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April 08, 1964 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-04-08

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WEDNESDAY, APRIL 9, 1964

THE MICHIGAN n A 3 u j. u t I.5 J

WEDESAY ARI 8194 W1! Vru V~f 1T iALY

PAGE T

IN NEHRU'S SHADOW:
Control Struggle Faces India

Committee
Debates on
Poverty Bill

Atlanta's Business Committment

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

By CONRAD FINK.
Associated Press Staff Writer
NEW DELHI - With India's
problems mounting, no one in New
Delhi seems capable of answering
the biggest question facing the
government today: Who's running
the store?
A leadership vacuum has de-
veloped in India's capital. It is po-
tentially more dangerous than the
one that immediately followed
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Neh-
ru's serious illness.
Hazy lines of governmental
authority established after Nehru
suffered a stroke Jan. 7 have been
blurred even more since his par-
tial recovery. He is not physically
able to run the store himself, but
is fit enough so it is impossible
for any one of his subordinates
to do the job.
As a result, important decisions
are delayed and on at least two
major foreign policy issues India
apparently is without meaningful,
constructive direction.
In Parliament, all eyes dart
from the minister who is acting
as government spokesman to
Nehru, sitting hunched over in his
front-row bench.
Does the spokesman have Neh-
ru's backing? Is Nehru nodding
in agreement? Frowning in dis-
approval?
In such ways the capital tries
to determine how the governmen-
tal winds of decision-or inde-
cision-are drifting.
It is fact of Indian political life
that no politician can flower, no
leadership combination can flour-
ish in Nehru's shadow-and he
has cast a big shadow as the na-
tion's only prime minister in 17
years of independence.
With Nehru in a sickbed, many
Indians were' genuinely surprised
to see other potential leaders

Religions,
Polities, Split
East Asians
Great trouble may be brewing
in the vast Indian subcontinent
-an area teeming with people
prejudice and poverty. Since . the
partition of 1947, in which the new
nation of Pakistan was born, hun-
dreds of thousands of people have
died in communal fighting, much
of it based -on fanatic Hindu-
Moslem hatred.
Now, new factors are present,
Pakistan reached a cordial under-
standing with Red China in Feb-
ruary. Red China has taken the
side of Pakistan against India. In
January, India's great leader
Jawaharlal Nehru was felled by a
stroke and may never resume
the reigns of power. No clear suc-
cessor is in sight.
At the same time, new riots are
sweeping India and Pakistan.
Hundreds have died and thousands
been injured since the first of the
year.
Set for Talks
The situation has. become so
tense that the Home Ministers of
India and Pakistan have agreed
to meet this month to consider
the problem. This will be the first
ministerial-level talks between the
two nations on any 'subjectin
nearly a year.
The trouble began with parti-
tion. Two relatively small pieces
of India were cut out to form
West Pakistan and East Pakistan:
all one nation but separated by
about 1,000 miles of India.
Partition was born of Moslem
demands for their own state. The
birth was attended by a great
bloodbath. In 18 months, 6.6 mil-
lion Moslems fled India to move
into Pakistan. At the same time,
about 5.5 million non-Moslems mi-
grated from Pakistan into India.
In the terror accompanying this
mass migration, some half a mil-
lion people were killed.
Mixed Population
When the first great paroxysm
was over, virtually no Hindus were
were left in East Pakistan, and at
left in West Pakistan. But millions
present there are still about 9
million Hindus and non-Moslems
among a population of 55 million.
In addition, some 45 million
Moslems remain in India, a tiny
minority in a population of 400
million, mostly Hindus. This is
where the present trouble lies.
In Calcutta, a steaming city of
3.5 million people and some of the
world's worst slums, hooligans
throw jute balls soaked in gaso-
line into Moslem shops and homes.
Fire: and rioting .break out, hun-
dredsofdbuildings are burned and
thousands killed or injured.
Riots and Blood
From East Pakistan :trains
trundle into the border provinces
of India ,carrying Hindu refugees.
Stories spread of atrocities at the
hands of the Moslems, and more
riots break out. Hindus head for
the Moslem sections of Indian
cities and fire and death follow.
In recent weeks, bloody fighting
has taken place in the states of
Assam, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
Now East Pakistan seems bent
on expelling all non-Moslems. In-
dia claims 4 million Hindus have
been forced to flee from East
Pakistan since 1940, and are still
fleeing.
At the same time, Pakistan
charges that India has expelled
more than 120,000 Moslems into
East Pakistan from the Indian
border states of West Bengal and
Assam.
Opposes Switch
Why not exchange of popula-
tion, to remove the cause of strife?
India opposes this on several
grounds. The main contention is

that India is a sectarian state, not
a religious state, such as Pakistan.
India says it is ready to guarantee
the rights of all religious minori-
ties within its borders, but de-
mands that Pakistan do the sable.
While the greatest threat to

among the men who had followed
in Nehru's footsteps for so many
years. Some of the Congress Par-
ty men around Nehru began to as-
sert their ideas.
Then, Nehru's health improved
enough to enable him to resume
his seat in Parliament, and occas-
sionally to appear at public func-
tions.
'One effect was an immediate
downgrading of the men who had
moved in while he was ill.
Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nehru's
right-hand man and once consid-
ered his sure successor is not the
strong figure he was even a month
ago.
Uncertain
Foreign diplomats who take
their problems to Shastri doubt
they have talked with the real
source of power in the Indian gov-
ernment.
Those seeking high-level gov-
ernmental decisions try to touch
all bases with calls to at least
three ministries and, many times,
to Nehru's garden for a hurried
cup of tea. His physicians restrict
visitors to 20 minutes.
After tea and Shastri, decision-
seekers must also check in with
Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda
and Finance Minister T. T. Krish-
namachari.
These three men formed the
"troika" that was to guide the
government in Nehru's absence.
It developed they were highly in-
dividualistic men somewhat ill-
suited for collective leadership.
India's second echelon of lead-
ership, the men who keep the
mountains of paper moving in the
ministries, shows the strain of in-
decision and lack of direction.
More Headaches
With Communist China and
Pakistan moving closer together,
India faces the prospect of two
avowed enemies forming an anti-
India combine. Newspapers and
government officials call this one
of the most dangerous problems
independent India ever has faced.
Yet no single government lead-
er has come forward with a con-
crete proposal of what India
should do. Everyone is "awaiting
developments."
United States offers of increased
military aid are bogged down in
indecision and faulty planning.
American military men have been
waiting for months for detailed
requests on what aid India wants.
Serious fear is expressed by
government officials that religious
rioting between Hindus and Mos-
lems on the India-Pakistan border
could develop into serious conflict
between Indian and Pakistani
armed forces. But the diplomatic
dialogue with Pakistan is closed
and no one has come forth with
a suggestion on how to reopen it.
UN Opponents
In the United Nations, India
opposes Pakistan's request for re-
newed Security Council debate on
the dispute over the state of
Kashmir. But no Indian official
has given a solid procedural rea-
son why debate should not be re-
sumed and India as a result faces
a possibly serious diplomatic de-
feat.
Other problems are developing:
a famine threatens in Rajasthan
state, and the nation's economy
is in bad shape.
But there is no sign that the]
firm leadership needed to attack
these problems will be forthcom-,
ing soon.

Gen. Robert F. Kennedy ran into
increased Republican opposition to
the administration's anti-poverty
bill yesterday.
The GOP members of the House
Education and Labor subcommit-
tee lvho let other cabinet oficers
off fairly lightly in previous hear-
ings on the program, peppered
Kennedy with complaints about it.
Kennedy stood firmly by the bill
and made it clear the idea of an
all-out attack on poverty started
with his brother, the late Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy.
Objections
Republicans expressed ,Ioncern
about the cost of the $962.5-mil-
lion program and raised questions
involving race and religion, ap-
parently in an effort to shake the
support of southern Democrats.
Rep. William H. Ayres (R-Ohio)
said because of the large numbers
of -Negroes mired in poverty and
the limited number cf oe ,sons who
could be helped by the job corps
section of the bill, "there won't be
any white people in it.'
Rep. Phil M. Landrum (D-Ga,
whose sponsorship of the bill is
expected to bring it 40 or 50 south-
ern votes, challenger Ayres' state-
ment.
Poverty Everywhere
"Negroes are not the only poor
people in the world," Landrum
said. Citing widespread poverty
among whites, especially in the
rural south, Landrum said the bill
"is drafted to relieve poverty
wherever it occurs and whatever
the color of the people."
Rep. Dave Martin (R-Neb) said
the administration, by limiting di-
rect support of educational proj-
ects in the program to public
of aid to parochial schools.
"No, we are facing up to the
issue that we didn't want to aid
parochial schools."
Later Kennedy explained that
parochial schools would be able to
participate in a communityrwide
anti-poverty program under the
bill. "Thekey is that it must be
part of a community action pro-
gram," he said.
An amendment specifically lim-
iting anj federal aid for such
programs to the ' communitywide
agency would be acceptable to him,
he added.
Predict Food
Stamp Victory
WASHINGTON ()-Rep. Leo-
nor K. Sullivan (D-Mo), sponsor
of the . food stamp bill, yesterday
called the program "an integral
and essential part of the drive on
poverty."
The bill would expand nation-
wide a pilot program aimed at
improving the diets of needy fam-
ilies. Those who qualify would buy
food stamps for what they would
normally spend on food, and could
trade them in at grocery stores
for a bonus amount of food of
their own choice.
The bill is scheduled for a final
vote today, and its backers pre-
dict victory.t
Since it commands wide sup-
port from northern city congress-
men, its fate is intertwined with
the cotton-wheat bill slated to
follow it.

WASHINGTON (A)

- Atty.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
third in a series of articles dealing
with the Negro in Atlanta. An edi-
torial written in conjunction with
the series appears on Page 4.)
By ROBERT JOHNSTON
Special To The Daily
ATLANTA - The city's large,
beautiful and very expensive air-
port symbolizes best the import-
ance of the businessman and his
ambitions in Atlanta.
Inside the airport hangs a large
and also very expensive mobile. In
the center of it is a representation
of the phoenix rising from a bed
of ashes, portraying the rebuild-
ing of the city after Sherman's
devastation. The Chamber of Com-
merce as adopted a modernistic
rendering of the phoenix for its
own symbol.
But outside the airport lies the
expressway into downtown Atlan-
ta-poorly designed, littered with
potholes and ends at a midtown
interchange that has been worked
on for many years, and is still
not complete. The airport signifies
the business community's great in-
fusion of new life and talent to the
city while the expressway shows
that there is much to be done.
Bias Favors Negro
The businessman has tackled
Atlanta's problems with singular
force, and the Negro is one of
these problems. When the Cham-
ber of Commerce president resign-
ed in 1962 to run for mayor and
won, a strong bias in city govern-
ment in. favor of business views
was assured.
In a recent interview, Opie Shel-
ton, executive vice-president of the
Atlanta chamber, talked about the
businessmen's approach to the Ne-
gro situation in the city:
"We were the first United States
chamber of commerce to become
involved with the Negro issue. We
did so because we are dedicated
to the mission of producing dol-
lars and jobs without undue re-
gard for who gets them.
"With 40 per cent- of our citi-
zens Negro, we recognize that by
increasing their economic status
we will all be better off. We took
a stand on the school integration
issue and have called for business
desegregation, asking hotels and
restaurants to desegregate. The
sky-hasn't fallen yet."
Next Step
The Atlanta businessmen have
recognized that the Negro prob-
lem cannot be ignored or walked
away from in hopes that the prob-
lems will disappear.
With a tradition of desegrega-
tion established in the city in all
areas of public accommodation
and city facilities, leaders are look-

ing to the federal civil rights bill
to enable them to penetrate into
areas where persuasion, negotia-
tion and Negro actions haven't yet
managed to take effect. They see
the bill as the logical next step
needed for conttinuing civil rights
progress in the city.
Attention now is turning to an-
other very important aspect of the'
Negro situation - equal employ-
ment.
"We don't claim to be anthropol-
ogists or sociologists. We're sim-
ply trying to develop the econo-
my, and this includes a program'
for retraining white and Negro
unskilled labor," Shelton said.
Rio .Forces
Purge Reds
RIO DE JANEIRO (A')-Docu-
ments seized in a roundup of9
Communists link Red Chiha and
Cuba to a campaign of assassina-
tion and revolution planned for
Brazil this spring, military sources
said yesterday.
In the inland capital of Brasilia,
Deputy -Euripides Cardoso, a con-
servative, said he would propose
in congress an immediate diplo-
matic break with Fidel Castro's
Cuba. He charged that Cuban and
other Communist embassies were
centers of agitation and infiltra-
tion.
Cuba's ambassador to Brasilia,
Raul Roa Khoury, left Saturday
for Havana, reportedly going
home for a vacation.
Leftist Infiltration
Police and army raids were un-
covering evidence of surprisinglyI
deep Communist infiltration in
the wake of last week's overthrow
of leftist President Joao Goulart
by generals and a group of power-
ful state governors.
Jornal do Brasil said more than
3000 Communist suspects and tons
of weapons, subversive propagan-
da and radio sets had been seized
in the raids isnce Goulart's down-
fall.
In Recife in the poverty-
plagued northeast, 4th Army offi-
cers showed reporters documents
they said were taken from a mem-
ber of the Communist-dominated
General Works command.
Reveal Plans
These documents called for the
installation of a Communist re-
gime in Brazill April 2. Other doc-
uments showed plans for a Red
revolutionto, begin May 1. Many
of these documents were said to
show links with Peking and Ha-
vana

"Many jobs are open and avail-
able to Negroes, but there are no
qualified applicants. Negro col-
leges have mainly been geared in
the past to producing social work-
ers and the like, since this has
been one o fthe few fields open
to graduates.
The situation is greatly helped
by Atlanta's low unemployment
rate, one half the national aver-
age and second lowest of any ma-
jor United States city.
Ralph McGill, publisher of the
Atlanta Constitution, has also'
pointed out that the city "has
been enriched by having a wide
variety of cultural and educational
backgrounds represented in the
population. A considerable number
and variety of business people from
all parts of. the U.S. are present,
creating an enriched environment.
Open Up Hiring
Mrs. Eliza Pascal (white) of the
Greater Atlanta Council on Hu-
man' Relations expressed some
impatience with the Negro employ-
ment situation: "We sit and sita
and talk and talk around the con-

ference table, but the Negroes r
schooling and jobs now."
On the other hand, Zenas Se
the white manager of one of
city's two Negro radio stati
asserted that "great imprn
ments" have been made.
New Direction
Nobody seems to have a c
idea of just how many Neg
are being employed by form
all-white firms because most
the hiring is done quietly and
ures are hard to obtain. But
lanta's main department si
Rich's, now has 100 Negro clye
The significance of this figure
such a Southern strongfholk
hard to overestimate.
Indeed, this "Southern Inst
tino," as it calls itself, is s
bolic of the union of the old So
and the new business direc'
found in Atlanta. In the e
of every Georgian, Rich's i,
synonym for Southern gracic
ness and easy living, yet is also
extremely prosperous represei
tive of the Atlanta business cc
munity.

CHOCOLATE* COVERED
KATY-DI DS
THURSDAY
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sponsored by Pan h

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World News
Roundup
By The Associated Press
CLEVELAND - A tractor ran
over and killed adyoung Presby-
Sterian minister during a civil'
rights demonstration at a school
site yesterday. His death touched
off rock-throwing, car-smashing
disorders by a crowd which at
nightfall numberedsabout 3500,
most of them Negroes.
* * *
MOSCOW - The Soviet Union
made two disclosures yesterday
indicating another-and possibly
spectacular--space venture may
be near. Also, veteran cosmonauts
are training to go up again and
scientists have tested a new air
mixture for cabins of space ships.
* * *
NEW YORK--Eight of the na-
tion's gian steel companies were
indicted on federal anti-trust
charges yesterday-an outgrowth
of the dramatic showdown -over
pricing two years ago this week
between the late President John
F. Kennedy and the industry.
Among the defendants are the
United States Steel Co., the Beth-
lehem Steel, Co., and the Great
Lakes Steel-Co.
* * *
CAPE KENNEDY-Project Ge-
mini, which promises a string of
manned space spectaoulars in the
next three years, is scheduled for
its maiden test flight today-an
attempt to orbit an unmanned
spacecraft.
WASHINGTON - W. Averell
Harriman, undersecretary of state
for political afairs, is in overall
charge of the administration's Af-
rican policy, State Department
sources reported yesterday. The
decision came from President Lyn-
don B. Johnson, who wanted some-
one at the I highest level at the
State Department to be responsi-
ble for long range planning in
Africa.
* * '9
MILWAUKEE-Alabama Gov.
George C. Wallace was winning
about 20 per cent of the total vote
in early returns from yesterday's
presidential primary. Wisconsin
Republicans seized the opportuni-
ty to support his challenge of ad-
miistration civil rights policies.
* * *
NEW YORK-Steels led a stock
market downturn yesterday, the
first in five sessions. Trading was
active. The Dow-Jones averages
had 30 industrials down 1.99, 20
railroads up .45, 15 utilities un-
changed, and 65 stocks down .24.

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CENTRAL COMMITTEE
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TICKETS USHERS COSTUME DESIGNER
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FORMS AVAILABLE AT UNION MAIN DESK
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Friday, April 10, 8-72:00 P.M.
Union Facilities open to escorted women

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