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February 02, 1964 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-02

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Peace Corps Volunteers Achieve Acceptance

Johnson Backs Viet Nam Head;
Opposes Neutralization Proposal

Associated Press Staff Writer

WASHINGTON-During a recent
crisis, the ambassador from a
Latin American nation told a U.S.
official, "Withdraw your ambassa-
dor, cut off foreign aid - these
things will impress the govern-
ment. But if you withdraw the
Peace )Corps, this will disturb the
people. You may start a revolu-
So, while other Americans
headed home until the crisis was
over, Peace Corps volunteers con-
tinued their work in backwoods
Approaching its third birthday
March 1, the Peace Corps has
been described as "the one/ New
Frontier program that soared."
Fitting Memorial
If its success endures, it may
be a more fitting memorial to the
late President John F. Kennedy
than all the stadiums, streets,
buildings and other- structures
named after him.
One volunteer recently wrote,
"I feel that the Peace Corps is a
living and breathing answer to
Kennedy's famous 'Ask not what
your country can do for you-ask
what you can do for your coun-
try.' One source of consolation
for me over his loss is that I was
in the chorus that answered him."
Peace Corps Director Sargent
Shriver says college students now
accept the Peace Corps as a sort
of post graduate program.

Over half the approximately 700
volunteers who returned from
overseas last year have gone back
to school.
Shriver's personal reception on
college campuses is phenomenal.
"When they stand there for more
than an hour waiting to see you,
then cheer you for more than
three minutes before you can say
a word, that's very rewarding,"
Shriver says.
In recent months, the Peace
Corps has set stiffer standards
for volunteers and lowered its
sights as to numbers. Instead of
trying to reach a level of 13,000
by next August, the goal is now

This means that many foreign'
nations clamoring for volunteers
will have to be turned down. The
cutback is not due to any lack of
volunteers, or -even difficulties in
getting money from Congress.
Peace Corps officials feel that
that quality of the individual vol-
unteer is the key factor in Peace
Corps success and they are try-
ing to recruit some better players
to keep their winning streak in-
The number of applicants has
climbed each year. Shriver ex-
pects it to reach 55,000 this year,
compared to 40,000 in 1963.
"And the quality of applica-
tions is better," he says. "More

of the applicants are in our most'
productive age bracket-22 to 27.
They have higher academic qual-
ifications, and we know this
means better volunteers."
A writer on Latin American
affairs recently said of Peace
Corps operations in the Domini-
can Republic, "Through such sim-
ple devices as poultry raising and
hog breeding they are launching
a lethal assault on that stifling
inertia which has held the mass
of underprivileged in semibond-
age for generations."
This attack (on poverty and
misery is not limited to rural
Last fall, when Communists in

Peru called for immediate expul-
sion of the Peace Corps as spies
for the United States, an organi-
zation representing 50,000 persons
dwelling in big city slums came
to the defense of "the noble and
humane mission of the members
of the Peace Corps who are
working in Peru."
"We have 400 teachers in
want 400 more. If we could main-
tain 700 volunteers there it would
mean you couldn't go to high
school in Ethiopia without being
taught by a Peace Corps volun-
New Projects
Shriver points to new projects
involving highly skilled manpow-
er, such as an educational tele-
vision network which will reach
94 per cent of the schools in Co-
"We have lawyers in Africa,
helping to codify the laws for new
nations," Shriver says, "also
geologists, social workers and
teachers of business administra-
"There are six men teaching
the operation of linotype ma-
chines in Afghanistan."
Secure Place
The role of the Peace Corps in

WASHINGTON OP) - President
Lyndon B. Johnson condemned
French President Charles de Gaul-
le's Southeast Asia neutralization
proposal yesterday, strongly back-
ed the new strongman in Saigon
and announced a stepup in the
campaign to wipe out Red guer-
rillas in South Viet Nam.
Johnson dealt with de Gaulle
and the Viet Nam issue at an
afternoon press conference held
one day after the French leader
had proposed the neutralization of
the former French possessions on
the Indochinese Peninsula in co-
operation with Red China.


Leaders Call in British Troops


World News

Johnson declared that de Gaul-
le's neutralization idea interferes
with and makes more difficult the
United States program of helping
Southeast Asia's non-Communists
against the Reds.
Might Increase Aid
He did not spell out %vhat form
the, step up against the guerillas
would take, but other sources said
the United States might enlarge
its aid, which now runs about $500
million a year. The United States
also has 15,000 servicemen in
South Viet Nam to help in the
Johnson said he had personally
replied to the new South Viet-
namese chief, Gen. Nguyen Khanh,
in response to a message from
the Vietnamese leader accepting
Johnson's urging that Saigon step
up the pace of military operations.
"We shall continue to be avail-
able to help you to carry the war
to the enemy, and to increase the
confidence of the Vietnamese
people in their government."
Outlines Plan
De Gaulle, in outlining his plan
at his semi-annual news con-
ference, had spoken of "the state
of Southeast Asia." This was in-
terpreted generally as meaning
Laos, which has been neutralized;
Cambodia, which has assumed an
avowedly neutral stance; Com-
munist North Viet Nam; and pro-
West South Viet Nam.
However, in condemning the
proposal, Johnson said, "As I un-
derstand it, the neutralization talk'
has applied only to South Viet
Nam and not to the whole of that
area of the world."
"I see no sentiment favoring
neutralization of South Viet Nam

alone, and I think the course we
are following is the most advisable
one for freedom at this point,"
Johnson said.
At another point, Johnson
seemed to speak in favor of a
neutralized Southeast Asia, at
least in theory.
He said: "If we could have neu-
tralization of both North Viet
Nam and South Viet Nam I am
sure that would be considered
"I think if we could expect the
Viet Cong to let their neighbors
live in peace, we could take a
much different attitude."
Later, a White House spokes-
man said that Johnson's remark
referred to an interpretation plac-
ed on de Gaulle's proposals by of-
ficials in South Viet Nam.
Source Predicts
More Reversals
SAIGON (AP)-A ranking United
States official said yesterday more
governments may fall in South
Viet Nam's continuing battle
against military, and political un,
rest and Communist guerrillas.
"I'm afraid Viet Nam is not yet
through with coups," the official
said. "There may be several more
like the one we saw Thursday-
in fact, it may be inevitable."
He said the danger of govern-
merit power plays, such as brought
Maj. Gen. Nguyen Khanh to the
top Thursday, will exist until a
leader gathers enough public and
political support to build a dicta-

Associated Press Staff Writer
NAIROBI-By swallowing their
nationalist pride and calling for
British troops to quell a spate of
brushfire army mutinies, three
East African leaders have saved
their countries from chaos on a
Congo scale.
The governments of newly inde-
pendent Kenya and Uganda, with
British military help, cracked

African Nationalism Spurs
Revolutionary Turbulence

Associated Press Staff Writer
LONDON - African national-
ism, under foreign prodding and
exploitation, is behind the revo-
lutionary rumblings in East Afri-
Red China appears in the fore-
front among the exploiters and its
drive could lead to further colli-
sion with Moscow's-campaigners.
Gunfire in Tanganyika's capital
city, Dar-es-Salaam (Haven of
Peace), emphasized demands for

ca now and due to visit both Tan-
ganyika and Zanzibar.
Both appearances will provide
a chance for him to pose as a dis-
interested new friend of Africans,
to make the most of the fact that
the Chinese, too, are not white,
and to offer aid and comfort.
New Opportunity
An added opportunity lies in
Chou's reach:
The quiet, peaceable President
Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika has
scheduled a journey to Peking for
next month. If he js still president
and if his country returns to its
usual serenity it will help
strengthen China's bid for influ-
ence and friends in Africa.
But Chou will have trouble turn-
ing African states into Peking
Diplomats of the world have
found it pointless to try to pin
the tidy labels of classical politics
onto African states and leaders
whose followers range from bush
dwellers to sophisticated univer-
sity graduates.
Zanzibar Developments
Thus in Zanzibar:
-Foreign Minister Abdul Rah-
man Mohammed Babu, leader of
the Umma party and a labor or-
ganizer, is regarded as a Peking
-President Abeid Karume, who
leads-the strong Afro-Shirazis, is
an Africanist who draws his in-
spiration from the moderate Ny-
-And "Field Marshal" John
Okello, who carried out the coup
with 700 armed rebels, is a Ugan-
dan who joined the Mau Mau for-
est fighters of Kenya before com-
pleting his training in Fidel Cas-
tro's Cuba.
This is the unlikely trinity lead-
ing the poor, mixed Arab-African
nation of 325,000 Zanzabaris whose
annual budget is about $9 million.
African Identity
For all their stability and peace-
ful transition to statehood, the
main demand of 9 million Tan-
ganyikans is for an African iden-
tity untrammelled by symbols of
foreign mastery and for a share
in the benefits of the white man's
Any prolonged turmoil in Tan-
ganyika or Zanzibar almost cer-
tainly could produce one highly
important development, in the
view of African and British au-
That would be to impel the
t powerful Kenyan state to move in
and assert its authority for what
- would be portrayed as the good
of the whole region.
The authority of Kenya's
strongman Jomo Kenyatta is rec-
ognized far behind his own fron-
tiers as an African nationalist.

down hard and fast on rebellioust
African soldiers demanding moreF
pay and quicker promotion. t
In Tanganyika, President Juliusc
Nyerere hesitated for five days
before appealing for British aid.I
During that time his mutinousY
army elected its own commandersI
and held the country at its mercy.
End Mutinies
About 5300 British soldiers,
backed by naval and air power,
took over responsibility for the
security of Kenya, Uganda and
Tanganyika and their 23 million
people. They put down widely
scattered mutinies with a mini-
mum of bloodletting and maxi-
mum speed. The British suffered
no casualties. Four African sol-
diers were killed.
Nyerere, meanwhile, called for
an immediate conference of all
African foreign and defense min-
isters to discuss the East African
crisis. In a message to African
heads of itate he called the situ-
ation in Last Africa critical, and
declared that army revolts con-
stituted a grave danger to the
whole continent. He suggested a
conferencetat Dar Es Salaam not
later than tomorrow.
The extent of Communist influ-
ence in the army revolts is diffi-
cult to gauge.
Behind Crises
Prime Minister Sir Alec Doug-
las-Home of Britain declared in
a television interview that he
thought Communists were behind
the disturbances.
In Madagascar, President Phili-
bert Tsiranana said on his return
from France that he had shown
President Charles de Gaulle a file
on subversion in East Africa. He
asked for more military aid, say-
ing "otherwise you'll be abandon-
ing us to the Russians and
A successful Communist-sup-
ported revolution in Zanzibar, 25
miles from the African mainland,
clearly helped spread the spirit of
insurrection though Nyerere says
there is no link between the trou-
ble in Tanganyika and the Zanzi-
bar revolt.
Seek Plan
It would be amazing if the se-
curity forces of Kenya, Uganda
and Tanganyika had not been the
targets of Communist infiltration.
But it is difficult to nail down
whether an over-all Communist
plan was involved. Tanganyika's
defense minister Oscar Kambona,
says his country has launched an
investigation to expose any con-
spiracy connecting the t h r e e
The Tanganyika government
has announced the arrest of at
least a score of labor union lead-
ers, some of whom are sympa-
thetic to communism.
The mutinies coincided with a
long African tour by Premier Chou
En-Lai of Red China, and the East
African uprisings now have caused
some apparent revisions in Chou's
tour schedule at the request of
those involved.
Common factors in all three
military revolts were 'dissatisfac-
tion of the soldiers with wages
and resentment against British
officers in positions of command.
Raise Africans
One quick result of the mutinies
has been promotion of African
majors to command the two bat-

talions of the Uganda army and
appointment of an African cap-
tam to take over the first battalion
of the Tanganyika rifles.
Kenya's highest ranking officer,
Lt. Col. Jackson Mulinge, has been
named commander of the third
battalion of the Kenya rifles.
The lesson of the mutiny of the
Congolese army and the subse-
quent nationwide anarchy after
independence in 1960 was obvious-
ly not lost on Nyerere, Prime Min-
ister Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya and
Prime Minister Milton Obote of
Foreign Investments
All three are anxious to attract
foreign investment to boost the
low living standard of their peo-
ple and lessen serious unemPloy-



Johnson administration



swifter Africanization of the Tan-
ganyika army, which is mainly
British-off icered.I
Killings last week in the Indian
Ocean spice island of Zanzibar, 22
miles off the mainland, destroyed
the centuries-old domination of
the African majority by the Arab
ruling class.
Political Discontent
The dust and smoke have still
to settle over East Africa's flash
floods of political discontent. But
already. some things are clear:
-A. time of turbulence lies
ahead for this strategic part of
Africa which for years has held
the gaze of the envious geopoliti-
cians of Arabia, India, China, and
the West.
-A new urgency is developing
for the leaders of Kenya, Uganda,
Tanganyika and Zanzibar to band
themselves together in their long-
projected East African Federation.
-All revolutions, big and small,
breed their own parasites as well
as their own counter-revolutionar-
ies and it already seems sure that
both Moscow and Peking will jos-
tle to board whatever bandwag-
ons they see.
In the present situation it looks
as if Red China is away to a fly-
ing start.
Premier Chou En-Lai is in Afri-

ment problems. All doubtless rec-
ognize the damage the mutinies
have done to East Africa's repu-
tation overseas.
Britain's prompt response to ap-
peals for help was welcomed by
businessmen. Some African poli-
ticans are prepared to see the
British remain for considerable
time, perhaps for years. Others,
including Nyerere, are disappoint-
ed that after two years of inde-
pendence it should be necessary
to rely on British power. But no
popular government, said the 42-
year-old Tanganyikan I e a d e r,
could tolerate an army which dis-
obeys its instructions.
The function of the British in
Tanganyika is to keep order and
train an entirely new army so
that, as Nyerere put it, "the torch
of freedom will still burn on top
of Mt. Kilimanjaro."
Ringleaders of Tanganyika's
mutiny-perhaps 50 men-are due
to be tried shortly. All face death
Tough Line
Kenyatta said he would be
equally tough in Kenya. He warn-
ed that soldiers who took part in
the revolt in that country will be
firmly dealt with. About 300 men
are being screened.
In Uganda, 20 soldiers are offi-
cially stated to be under arrest
but unofficial sources say the fig-
ure is nearer 100.
Uganda troops at Jinja barracks
were disarmed by a lightning raid
of 450 British soldiers. The African
troops now are reported obeying
orders and carying out their duties

just as secure as it was under
President Lyndon B. Johnson
headed the Peace Corps Advisory
Council while he was vice-presi-
dent and has kept closely inform-
ed about its operations.
He and Shriver are close friends.
There are widespread rumors
that Shriver, dynamic, personable
brother-in-law of the late Presi-
dent, may be tapped by Johnson
to run for vice-president next
Moyers Next?
If Shriver does enter politics, or
takes another major job in the
Johnson administration, indica-
tions are that Bill Moyers will take
over the top job.
Moyers is a personal aide to
Johnson. He worked with Shriver
in the organization of the Feace
Shriver and his associates ex-
press surprise at the overwhelm-
ing success of the Peace Corps.
They had expected more failures
and bad publicity.
None Asked
There is awe in Shriver's voice
when he says, "We have approxi-
mately 8000 volunteers in 46 coun-
tries. We never had a volunteer
asked to leave by the host coun-
try. None has been in jail. Only
one has ever been in court, for
an auto accident in India."
So far, 319 volunteers have re-
turned home for failure to meas-
ure up to Peace Corps standards
or for personal reasons. This is
about four per cent of the total
sent overseas.
Eighty-two were sent home be-
cause of health and eight died,
either in accidents or from natur-
al causes.
No Politics
Shriver things the fact that vol-
unteers stay out of politics-both
the politics of the host country
and world politics-helps dull
Communist charges against the
Peace Corps.
He adds, "a lot of people think
our volunteers should preach
Americanism. They think we
shouldn't ban political activity.
But the volunteers preach Amer-
icanism just by being what they
are. Andthis is the most effective
way to do it."
Both of the announced Repub-
lican candidates for president
Sen. Barry Goldwater (R-Ariz)
and Gov. Nelson Rockefeller of
New York, have endorsed the Peace
Rockefeller Aide
Until recently, one of Rockefel-
ler's nephews worked in Peace
Corps headquarters here.
Congress is enthusiastic.
The Peace Corps got just about
all the money it asked from Con-
gress-an increase from $59 mil-
lion to $96 million-despite the
fact that other items in the for-
eign aid money bill were slashed
"To get an increase under those
circumstances - when they are
cutting everywhere else in the same
bill-is sort of like defying the law
of gravity," Shriver noted.

By The Associated Presst
SANTIAGO-Chile yesterday re-
jected Panama's demand for aX
foreign ministers' meeting of the
Organization of American States.
Foreign Minister Julio Philippi
said, in effect, that Panama had
no grounds for charging the Unit-t
ed States with aggression. -
* . .
BERLIN-Fire-scarred remainsf
of a jet training plane that carriedj
three American officers to their
deaths under Soviet fire were
trucked into West Berlin yester-
day for study by United States
Air Force investigators.1
WASHINGTON-President Lyn-
don B. Johnson announced at his
news conference yesterday that
Sargent Shriver, director of the
Peace Corps, will become special
presidential assistant to direct the
administration's campaign to im-
prove the lot of the 20 per cent
of Americans not sharing fully in
the nation's affluence. Meanwhile,
Shriver said he does not think he
is going to get the Democratic
vice-presidential nomination and
said Atty. Gen. Robert F. Kennedy
would make a "terrific" choice.
DETROIT-United Auto Work-
ers President Walter P. Reuther
said yesterday the union will not
ask this year for any contracts
which it believes would result in
increased prices.
NEW YORK-Union tugs, tank-
er and barge crewmen struck New
York harbor yesterday, idling ves-
sels which bring the city most of
its fuel oil in mid-winter.
WASHINGTON-The agricul-
ture department has agreed to
pay export subsidies averaging.
78.5 cents per bushel on an ad-
ditional 7,840,000 bushels of durum
wheat bound for the Soviet Union.

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