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February 19, 1964 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-19

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V,

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 1964

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Gabon President Quits

AFRICAN POLITICS:
Single-Party System Rules New Nations

Under
After

Army

Pressure

. _ __

Bloodless, Coup

t
r
F
r

<~>

Soviets Take
Harder Line
At Geneva
GENEVA W)-The Soviet Union
told the 17-nation disarmament
conference yesterday that there
will be no compromise of the So-
viet stand on world disarmament.
He rejected Western proposals
for phased, gradual disarmament,
calling them unrealistic.
In a speech described by West-
ern officials as his most uncom-
promising since the talks resumed
Jan. 21, chief Soviet delegate Sem-
yon K. Tsarapkin accused the West
of putting national interests be-
fore disarmament and holding out
little hope for progress at Geneva.
Tsarapkin claimed that the
United States will have more than
1000 intercontinental rockets by
mid-1965. A 30 per cent reduction
In the first stage of disarmament,
as proposed by the West, still
would leave America with about
800 rockets.
Query
"What kind of disarmament ise
this?" he asked. "There can be
no compromise in the desire for
complete disarmament and the
end of the threat of thermonuclear
war."
In the conference session Tsar-e
apkn repeated the proposals put
forward by Soviet Foreign Minis-
ter Andrei Gromyko in the United
Nations General Assembly last fall.
These would provide for the de-
struction of the bulk of nuclear
arms and the means of delivery
by both sides but with each pow-t
er retaining a limited number ofI
rockets as'a nuclear deterrent.
Tsarapkin's speech appeared to
confirm State Department fears
that the Soviets may be consider-i
ing a tougher, harder policy line.-
Step Back
United States Deputy Secretary
of State for Political Affairs U.
Alexis Johnson said Monday that
the Soviet leaders may decide to
revert to such a policy.
Despite the hard line taken by
the Soviets yesterday, Western
sources were of the opinion that
Russian disarmament policy was
not being unduly influenced by the
defection of Yuri I. Nosenko, a
Soviet secret police officer.
Lawyers 'Seek
Jury for Ruby
DALLAS O(P-Jack Ruby's law-
yers yesterday lost a sweeping
move to bar from his jury anyone
who watched on television when
he shot Lee Harvey Oswald. How-
ever, the first four prospective
jurors were excused from the case
anyway.
Twice the state accepted candi-
dates as jurors. This forced the
defense to use peremptory chal-
leng to bar them, without giving
any reasons.
The other two prospects were
excused by the court-one be-
cause he had reservations about
the death penalty demanded by
the state, the other because she
had formed an opinion on the
case.

LEON M'BA
U.S. CUTS AID:
Rap Trade
With Cuba
WASHINGTON W)--The Unit-
ed States is ending aid to three
countries and suspending new as-
sistance to two others because their
ships and planes continue to go to
Cuba.
The State Department announc-
ed yesterday thatminecarryingout
Congress' new aid law ban on
assistance to nations trafficking
with the Fidel Castro regime:
1) American aid to Britain,
France and Yugoslavia is being
terminated.
2) Spain and Morocco will get no
new United States aid pending
their replies to a United States
inquiry on what steps they are
taking to cut down their Cuba
traffic. Meanwhile already-exist-
ing-United States aid programs
for these nations will continue.
3) The other 11 United States-
aided lands whose ships or planes
have visited Cuba in the past will
continue to receive United States
help because they have taken "ap-
propriate steps" to end such com-
merce.
The amounts involved in the aid
cutoff to Britain, France and Yu-
goslavia are small compared with
the $3-billion global United tSates
aid total and the volume of busi-
ness the three carry on with Cuba.
About $25,000 to $30,000 was
said informally to be the amount
involved in the French cutoff. The
British figure was reported to be
even less, and the Yugoslav also
was described as "very small."
The Johnson administration de-
cided on the action after the con-
gressional proviso went into effect
last Friday. Part of the new aid
law, it specifies that no funds
shall go to those nations which
failed to take "appropriate steps"
to prevent their ships and planes
from carrying goods to and from
Cuba.

To Maintain
e ee
Pro-French
GovernmentIi
. I
Leaders Pronise9
To Free Prisoners c
LIBREVILLE, Gabon (P) - At
revolutionary military committee
seized power in Gabon in a blood-
less coup yesterday, arrested Presi-
dent Leon M'Ba and forced him tot
resign.
Soldiers from Gabon's 450-man
army, supported by gendarmes and
police, occupied strategic points in
Libreville during the night. They
seized the presidential palace, ra-
dio station and post office.
Not a shot was fired and life
in the capital went on normally.
Statements were read every half
hour over the radio calling on res-
idents of Libreville to remain calm<
and promising that "public liber-
ties will be restored and all politi-
cal prisoners will be freed."
The airport was closed and com-
munications were cut in the earlyj
stages of the coup, but messages
started filtering out during the
evening.
Under arrest with the 62-year-
old president were his ministers
and the president of the National
Assembly. Only about a month agoI
the army had pledged its loyalty to
the president.
A spokesman for the revolution-
ary committee said the coup was
designed "to avoid bloody trou-
bles that might be provoked by the
opposition" but he did not elabor-c
ate. He said Gabon's foreign poli-
cy, which has been pro-French in
this former French colony, would
be unchanged.
The spokesman, Sub-Lt. Danielt
Mbene, said the committee was
working to set up a provisionalI
government that would not in-
clude any holdovers from M'Ba's
cabinet.
He said Lt. Jacques Monbo, an
officer of the gendarmes, would su-I
pervise the government. BesidesC
Mbene and Monbo, other members
of the revolutionary committee areI
Lt. Jean Essone, and Sub-Lt. Dan-
iel Nbo Edou.
The seizure was timed five days
before the scheduled election of
a new parliament. Mbene said the
army acted to avoid the outbreak
"of uncontrollable demonstrations"
during the election Sunday.
It was not immediately clear
whether the rebel action favored
the major opposition forces led by
Jean Hilaire Aubame, or radical
elements in M'Ba's own party.
A hastily formed military coun-
cil joined the military leaders in
holding power until the formation
:f a provisional government, prom-
ised by tomorrow.

By KENNETH L. WHITING
Associated Press Staff Writer
LAGOS-Government by a sin-
gle political party is a growing
trend in the developing African
nations.
Voters in Ghana approved one-
party state socialism this month.
Former French colonies have
held elections which resulted in
overwhelming majorities for the
only party fielding candidates in
each. None of the four--Dahomey,
Congo (Brazzaville), Chad and the
Central African Republic - have
opposition members in parliament.
Elections are becoming less im-
portant as the source of real po-
litical power, except as apparent
evidence of support. The previous
regimes in Dahomey and the Con-
go Republic were toppled by coups
d'etat so. the struggle for politi-
cal power was decided before elec-
tions took place.
'Ungrateful Wretches'
During the Ghana referendum,
government newspapers not only
urged a massive vote of approval
but also w a r n e d "ungrateful
wretches" that unhappy conse-

AFL-CIO Council Charges
Unfair Unemployment Laws
MIAMI BEACH (R) - The AFL-CIO executive oouncil accused
state legislatures and "aspiring presidential candidates" yesterday
of sabotaging unemployment benefits under pressure from em-
ployers.
The policy-making council of the giant labor federation sin-
gled out Gov. William Scranton of Pennsylvania for special criti-
cism, and called on Congress to establish a federal minimum for
jobless payments. "Scranton has now proposed that benefits be dis-,

quences awaited them if they vot-
ed no.
Single-party control is reached
in most new states through persua-
sion or coercion and not necessar-
ily through outright and purpose-
ful legislation.
However, Uganda Prime Minis-
ter Milton Obote is seeking to
carefully map a one-party social-
ist regime. He insists, "A one-
party state provides for collective
self-criticism and examination-
as opposed to organized opposition
outside the party itself."
Like Obote, many African lead-
ers insist that the essence of de-
mocracy remains under one-party
control. Politicians justify or ex-
cuse the lack of opposition with
one or more of these arguments:
1) New African nations are too
fragile to have skilled and learned
men criticizing the country instead
of working for it;
2) A single national party can
weld a nation out of tribes, many
of whom have been enemies for
centuries. Parties tend to be trib-
al or regional, dividing that coun-
try;

KWAME NKRUMAH
3) The party that leads a col-
ony to independence has an ap-
peal no other political group can
match. It may seem unpatriotic
even to oppose it; and
4) Single-party governments are
frequently coalitions which con-
solidate factions opposed to each
other before independence.
Socialist Regime
When these politicians talk of
single - party government they
mean a socialist regime. Capital-
ism has few vocal proponents and
many Africans see Communism as
an alien ideology tied too closely
to one side in the cold war.
Socialism does not have the
same meaning for everyone in
tropical Africa. Whatever their
definition, most of the one-party
states rule largely agricultural

lands and have little to national-
ize. They intend using govern-
ment guidance and control to in-
dustrialize but they know they
cannot industrialize without for-
eign capital.
The Ghanaian defense minister,
Kofi Baako, says, "A young state
like ours cannot afford to dissipate
its national efforts through sense-
less wranglings and obstructive
tactics which organized political
opposition encourages."
Preventive Detention
As many as 1000 persons are
believed held in preventive deten-
tion in Ghana because the govern-
ment feels they constitute some
sort of threat when free. Universi-
ty student leaders who expressed
criticism of Russia's treatment of
African students or of Prsident
Kwame Nkrumah's dismissal of
chief justice Sir Ara Korsah are
in hiding.
Nowhere in Africa, however, do
you yet find a regimented, sin-
gle-party police state like Haiti
or Trujillo's old Dominican Re-
public.
Even bitter Nkrumah opponents
agree that no Ghanaian political
detainee has been tortured or kill-'
ed.
Tribal Rule
African tribal life is tradition-
ally ruled by a chief and a coun-
cil of elders with only a limited
degree of prerogatives available to
the mass of people. Africans tend
to like strong leaders. French Pres-
ident Charles de Gaulle has many
admirers here.
Colonial rule in Africa was most-
ly non-democratic. Ultimate pow-
er and responsibility always rest-
ed with the colonial governor.

OL

IlJu

'

a

wait

Corr

SI

for
the

National
Roundup
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - Only two
states-Georgia and Maryland -
moved yesterday to place them-
selves more in line with Mon-
day's "one man, one vote" edict
of the Supreme Court.
*' * *
WASHINGTON - Indications
piled up yesterday that wheat-cot-
ton legislation will be shelved so
the Senate can dive into the
lengthy civil rights battle as soon
as the big tax cut bill is sent to
the White House.
. * *
NEW YORK-A late decline nul-
lified the gains of an earlier rally
on the New York Stock Exchange
yesterday, as the Dow Jones 30
industrials were down .79, 20 rail-
roads down .05, 15 utilities down
.34 and 65 stocks down .30.

"continued for over 90,000 unem-
ployed persons," the council said
in a statement. "Instead of at-
'tacking u~nemploymnent he attacks
the unemployed."
The council said states are in-
creasingly sacrificing unemploy-
ment insurance in order to attract
industry.
"This vicious cycle, aggravated
by interstate competition, has pre-
vented the system from fulfilling
either its social objective of al-
leviating the distress of unemploy-
ment or its economic objective of
maintaining purchasing power."
"In the face of this threatened
breakdown of the system, Con-
gress has done nothing. State leg-
islatures, under heavy pressure
from employers, continue to un-
dermine benefits. Twelve state leg-
islatures cut back one or anoth-
er part of the benefit structure
in their state laws last year," the
council added.
AFL - CIO President George
Meany said the AFL-CIO will do
everything possible to help labor
leaders fight any cut in jobless
benefits.

TRAVEL TO EAST,
WEST, NORTHERN EUROPE
Featuring Hi-lights of: France, Switzerland, Austria,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Russia,
Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England.
Departure June 24 (46 days)
GRADUATING CREDIT
Cost $1495.00
CONTACT
Dr. August Kerber, Tour Conductor
Associate Prof. College of Education
Wayne State University
Te-3 1400 Ext. 7096 or Va-45480

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