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February 19, 1964 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-19

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Sewvty-Third Year
il Prevail"
printed in The Michigan Daily eApress the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must-be noted in at; reprints.
Southern Totalitarian Web
Threatens All Amnericans

Improving Design of Ships

"Folks. I Might
Candidates To

Be Able To Get Some Of The
Drop By For A Few Words"

R ECENT reports emanating
from the watery depths of
the naval tank in the West En-
gineering Bldg. indicate that
the naval architecture and ma-
rine engineering department of
the engineering school has not
been idle these past few years
in its research work.
The bulbous bow, which was
discussed theoretically 10 years
ago, has been brought to prac-
tical fruition in the past year
through the research of this
department headed by Prof.
Richard B. Couch. The new
bow is one of the most singular
new developments in ship de-
sign in many years. It is now in
use on some two dozen cargo

future. Since ships are still
basic to world transportation,
such advances will have impor-
tant effects.
* * *
THE BULBOUS bow design
originated in Japan at the Uni-
versity of Tokyo. However, little
was done to put it on an actual
ship. A year ago researchers
at the University's naval tank
decided to try out the new bow
on their models.
Under private company spon-
sorship the large bulb-as op-
posed to an older, well-known
small one-was tried on several
prototypes under full load con-
ditions but without any star-
tling results. But in experiments
with the same models under

LABAMA& has recently moved to the
forefront of Southern police states by
ta~bishingh a far-flung secret police net,
ate officials and agents not only shadow
vil rights leaders, but they also monitor
i speeches and demonstrations about
tegration, follow Justice Department
des and dover newsmen who have enter-
L the state to report on civil rights.
This "political spy network," as the
rminghai, Ala., News rightly terms it,
the most extensive in an area of
ates which actively practices police
ate methods to harass the civil rights
Mississippi, the State Sovereignty
)mmissidn has long practiced thought
ntrol, applying coercion against those
ao deviate from the strict segregationist
Louisiana's Plaquenines Parish has built
virtual concentration camp in the mid-
e of an alligator-infested swamp. The
ison, miles from civilization, is designed
house civil rights leaders who invade
e strictly segregationist domain of Le-
ider Perez.
DD TO THESE recent events the long
history of violence and terror in civil
hts clashes and the South seems hard-
a part of the United States at all, but
totalitarian society which happens to
within the borders of the United
The recent revelations of these Ala-
.ma and Louisiana practices raises fears
at the Southern totalitarian web is
awing tighter as the rights struggle be-
mes more intense. In this "land of the
ee," a non-segregationist in Alabama is
free from intimidation as a Soviet citi-
n not totally for the Communist re-
EDERAL ACTION is long overdue. Ala-
bama's secret police net clearly viol-
es the spirit, if not the letter, of the
rst Amendment. The violence against
vil rights workers using their legal rights
,s long gone unchecked.
Even in the Justice Department's self
berest, action should be taken. Its at-
rneys have been harrassed in Mississip-
and Alabama and certainly some steps
ould be expected to protect them.
Action in defense of individual rights
the South can take a variety of forms
d severity. It should start with vigor-
s enforcement of civil rights and civil
erty laws now on the books. While
rmingham has suffered the hundreds of
mbings that make it known as "Bomb-
gham," for example, the FBI has inves-

tigated but four cases in the United
States since a federal anti-bombing law
was enacted in 1957.
Justice Department efforts to speed
voter registration of Negroes under the
1957 and 1960 civil rights acts has pro-
ceeded much too slowly. Part of this foot-
dragging is due to cumbersome legal ma-
chinery, but part is the result of Justice
Department slowness.
laws, more drastic action may be need-
ed. The civil rights bill now in the Senate,
a first although inadequate step, must be
passed intact and then vigorously enforc-
ed. It is not enough to pass a law, as
many Americans believe, to correct a so-
cial wrong. Vigorous application and en-
forcement is needed.
The federal government should distri-
bute its funds so that it does not aid seg-
regation, but, at the same time, not hurt
Southerners. This requires a difficult bal-
ancing of needs and interests, but the
segregation-supporting aspect of federal
funds should not be ignored.
Further, all military construction and
expansion in the South, a huge federal
pork barrel, should be halted pending
some civil rights reforms. The South is
already overpopulated with military bases
and halting their expansion certainly will
not endanger the national security.
If drastic action is needed, the Supreme
Court should apply that portion of the
Fourteenth Amendment that reduces the
-ongressional representation of states that
discriminate against voters. This will re-
duce Southern influence in Congress. But
even the actively wielded threat of such
action would serve as a deterrent. No state
likes to go through chaos of forced reap-
portionment and loss of influence.
AS A FINAL STEP, federal troops should
be used to protect the individual
Southerner's rights. Since the bitterness
such action would create would outweigh
its helpful effects, this measure must be
taken only as a last resort.
Of immediate importance is the Ameri-
can's realization of and outrage at South-
ern police state methods. The rest of the
country has been too complacent about
these Southern attacks on fundamental
American rights. It fails to realize that
liberties undefended in one place will lead
to the loss of its own liberties. The totali-
tarian web in the South poses a threat
to all Americans.
National Concerns Editor

tensively studying the applica-
tion to these of single screw
The principal work with the
barges has been to design theni
for minimum drag on the tug
towing them and maximum
stability behind the towing ve-
An extensive set-up is need-
ed for these operations. Two
shops build the models and
equipment used in the tests.
One is on one. side of the En-
gin Arch-now you know what
they're doing with all those
boats in there. It works mainly
in hand fashioning the wood-
en hulls. The other houses mis-
cellaneous equipment for the
operations as well as a machine
for making wax models.
The department is also en-
gaged in studies for the Navy
of the recently developed marsh
screw propulsion vehicle, and a
design for offshore drilling rigs
and offshore drilling boats.
This weird amphibian is
guaranteed to go anywhere. It
is propelled by two long, round
screws underneath it which
turn and can dig their screw
ribs into any sort of terrain,
regardless of its wetness, and
Irive the thing forward. The
scientists hope to apply this
principle to other designs be-
sides the marsh buggy now de-
Future plans include a second
tank,x200 feet long, in the new
annex to the Fluids Bldg. It
will be run in conjunction with
the civil engineering depart-
ment. A propeller tunnel is also
It will be capable of simulat-
ing dimensional as well as scale
conditions, that is suiting such
things as water pressure exactly
to the dimension of the experi-
BUT ONE can almost say
that the real future of the
naval architecture and marine
engineering departmenti e s
with a still obscure professor
toiling over the massive prob-
lems connected with a strictly
theoretical study of ships mov-
ing through water. Prof. Finn
C. Michelson will tell you en-
thusiastically that the bulbous
bow represents the first time in
shipbuilding history that a
concept forecast through the
mathematical development of
theoretical concepts - rather
than empirical "observations of
actual ships-has been success-
fully applied to the actual de-
sign of ships.
Prof. Michelson emphasizes
that only recently has it been
possible to maze a concerted
effort to understand mathemat-
ically and theoretically the
forces acting on a ship in water.
This has come about by recent
advances in mathematics cap-
able of handling the great com-
plexities and variables involved.
Computers also enable re-
searchers to use mathematics
Prof. Michelson looks forward
to the time when theoreticians
can design, with a computer,
ship forms vastly more efficient
than those now used. Ship
building would then be freed
from the trial and error meth-
ods now used.
The work of Prof. Michelson
is an example of the continual
search for balance between
theory and practice in a disci-
pline. It is one of the Univer-
sity's many functions to bring
them together in a meaningful
and fruitful combination.

SGRU Sttes Aims,
Hits SURGe .Beliefs-

RESEARCH-The naval architecture pnd marine engineering
department has made strides forward in discovering improved
methods of ship design.

ships and has effected fuel sav-
ings up to 25 per cent, giving
a literal boost to the world's
shipping industry.
IN LOOKS, the bulbous bow
doesn't do much to enhance a
ship's looks according to tra-
ditional concepts. It is just a
large, elongated bulb stuck out
in front of the bow of a ship.
usually just under the warter
line. In spite of its basically
simple design, the problem of
finding the best shape, size and
placement is a difficult o0n.
This work has been the concern
of James L. Moss, the chief re-
searcher working with the tank.
Objects traveling across the
surface of the water have al-
ways generated waves whicb
retard the forward motion of
the ship and thus use power.
Until the bulbous bow, however.
little could be done to eliminate
the waves.
Now, with the development
and application of the bulbous
design, great strides are being
made in understanding the
wave forces acting on a ship.
Even greater changes in ship
design can be expected in the

ballast conditions, that is with-
out a load in the ship, they
discovered significant improve-
ments in wave control.
Today's work is an outgrowth
of this original research.
The naval tank, as it is call-
ed, is the center for this re-
search. It is an oversize swim-
ming pool running 320 feet in
length. The tank is 60 years
old and one of the largest in-
stallations of its kind in the
United States. The heart of the
facility is a towing carriage
custom-built in Germany, in-
stalled three years ago.
This device resembles a giant
water bug straddling the tank.
Ship models are supported from
it and hooked up to intricate
measuring devices. For a test
the whole apparatus moves
down the length of the tank
li k e a lumbering monster,
carrying men and machines on
BESIDES the bulbous bow,
the faculty has been studying
sea-going barges, has developed
a series of standardized hull
forms for the National Mari-
time Administration and is ex-

To the Editor:
THE PRESENT structure of Stu-
dent Government Council and
the method of electing members
is preventing the development of
an effective student government.
The Student Government Reform
Union (SGRU) is working for the
establishment of a student govern-
ment where none exists now.
SGRU is not an anarchist par-
ty; SGRU is for the abolition of
SGC but not for an end to gov-
SGC is and has been controlled
by a small group of fraternities.
The candidates this power group
elects (not always members of
those fraternities) are not con-
cerned with improving student
government; but with maintaining
their hold over SGC and becom-
ing "campus leaders." The records
of the three incumbents now run-
ning for re-election speak for
SGRU NOTES with satisfaction
the recent formation of a rival
politicai party with similar initials
and a similar platform. Never be-
fore have the "conservatives" on
this campus been panicked enough
to form an official party. Never
before have they been so unsure
of themselves as to adopt much of
the platform of the opposition.
Tht oraganization, known as
SURGe, Students United for Re-
sponsible Government,-eventual-
ly-has agreed with SGRU that a
study committee should be set up
to probe student government, and
adds that "it should study SGC
in its present structure rather
than a new form of student gov-
This group is saying that it is
afraid to study anything objec-
tively and must impose certain
restrictions on any study before
it is begun. How does one "study
SOC in its present structure?" The
obvious reason for that group's re-.
fusal to look at the entire problem
is that the "present structure" in-
sures the domination of certain
fraternity groups.
SGRU IS for reform; the other
group uses the phrase "responsible
government" and is running on
the past record of SGC. If that is
what it believes to be responsible
government, then its statements
are poorly disguised status-quo
proposals, and responsible govern-
ment means inaction.
SGRU will offer the campus
representation for all parts, not
one small cliche. SGRU suggests
as one alternative the establish-
ment of a Constituent Assembly to
serve in an advisory capacity to
the student government. This body
wouldrcontain direct representa-
tives from all sections of the stu-
dent body and give constituents a
say in the government.
SGRU strongly believes that all
concepts of student government
shouldbe thoroughly questioned,
and no artificial restrictions be
imposed on a student-faculty
committee to study and question
all basic concepts of student gov-
-Richard Keller Simon, '66
Carl Cohen, '66
Thomas Copi, '67,
Ass't. Chairman
Michael Sattinger, '65
Sec. -Treas.
SGRU Political Party
To the Editor:
CLOSING the Fishbowl to public
displays by student organiza-
tions will not only solve no prob-

these activities bring to campus.
In the quest to bring daylight be-
tween student and faculty elbows,
these faculty members shall cast
a dark glow on the campus. Their
action seems to have required
little consideration. Very little
consideration indeed.
THIS ACTION will not solve the
problem of congestion because the
problem is not in the organiza-
tions' activities in the Fishbowl
but is the people who stand
around and talk with their friends
and instructors. I dare say that
this congestion is not possible to
In the final analysis, the prob-
lem of the congested Fishbowl is,
not of the magnitude assigned to
it and will not be solved by the
proposal submitted by the faculty
members. Its only outcome will be
a less informed student and fac-
ulty body.
-Barry Bluestone, '66
To the Editor:
AFTER dinner today I used the
editorial page of your news-
paper to wrap the garbage. As I
was doing this I happened to
glance at David Andrew's review
of Saturday night's Pro Musica
concert. After further perusal of
the article mentioned, I decided
that the garbage was more intelli-
gent and had more excuse for ex-
.isting so I wrapped the review in
Had Mr. Andrew said anything,
I might have cast a different judg-
ment upon the review. As it
stands, it is an outstanding ex-
ample of the writings of a critic
who seems totally unfamiliar with
bare facts of the style of the mu-
sic and the subtleties of the style.
Perhaps he was so bored with the
concert that he went to sleep. This
is the only explanation which I
can think of why the reviewer
failed to mention any of the real
high points of the concert such
as Dufay's "Bon jour, bon mois"
and the anonymous Spanish song,
"Riu, riu, chiu."
A lack of sensitivity was dis-
played by Mr. Andrew in failing
to catch the strong Moorish influ-
ence upon the rhymically exciting
Spanish songs and to contrast this
to the lucidity of the Northern
European set.
-David L. Austin, '64
writes: "In the last several
years committee after committee
has pointed to the shabby condi-
tions of work in British universi-
ties. Dons frequently have to write
their letters in longhand. Techni-
cal assistance is hard to come by.
Up-to-date equipment may be
considered a luxury. Laying hands
on money for research may take
endless time, even when there is
money to be had . .
THIS SAID, it would be wrong
to expect the Government to halt
the flow of emigrants (scholars
leaving English for American uni-
versities). The best to hope for is
a slowing down. For the United
States is able to support scholars
on a much more lavish scale than
would be reasonable to expect in
Britain or anywhere else. Sheer
wealth is a sufficient explanation
... The United States will remain
a magnet for scientists, as it is for
actors, for many years to come.
So what is to be done? ... There
is something to be said for sug-

'One1Man, One Vote'
For House, Not Senate

*RE THE SOCIETY for the Preven-
of Representative Government
oing again, perhaps it is time to
ut a few things about the Supreme
't's latest pronouncement on reappor-
Ze decision was not the beginning of
end for geographical apportionment
ie state senates. What it was, in fact,
a perfectly straightforward and ob-
s pronouncement: the United States
se of Representatives should be ap-
ioned, as nearly as possible, on the
; of population. The decision went no
w will disagree with this. Even in dis-
. Justice Harlan agreed that the theo-
' "one man, one vote" for the House
just. States are delegated representa-
according to strict population counts
it is only right that the districts
in the states should be carved up ac-
ing to the same formula.
T APPORTIONMENT of the state leg-
latures is quite a different matter.
ocratic leaders in Lansing have ex-
ed jubilation over Monday's Supreme
t ruling and confidently expect the
Supreme Court to select an appor-
nent of the state Senate which would
w the same theory.
wever, if the Michigan court makes
a decision, it will be purely a politi-
ne, based in no way on law or legal

and three Republicans. Such a decision
would make a folly out of justice and cer-
tainly it would not be, as intended by the
Supreme Court, a logical extension of
Monday's case.
I find it hard to believe that the Mich-
igan court, for all its partisanship, would
stoop so low as to disregard the law in a
desperate effort to seize total political
power. Democratic leaders in the Legisla-
ture may have little integrity, but I doubt
the same holds for their judicial counter-
They will realize, I am sure, that the
one man, one vote concept has its limits.
To be certain, the United States House
should be apportioned on the basis of
strict population. Likewise, the state
House of Representatives should also be
carved up in the same manner, for such
is the intent of the federal Constitution
as well as the various state constitutions.
BUT STATE SENATES were never in-
tended to be strict reflections of popu-
lation, just as the United States Senate
was never intended to mirror the head
count of the nation. Political scientists
can argue that the conception of the
United States Senate is different from
that of the state senates, but that will
not eclipse reality.
Of what use would a two-house Con-
gress or legislature be if both houses were
divided on the basis of population? It

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