothing could be more demo-
cratic than student bodies interpreting and im-
plementing student-made regulations govern-
ing students. On the surface, the judicial sys-
tem functions speedily and harmoniously, and
there is really no way to view the set-up but
from the surface anyway.
Below the surface there is nothing but a
jumble of unwritten law, unestablished prece-
dent, unrecognized authority and the incred-
ible, invisible sleight of hand which insures
that under the most kosher of appearances, the
student always loses.
A GOOD CASE in point is a recent event in
Alice Lloyd Hall. A resident, making up
"late minutes," was caught studying in the
lounge with her boy friend rather than repent-
ing in her boudoir.
When confronted with her crime, she was
told she would have to make the late minutes
up the following week and was again caught
studying in a public area instead of making up
her debt to society in solitary.
The culprit appeared before the Alice Lloyd
judic Wednesday night to appeal the case in an
attempt to avoid paying double penalty for the
original late minutes.
At this judic session Deborah Cowles, Presi-
dent of all-campus Women's Judiciary Council,
was present and took part in the discussion, al-
though she left before it was concluded. (Miss
Cowles said later that all house and dormitory
judiciary meetings are open to members of
women's judic and that she had attended this
one because the case had interested her.)
LLOYD JUDIC assigned the defendant one
hour's worth of late minutes and admon-
ished her for not checking on the rules gov-
erning makeup of late minutes before she vio-
lated them for the second time. The girl pro-
tested that nowhere in either the Alice Lloyd
handbook or in the all-campus Women's Roles;
and Rules, is it specified that late minutes must
be made up away from public areas of the
building.
Women's Roles and Rules discusses making
up of "social probation" (which means that the
student must be in her house in the evening by
8 p.m. and may not have callers or appear in a
public area where there may be callers after
that hour.) The book also says that lateness
must be made up, but the, means of doing so is
vaguely expressed and nowhere does the book
state that late minutes must be made up in the
same way as social probation, or that they are
to be considered social pro.
Houses on campus regularly interpret the
late minute makeup to mean social pro, but the
practice, however generally recognized, is not
based on a written regulation.
TUDIC MEMBERS, when blamed for prosecut-
J ing infractions of non-existent laws have a
standard line of protest:

All regulations should not have to be spelled
out. The girls know the rules and should abide
by them even when they are only informally
stated.
It would be impossible to write down every
enforceable rule, because this would make the
women's regulation booklet impractically long.
It would not be advantageous to write out
every rule even if it were feasible to do so, be-
cause this would make for stiffness and in-
flexibility in interpretation of the regulations.
What this rationale means in practice is that:
When a girl appears before judic she often
has no knowledge of what regulation she has
supposedly violated.
When informed of the nature of the infrac-
tion, she is not immune to punishment even if
she can prove the rule does not exist. Judic,
since it believes the rule exists or ought to exist,
assumes that everyone else has the same basic
understanding.
Therefore, even if judic cannot find a girl
guilty of a stipulated, hard and fast law, it can
punish her for a "hostile or uncooperative atti-
tude," since she has violated a "tacit under-
standing."
THIS IS what happened to a girl in Alice
Lloyd last week. The implication is clear.
The only real rule-book is the mind of the dean
of women. Her will is done through the judici-
aries which interpret and punish according to
rule, attitude or whatever else they wish. They
enact the role of counselor without training.
They enact the role of judge without written
law to interpret. They enact the role of jury
according to the dictates of their own inclina-
tions And their boarding-school consciences.
No recourse exists except the dean of women.
She can make an equally arbitrary decision if
the original judic ruling does not suit her. If
she finds the outcome to her liking, she can
protest helplessly, "What can we do? You have
been tried by your own judiciary group for a
violation of your own rules."
Apparent democracy is a dangerous thing.
Perhaps the best solution to the judic problem
would be to stop the pretense that students
rmake regulations and simply hand the job over
officially to the dean of women who exercises
it anyway. This could be done on the condition
that all rules be written, all fines clearly enu-
merated and all means of prosecution struc-
tured and published in detail.
IT IS TIME the hocus-pocus with women's
rules is ended, and the responsibility fixed
firmly with its source instead of juggled dex-
trously from Judic to dean and back again over
the head of the hapless student, who has no
defense anywhere, since technical right is no
defense in a "moral" violation and moral right
is no defense in a technical violation.
Perhaps open and recognized tyranny poses
less of a threat to justice than the anarchy of
sham democracy.
-JUDITH OPPENHEIM

LETTERS
to they
EDITOR

1

Hoffa. *
To the Editor:
AS CHAIRMAN of the University
of Michigan Young Democratic
Club, I feel it necessary to express
my revulsion at the attempts that
Mr. James Hoffa is currently mak-
ing to influence the Michigan
Democratic Party.
While the Party in this state
has always welcomed the honest
support of democratic unions in
its efforts to provide Michigan
with clean, liberal government,
the case of Mr. Hoffa is an en-
tirely different matter. His un-
ethical behavior in the past pre-
cludes active political colaboration
with him.
I was very disappointed to note
that the Lieutenant Governor, Mr.
Lesinski, and a number of Demo-
cratic members of the Legislature
attended the DRIVE dinner in
Detroit on Sunday. I can only
hope that this is riot an indication
of active cooperation with Mr.
Hoffa.
Considering these recent events,
I shall urge the executive board
of the University Young Demo-
cratic Club to go on record as re-
fusing to support any Democratic
candidates who are in active co-
laboration with Mr. Hoffa. If this
action is found to be contrary to
the constitution of the Young
Democratic Clubs of Michigan, I
shall urge the board and the mem-
bership of the Club to consider
withdrawing from the state organ-
ization.
I also intend to recommend to
the State Central Committee of
the Young Democratic Clubs of
Michigan that it consider a similar
policy regarding candidates at its
meeting this weekend in Grand
Rapids.
While the University Young
Democratic Club is not an excep-
tionally powerful factor in Mich-
igan Democratic politics, the grav-
ity of this situation seems to de-
mand immediate positive action.
-Paul W. Heil, '63
Excused
FROM the official proceedings of
the state Legislature:
"Absent without leave: Senators
Brown, Prescott and Younger-3.
"Mr. Francis moved that Messrs.
Prescott and Younger be excused
from today's session.
"The motion prevailed.
"Mr. Ryan moved that Mr.
Brown be excused from today's
session.
"The motion prevailed."
* * *
To err is human, to excuse,
divine.
-R. Selwa,
A. Weingarder

November, 1932 incomes were fall-
ing with the real estate values. To
limit government expenditure and
reduce the tax burden on property,
a constitutional amendment limit-
ing the property tax to 15-mills
on the dollar was passed.
In 1933, the state was faced
with rising welfare and relief cost
which could not constitutionally
be met by an increase in the pro-
perty tax. A 1930 taxation commis-
sion had recommended that in
such a situation the state should
adopt a graduated personal in-
come tax.
But the state Legislature treat-
ed the problem as a temporary
situation which could be cleared
up by the adoption of a temporary
retain sales tax. It also adopted
taxes on liquor, chain stores and
horse racing.
In 1937 the sales tax, which was
becoming the chief source of state
revenue, had its loopholes closed
with a use tax which, in effect,
recognized the sales tax as a
permanent institution.
* * *
BUT INCREASES in state aid
to local units, expansion in the
state hospital construction pro-
gram, increased expenditure for
relief and old age assistance, and
the decline in national income
during the recession of 1938 pro-
duced a deficit of $26 million by
1939.
The deficit was finally reduced
to $15 million in 1941 through
the pasage of a tax on intangible
properties. This was the result
of a 1939 tax-study commission
which recommended this tax as
an income tax, since it felt an
income tax to be of doubtful con-
stitutionality.
During the war years the coun-
try grew prosperous. Michigan, at
the center of the nation's de-
fense industry, accumulated a gen-
eral fund surplus of $16 million
by 1945.
* * * '
BUT THIS SURPLUS was not
enjoyed by most local municipali-
ties. Perhaps the most severe prob-
lem existed in the so-called "15-
mill cities" where city taxes, as
well as school and county taxes,
were all included within the pro-
perty tax limitation. The local
units eyed the state's large sur-
plus with envy.
Ignoring a 1945 tax commission's
recommendation to allow local
units to levy a sales tax, the
Legislature approved a 10 per cent
excise tax on the sale of alcholic
beverages, earmarked it for local
governments and also relinquished
to local units one-third of the
state's share of the intangibles tax
receipts.
However, pressure to give sales
tax revenues to local governments
continued. Teachers and school
board officials joined in the fight
which resulted in a sales tax
amendment. The amendment,
passed in November of 1946, di-
verted 78 per cent of the sales
tax receipts to school districts and
other local units. In 1954 this
was raised to 83 per cent.
AGAIN THE STATE had effec-
tively cut off its chief means of
revenue, and again it entered a
period of soaring expenditures.
Between 1947 and 1952, each year's
expenditures were greater than
revenue.,
The legislature attempted to
meet the, mounting defiit by pass-
ing a series of nuisance taxes and
by increasing the intangibles tax
rate. But by 1952 the deficit had
climbed to $65 million.
Temporary measures, unable to
meet increasing demands and not
designed for continued use, had
become permanent-and were tak-
ing their toll.
* * *
IF THE STATE was to avoid
deepening financial crises, re-
vamping of the entire tax struc-

ture was imperative.
Following the pattern of earlier
years, a tax study commission was
established. Again the solution ad-
vanced included a permanent cor-
porate income tax.
Due to an exceptionally strong
lobby from the automobile in-
dustry, which was naturally op-
posed to a corporate income tax,

the state Legislature failed to in-
itiate the commission's proposals.
Instead, it moved up the col-
lection date on an existing cor-
porate franchise tax and, in effect,
made three yearly collections in
two fiscal years.
** *4
THE LOBBYISTS then proposed
and pushed through the Legislature
a temporary business activities tax.
This was a complex tax on the
volume of sales a business main-
tained, regardless of profit or loss.
By f955, the tax had been so
successful that its expiration date
was removed. This made another
temporary measure a permanent
part of the Michigan tax struc-
ture.
- * *
THE RECESSION of 1957-58
brought on another crisis.
The Legislature was forced to
cut back on appropriations. In
1959 the state was unable to meet
its payroll and experienced the
now famous "payless payday." By
1960 the deficit reached $70 mil-
lion.
Again the state employed a
nuisance tax package, even though
its own tax commission recom-
mended an income tax. And the
deficit continue to rise.
The $50 million, nuisance tax
package was allowed to expire and
the Legislature, in desperation, in-
creased the sales tax to four per
cent.
At the beginning of this year,
with the increased sales tax in
operation, the deficit was still $72
million. It is expected that by
June 30 this figure will be driven
to $96 million.
* * *
TODAY'S TAX crisis, therefore,
is very similar to the many crises
the state has faced since the pas-
sage of the 15-mill limitation on
the property tax in 1932.
It is basically the outgrowth of
a previous crisis-a crisis which
was caused by a tax structure
which was inadequate to meet the
demands of a growing state, and
the result of temporary measures
created to meet earlier crises.
SUCH A PATCHWORK affair
can never be adequate. Yet, each
time the tax structure comes back
in the faces of the legislators in
the form of a financial crisis, the
legislators try to pin the blame on
other causes and go right on
amending the structure.
It is in this sense that the
cause of the Michigan financial
crisis is the Michigan state Legis-
lature.
And it is in this sense that
the present crisis is exactly the
same crisis that began in the great
depression.
TODAY, two plans are before
the Legislature. One would patch
up the financial situation by again
introducing a package of nuisance
taxes, the other would completely
revamp the tax structure.
If Michigan is ever to get out
of its continued "crisis" it must
create an entirely new tax struc-
ture.
It is a sorry state of affairs
when a lesson taught many times
over in a few short years can not
be learned by a state's leading
legislative body. Let's hope the
Michigan Legislature has finally
learned its lesson.
TOMORROW-How the
Money is Spent
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form 'to
Room 3564 Admnistration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.

TUESDAY,; APRIL 3
General Notices
Preliminary Examination in English:
Applicants for the PhD in English who
expect to take the preliminary exami-
nations this summer are requested to
leave their names with Dr. Ogden, 1609
Haven Hall. The exanilnations will be
given as follows: English Literature,
(Continued on Page 8)

Art, Music Bfetter
Than Poetry, Prose
THE NEW Generation will be on sale tomorrow, featuring the tra-
ditional assortment of fiction, non-fiction prose, poetry, art and
music.
One can best begin with the most obvious elements: the art and
the music. And, for this reviewer at least, the music can be succinctly
dealt with. It is the score of Editor Roger Reynolds' "Wedge," a piece
which was first presented at the recent "Once" festival.
This kind of publication is to be commended, for it offers, at
extremely reasonable rates, a score which might otherwise not be
available; the encouragement to other young composers is obvious.
* * * *
THE "ART FOLIO" is the most distinctive and exciting thing
about this issue of Generation. Patricia Nelson Watia's oil called
"Nude Study" is a stunning piece. The black and white reproduction
catches the essential linear power of the work and makes one yearn
to see the original, where the color undoubtedly adds to the texture
and depth.
The other pieces which come out well are the drawings and
graphics. Particularly eye-catching and - satisfying is the drawing,
"Standing Figure" by Harriet Saunders; she has captured the pose
with great skill and subtlety. The lithograph by Evelyn Behnan and
the etchings of Jeff Kronsnoble and Stephanie Chrismann are first-
rate.
The photographs of the sculpture and the ceramics are clear,
well designed studies, which bring out the best qualities of the works
themselves. The clean, fresh lines of some of the pots, the rough
textures of the others, the intricately wrought metal pieces are all
displayed to their best advantage. Lisa, on the other hand, appears
at her best on the cover, a striking photograph. I found the other
views of her and the photographs themselves less satisfying, perhaps
a bit too self-consicious, lacking wit.
THE WRITING in this issue is outclassed by the other work One
story and one poem seem to me to have quality. Following the
current practice of reinterpreting classic times, Steve Friedman
has composed a provocative retelling of the story of "Odysseus and
the Sirens"; the piece is well written, with polish and a commendable
style. The framework is neatly manipulated,
There are two other stories. One, "Green Was the Night," reminds
me of the contrived effects of Poe, and especially of Conrad Aiken's
"Secret Snow, Silent Snow." But these resemblances only annoy, for
John Herrick's story uses symbols that I am not sure of (the movies,
TV) and the conclusion over sentimentalizes the whole piece and
actually vitiates the effects.
I find it difficult to cope with "Traces." I suspect both its author
(Marni Hall) and I have read the same kinds of things. I guess I
prefer to get the routines ("hoods" drinking beer in cemetries and the
"weatherbeaten" mother) from the originals.
* * * *,
MAYBE I HAVE lost touch with the younger poets, but the work
here seems to me to lack melody. I tried to read the pieces aloud.
They don't sing. Then I tried simply for meanings. Frustration. I
realize that all the proper poetic images are here (wild seas, nights
in Manhattan, complete with the Weehawken Ferry, even a muse,
stoic at that) ' and that we have the traditional themes (Odysseus
again, Cain, Agamemnon again, etc.) but I experienced nothing.
But a few of the images of Wendy Fischgrund's untitled poem
do pierce the tired eyes, tingle a bit, catch the fancy. Finally, Stanley
Radhuber's "The Sea Gull," is a good poem. It has a straight-forward
presentation and neat, striking images.
-Marvin Felheim
English Department
STANLEY QUARTET:
Musical Value Erratic
THE FOURTH CONCERT in the Second Festival of Contemporary
Music was rather coolly received at Rackham last night.
The first half of the program left even the most ardent Wagnerians
in the audience passionately looking forward to the Webern Quartet
which was to follow.
The "String Quartet No. 3" of Ulysses Kay (b. 1917) which opened
tie program, was commissioned by the University for the Stanley
Quartet. The result was premiered February 20, 1962; that was a sad
day for chamber music. This highly imitative and contrapuntal work
lacked impact throughout.
THE FIRST of "Three Songs of April" (1958-59) for soprano and
string quartet by music faculty member Wallace Berry, kept the
polite audience wondering for several more moments. The vocal line
was so disturbingly disjunct that it destroyed much of the effect, the
text, on poems of Edna St. Vincent Millay, leaving little room for the
expressionistic, Bergian lines that predominated. The quartet ac-
companiment was interestingly thought out, but at times Berry
seemed to be striving for effects that defy this ensemble. Miss Grace-
Lynne Martin has a very lovely voice and she gave a dynamic inter-
pretation of this work, which most certainly deserves more hearings.
THE NAME OF Anton Webern preconditions an audience; the
man is dead, he has carved his niche in the history of Twentieth
Century music, and the unfortunate question remains: Is this a
masterpiece? The Quartet, Op. 28 (1938), is a great work; it has that
pellucid texture, that airy pointilism that are inimitable to the Webern
personality. This work comes as a direct relief from the closely knit,

slushy harmonies, and the meandering contrapuntal lines that mark
so much contemporary music.
AFTER WHAT went before, Darius Milhaud's "Second String
Quintet" (1952), seemed like an old friend. It was the least iconoclastic
work heard, and for that reason perhaps the most enjoyable. Milhaud
manages to produce a marvelous intensity of expression while retaining
sweeping, lyrical lines that are swept along by the added rhythmic
impulse of the string bass; the addition of the bass, with its subtle
ostinatos, provides the dynamic drive that is sadly lacking in many
chamber works.
Needless to say, the Stanley Quartet, assisted by Clyde Thompson,
double-bass, was superb in its interpretations and craftmanship.
-Alan M. Gillmor

A4

A

I

4

1

;.

The 'Challenge' Challenge
By PAT GOLDEN, Associate City Editor

[HE CHALLENGE PROGRAM appears to be
withering on the' vine once again. The
roblem isn't bad programs or even bad pub-
city. Challenge is getting squeezed out by the"
ime dilemma that faces the automobile com-,
inies, the television networks and modern
'ciety in general: too many bargains com-
eting for the buyer's consumption.
In a university, the fight is for time rather
an money. Five great courses are scheduled
; 9 a.m. Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
extbooks compete with books that are just
s educational, but not assigned this semester.
rd Challenge competes with two blue books
nd a paper due Monday.
IMITING THE FARE is no solution. One of
J the goals of a university is to provide the
ost diverse and complete educational selec-
on possible.
An organized acaqemic inquiry like Challenge
rtainly enhances the University's program
nd adds to general knowledge. Topics over
ie past two years have been timely and varied.
ast fall, Challenge's crystal ball gazers hit
e jackpot with a program on War in the
uclear Age, timed for the resumption' of
omic testing by the Russians.
This spring's Challenge of Higher Education
as relevance for every student, although it
ay not seem to carry the same urgency as
uclear war.
It would be unfair to call the student body
pathetic because Challenge speakers talk to
npty chairs. Few of the, 25,000 are staring
t the walls during that time-they're alter-
5ItP 4Tti-hmit Ftilfit

nately cramming and socializing at the Under-
grad, or they're listening 'to the University
band concert, or they're'. writing a paper or
reading a book. They've made a decision to
do something else.
Some of the decisions are made out of
dumb habit, or the chronic disease of clock-
orientation. Most of Washtenaw Avenue treks
to .the library at 2:15 Sunday-because it's
the thing to do after Sunday dinner. It would
take a Pied Piper or Gina Lollobrigida to lead
them all into an auditorium instead.,
Next year's topic, on changing morality, may
provide some of the enticement, but it cannot
hope to woo the campus away from the Under-
grad on a steady basis. That can only be done
by building a core of Challenge supporters
with a burning interest in the semester's topic,
who automatically set aside time to consider it.
IN A COMPLEX university interest can't be
raised by mass publicity appeals alone. It
can only be accomplished by arousing interest
on a personal level-because the choice is
going to be made on a personal level.
But in this day and age even personal
techniques have to be organized. Challenge
needs a person in every housing units with an
deep interest in the program and the ability
to arouse interest in others. These leaders
should then be specially trained as resource
personnel, perhaps with incentives like free
books on the subject.
If the topic was good and the people were
interested, it would not be difficult to get them
to discuss the issue with their friends at
dinner. And heated dinner table discussion
leads to bigger attendance at Challenge pro-
grams.

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