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May 23, 1968 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1968-05-23

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Seventy-seven years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students of the University of Michigan
under authority of Board in Control Of Student Publications

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich.

News Phone: 764-05521

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily exp ress the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

THURSDAY, MAY 23, 1968


Conscription should be continued...

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Draft or society:
Resistance to what?

LIBERTARIANS who argue for. an end
to military conscription are well-
meaning, but their contentions must be
discarded as unrealistic. Elimination of
the draft would lead not only to in-
creased military, spending and a new
upsurge of militaristic attitudes within
the armed forces; it would take away the
personal impetus for moral questioning
of the war that only the draft seems
capable of raising in today's amoral
@00 It shouldn't
TH3E CCONCEPT of the draft is anti-
thetical to the idea of a free society.
It is a never-ending source of amaze-
ment to me that so many people can pro-
test so many things concerned with and
wrapped up with the draft and refrain
from attacking the institution itself.
The argument that the draft isa nec-
essary evil (for otherwise, they insist, we
must have a "professional" army) is a
well-worn staple of certain pragmatists,
Why not have neither, and let patriots
fight the wars.
"But," they say, "if there were no draft
we'd all be slaughtered in our sleep!"
It would be well if these pragmatists not-
ed the existence of another side to their
tarnished argument.
The idea that the government can
conscript citizens to fight a war so un-
popular that enlisted men alone are not
numerous enough to fight it is at least
questionable, if not absurd. The idea that
the government should be allowed to con-
script young men and forcibly detain
them in patriotic, well-meaning concen-
tration camps in peacetime is ludicrous.
Authorities and politicians from Nixon
to McCarthy to the respected Republican
Ripon Society have urged an end to con-
scription and have pointed out that an
all-volunteer army is not only desirable
but entirely feasible. The costs of such
a system would be high, but when the as-
tronomical costs of the "Selective Serv-
ice" are eliminated the figures are some-
what more reassuring.
fHE CURRENT trial of Dr. Spock is
indeed significant to the entire issue
of conscription. If resistance to the draft
is, as it should be, deemed a legal means
of expression of protest, the system be-
comes completely obsolete. No one will be
drafted against his will. The SSS will be
issuing invitations rather than induction
notices. Perhaps I'll be slaughtered in my
sleep. But then again, I'd probably be a
lot safer sleeping in a well-guarded con-
centration camp. Thanks, but no thanks.

As the war drags inevitably on, it has
become manifest that the only alterna-
tive to massive drafting is the mainten-
ance of a professional army. The prob-
lem of motivating sufficient numbers of
volunteers who would compose such an
army could in the short run only be
.solved by substantially raising military
pay scales.
.Worse, the professional army would
undoubtedly fulfill the very fear which
has traditionally made Americans wary
of standing armies: the fear of a mili-
tary sub-society, with attitudes and
values unto itself. The existence of a
peacetime draft throughout the Cold
War years prior to Vietnam was a dan-
gerous step down the road to militarism;
the creation of a professional army would
only enhance that unfortunate trend.
BY A LOGIC admittedly perverse, the
draft - by immediately affecting the
lives o-f 'thousands of young men who
Imight otherwise'have never become con-
cerned with so "remote" an issue of pub-
lic policy as Vietnam - has led many
to question the fundamental premises of
the war. Furthermore, it has provided an
easy tip-of-the-iceberg-like object of
protest and created civil liberties side is-
sues (reclassification of war protesters,
etc.) with which to attract "traditional"
liberal support.
This latter function of the draft - to
create civil liberties martyrs who will
win sympathy and support for the anti-
war movement - has been much in evi-
dence lately. The Spock-Coffin trial lays
the fundamental question to the Bill of
Rights: just how free is speech? General
Hershey's criticism of a proposed draft
reform which 1 would allow lawyer par-
ticipation on behalf of defendants during
selective service appeals proceedings has
drawn sharp rebuke from even conserva-
tive sources.
RECENTLY, another likely trend-set-
ting case prompted by the selective
service has arisen. James Oestereich, a
divinity student who lost his deferment
after turning in his draft card, has per-
suaded the Supreme Court to hear his
case. Previously, the court has refused
such cases.
Solicitor General Griswold has conced-
ed that Oestereich's draft board should
not have reclassified him. Perhaps bet-
ter than any other, that action illustrates
the success of the draft in creating side
The side issues must not be allowed to
become ends in themselves. The draft
must (and has) create interest. Without
it, the history of the 1960's might have
been even more dismal than it has.


T AM SURE you have, at one
time or another, had the oc-
casion tot telephone a large uni-
versity for information. It mat-
ters little what it is that you are
inquiring about, for the result is
nerly always the same. It might
happen something like this:
"Good morning, University of
Maize information, can I help
"Yes. I would like to talk with
someone about employment in re-
"The number of the Personnel
Office is 521-6843, you welcome.'
"Good morning, Part-time Em-
ployment, Miss Grumman speak-
"Hello, I would like to talk to
someone about employment in re-4
"What field are you interested
"Communication science."
"I see., How many hours did
you want to work a week?"
"Oh, full time. As many hours
as is possible."
"I'm sorry, this is the Part-
time Employment Office. You
want Personnel. The number is
ahhh . . . 521-6844." (click)
"Thank you."
"Good morning, Central Per-
sonnel, Miss Foster, speaking."
"Hello, I am trying to inquire
about employment in research.
Can you help me?"
"Have you filled out our appli-
cation form?"
"No. How could I. I'm on the
"Oh, yes. Ahhh . ..what area
of research are you interested
"Communication science."
"I see. Have you ever had any
experience in the hospital?"
"I had my appendix out when
I was fourteen."
"I see. How about programming,
do you know any computer lan-
"Yes, I have worked with FOR-
"Did you use PIL in the hos-
"No . . . I was too young."
"When did you learn to take a
"No No. I mean I was too young
to know about PIL computer lan-
"I see. Would you like to speak
to an interviewer?"
"Yesl I would."
"Hold. just a moment, I will see

if he is busy." (click) (click) "Mr.
Jergensen, will be right with you."
(click) (click) "Hello, Jergensen
"Mr. Jergens, I am interested
in employment in research."
"Communication science, right?"
"My secretary told me, you see."
"Yes, I see."
"Well, let me see. What level of
research are you qualified?"
"I have a bachelors degree and
I want to continue on with my
masters. I thought something like
a research assistant on a com-
municatiohs project might tie in
with my course work."
"You mean, assistant in re-
"Do i"
"Yes, you see, this office handles
only non-academic appointments
or assistants in research."
"I don't want an appointment,
I want a job."
"Right. But an appointment is a
position doing research. Have you

ny love
ing a position in communication
science doing research while I
work on my masters degree. Do
you know of such openings?"
"Yes, sir, but not in Medical
Personnel. You want the Office
of Research Personnel. The num-
ber is 521-6840."
"Thank you very much."
"You're welcome sir, goodbye."
"Good afternoon, Research Per-
sonnel, Miss Gaberdeen speaking."
"Hello, I would like to talk with
someone about securing a research
position in communication science.
Can you help me?"
"What did you want to know?"
"Is there any positions open or
will be in the near future?"
"You will have to talk with Mr.
Finch. Just a minute, I'll see if he
is busy . .. Mr. Finch will be right
with, you sir." (click) (click) "Mr.
Finch speaking, can I help you?"
"You've got to, there aren't
many numbers left."

Daily Guest Writer
thor, who graduated from the
University with a bachelor's
degree in psychology last
month, is a member of the
Ann Arbor Resistance. On
April 3, the national day of
resistance, he turned in his
draft card with eight other
local men.
OUT OF the dissent to the op-
pressive American "System
(iLe. the various mechanisms of
control and economic progress
for those who own and operate
them) grew the Resistance move-
ment. Resistance directly chal-
lenges the theory and operation
of one of those institutions, the
Selective Service System. But the
tone of draft resistance plunges
deeper, into the conditions whi'ch
allow the draft to dominate young
Americans as it now does. The
act exists as one personal response
to the manifold socio-political
In July, 1965, the Selective
Service System included in its or-
ientation kit an article entitled
"Channeling", in which it proud-
ly asserted the importance of the
draft in the determination of a
young American's choice of study
and career:
"The process of channeling
manpower by deferment is en-
titled to much credit for the large
number of graduate students in
technical fields and for the fact
that there is ~not a greater short-
age of teachers, engineers, and
other scieptists working in activi-
ties which are essential to the
national interests ...
"In the Selective Service Sys-
tem the term 'deferment' has been
used millions of time to describe
the method and means used to
attract to the kind of service con-
sidered to be most important, the
individuals who were not com-
pelled to do It. The club of in-
duction has been used to drive out
of areas considered to be less im-
portant to the areas of greater
importance in which deferments
are given, the individuals who did
not or could not participate in
activities which were considered
essential to the defense of the
Nation. The Selective Service
System anticipates further evo-
lution in this area ....
j. -
INTENTIONS and methods
similar to those of Selective Serv-
ice - in part sustained by vested
interests, power blocs, and coali-
tions - seems inherent in other
institutions as well. For example,
the- education system emphasizes
technological utility; it breeds
little personal growth and crea-
tivity. Similarly, the political and
economic system places an indiv-
idual or a race in a position of
dependency and subordination,
which maintains itself in part by
undermining meaningful minor-
ity participation.
The Pacific phase of World
War II started not in 1941, but in
1854, when Admiral Perry in'tro-
duced Western civilization into
Tokyo Harbor with three war-
ships. U.S. military advisors and
forces currently are engaged in
anti-guerrilla combat in Guate-
mala, Panama, Thailand, and in
many other places; sheer' num-
bers of Americans fighting and
dying emphasize the combat in
ANOTHER possible reason for
this emphasis is the situation
within the United States. In the
early 1960's Negro Americans be-
gan to react more positively to
the oppression and exploitation to
which white America has subject-
ed them. Internal dissent grew to
such a dangerous extent that the
resultant tension demanded re-
lease. The Vietnam conflict pro-

vided the way. Besides guiding
the imminent hostilities away
from the reasons, the power struc-R
ture also sought to unify the
country toward this military
scapegoat. Here U.S. forces, large-
ly conscripted, support a dubious-
ly chosen native elite who act

against the best interests of the
Vietnamese people - usually in
the interest of American military
and economic investment. Ran-
dom bombing and the indiscrim-
inate use of napalm furthers the
When disagreement .with this
atrocity spread widely, particu-
larly among "deferred" college
students, the "System" attempted
to smother it with one of its or-
gans, Selective Service. This be-
get and nurtured the Resistance
movement. -
April 15th, 1967. At an anti-war
rally in New York City some 125,
draft-age men burned their draft
cards. During the week of October
16-21, which climaxed with the
march on the Pentagon, several
hundred joined them. Now the
preferred act was to return the
cards to the local board cr to the
Justice Department. December
4th. April 3rd. Presently over 3000
men have publicly, proudly, an-
nounced "Hell, no, I won't go!"
Many more have refused copsrip-
tion into the military, have "es-
caped from freedom" into Can-
ada or other sympathetic havens,
or have quietly vanished.
In less than a year the FBI ilEt-
ed almost 60,000 Selective Service
violations, which does not include
refusal of orders or other acts of
non-cooperation within the ili-
tary. -
Why? The fear of ,he "club of
induction," and the lifelong
choices which young male Ameri
cans are forced to make, has cre-
ated widespread examination of
self and society in those formerly
TO MANY, therefore, the act of
resistance symbolizes hn aware-
ness of the evils of America and
of the disregard of the precepts
upon which the United States
were founded. But this act is
more. It is a personal commitment
which commences a way oflife
based on the dignity of te indi-
vidual, and on respect for that
Selective Service, as well as the
other controlling institftions of
the U.S., segregates the individ-
uals with which it deals from
their environments and societies.
One isolated cannot effectively
fight many. On the other hand,
Resistance remains group activity
which unifies diverse persons who
share a common goal.
For no one man created the
above conditions. Nor can any one
man rectify them - neither
Johnson, nor Kennedy, nor M-
Carthy. It is we, the American
people, who support the corrupt
and the inept in those conditions.
And only we can countermand
ALTHOUGH the movement be-
gan on larger college campuses,
now over 60 groups exist on and
off campuses across the country:
Many have developed counseling
centers to provide informatin
about deferments and other alter-
natives to draftable men and to
other , interested parties. Sme
have contacted and worked with
persons in areas where no group
has started. Others have ap-
proached potential draftees and
their teachers in high schools,
and in many cases have been in-
vited into the classrooms. And
Resistance ;m e m b e r s suppoi t
movements which challenge other
inequitieshand exploitations.
For the future" groups, have
planned and started communes,
coffeehouses, and freeschools, and
other cbnsttuctive projects. Al-
though almost all active resistors
face the imminent prospect of
prison terms, each one knows that
others stand with him and behind
him, to take his place and to greet
him when he is released.
For resisters, saying '"No!" to

the draft is a beginning to saying
"No!" to the stifling oppressions
and inhumanities of the present
"System:" Indeed, it is a begin-
ning to saying "Yes!" to actions
which will re-institute certain
basic human values tn American

"Oh, yes. Ahhh . . what area of research
are you interested in?
"Communication science."
"I see. Have yOu ever had any experience
in the hospital?"
rr::.. r{{rngsssm im 28is~ i#5 :aa2sssiils ain x'"&#ti"}}":v:":{}}}: };"..a}R};ri"?". :rXi >:>:>:"}?:"

Freiheit ist nor In demr
Reich der traume

tried the Medical Personnel Of-
fice? My secretary tells me you
have experience in hospitals."
"But . . ."
"Besides, I only have technician
positions open now. The number
is 521-6841. Thank you for your
interest, goodbye." (click)
"Hello, Medical Personnel. Just
a moment pelase .... (click) ... .
Miss Fogarty speaking, can I help
"I hope so. I am inquring about
a position . ..
"I'm sorry, sir, everyone is out
to lunch. Could you call back or
do you want me to take a mes-
"Ten after twelve already? No,
no message, I'll call back after
Lunch hour passes.
"Good afternoon, Medical Per-
sonel, Miss Vanice speaking."
"Yes, I was talking to a Miss
Fogarty this morning, is she in?"
"No, she only works mornings.
She is pregnant you know."
"No, I ahh . . . I mean . . . I
am desperately trying to find
someone who can aid me in secur-

"Excuse me, I would like to in-
quire about getting a position in
research. My field is communica-
tion science. I was told an assis-
tant in research appointment was
appropriate for a beginning level."
"You mean a research assistant,
don't you? That's the academic
"I'm sure I do. Now, I have a
bachelors degree and I am going
to be working on my masters."
"I see. Have you contacted the
School of Graduate Studies yet?"
"I might have, I talked to every-
body else."
"Nothing, nothing. Please sir,
just tell me, do you have any
available positions in communi-
cation science doing research. God
knows you and the school could
use a few."
"No, I'm sorry. Due to national,
monetary cutbacks the project
directors are hiring very few re-
search assistants. However, we
have a branch office out at Bab-
bling Brook Airport. They might
need a . . . ."


WHO THEN is free? Student editors of
the Michigan State News found out
last week just how expendable some of
their hard won promises of academic
freedom really were. The State News ad-
visory board rejected the senior editorial
pointed another student petitioning for
This represented 'a sickening double
cross of a pledge of editorial freedom
given the State News by this year's stu-
dent faculty committee on academic
freedom. The committee etched out the
limits of student power in the forefront
of an academic freedom report later
adopted by the university.
Over the protests of several of the
student members the committee gave the,
State News advisory board power to re-
ject the recommendation of outgoing
senior editors. (But it did not give the
board power to appoint a substitute edi-
tor. Traditionally, the editor appoints
his own staff.)
'THE COMMITTEE however stressed that
the advisory board should not inter-
fere with tone or content of the State
News without submitting extraordinary
reasons. In the final draft of the report
adopted, section 6126 was changed, giv-
ing the advisory board the prerogative to
"select one of the other petitioners". Pro-
+.*+ olt +he+ vn, imto mpera qq !ir!ib y fin-

Werner. The advisory board, by an un-
disclosed vote, overturned the recom-
mendation and appointed Ed Brill. Now
Werner and two seniors who favored
him have appealed to the student faculty:
judiciary, charging that the rejection
violated the spirit of the academic free-
dom report.
A LONG WITH personality clashes in-
volved (a member of the advisory
board4 is Brill's roommate) the advisory
board has refused to reveal its reasons
for rejecting Werner. This is in sharp
disparity with the theory that the onus
of proof should rest on the board. And.
by the spirit of the report, the board
needs extraordinary reasons to interfere
with the paper. At stake, though, is more
than just the workings of due process.
Appointing an editor out of hand with-
out consulting the paper's senior editors
is a slap at their judgment. But ruling
on the appointment of a new editor in
the first place smotes the spirit of free-
dom of the press. No board, no matter
how informed, should have the power
arbitrarily to censor the press. And re-
jecting an editor is a nefarious mode of
censorship. That power must be vested
with the editors of the State News if
freedom of the press is to be maintained.
Other avenues such as the recall can be
established to remove an editor should





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