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January 06, 1961 - Image 1

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The Michigan Daily, 1961-01-06

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CHEATING STUDY'>
RESULTS PREDICTABLE
Fee rage

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Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom

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FAIR, MILD
High-42
Low-32
Clear with gentle south--
westerly winds

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L. LXXI, No. 76

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, JANUARY 6,1961

DIVE CENTS

SIX

i

Lgerians To Begin
keferendum Voting
French Forces Scatter In Country
To Prevent Possible Demonstration
ALGIERS (AP)-Heavily armed and battle-tested French security
ies took up positions throughout Algeria yesterday on the eve of
fateful referendum on this rebellious territory's future.
Sixteen warships of the French fleet steamed in from France and
nforce( ships already on guard along the coast.
In three days of balloting beginning today, Algerians will vote
, no, or abstain on President Charles de Gaulle's offer of self-
ermination for Algeria. Metropolitan France votes-Sunday.

Castro Arms
'Imminent I

Cuba

To AWait

rivasion

from

U.S

,

"

mm.ttee

ives Report
On Cheat i
By ANDREW HAWLEY
The Literary College Steering
Committee yesterday released a
report on cheating in the college,
In which it found cheating most
prevalent in minimal distribution
courses, laboratory courses, and
popular culture" courses," where
*'there is considerable social pres-
sure to take the course."
"Within the distribution pro-
gram," the report says, "two
types of courses seem to have high
rates of mass cheating." The first
Is the required course, such as
English 23 and 24, and the first
four semesters of a foreign lan-
guage, especially the most pop-
ular ones, French, German and
Spanish-
Scienc Courses
The other type of distribution
course is that 'which most stu-
dents consider the easiest alterna-
tive among the science and the
mathematics-philosophy sequenc-
es." The report lists Astronomy 11
and 12 and Philosophy 31 as ex-
amples of the latter.
Laboratory courses, not only in
the physical scienfes, were con-
sidered subject to "mass cheat-
ing," sometimes in the form of
"dry labbing," but sometimes
spreading to encompass all work
in the course. Students who feel
that the labs are "merely sense-
less 'busywork' or unreasonably
tizne-consuming,' and who are not
majoring in the field are thought
to b more likely to cheat than
others.
In both laboratory and distri-
bution courses, the report says,
students 'are able to rationalize
their cheating into legitimate or,
at ,least, acceptable behavior"
with such excuses as "everyone
else is cheating-and I must cheat
to keep My head above water."
Music, English
Some music literature and cer-
tain English and history courses
were listed as examples of the
"popular culture" courses in which
"there is considerable social pres-
sure take the course-either to
fill gaps in one's knowledge of
his culture (or merely for 'cock-
tail conversation'), or because of
the outstanding reputation or lee-
turing ability of the professor."
The report also states that
there is a considerable amount
of cheating by pre-medical stu-
dents .. nPre-meds take a rela-
tively large number of rewuired
courses which many of them con-
sider uninteresting and useless. In
addition, many of these courses
have quite extensive laboratory
requirements--some of which are
patently poorly designed."
Aid Administrators
James Seder, '61, committee
cha~rman, said the report will be
rsubmitted to and discussed with
the administrative 'board of the
college in hopes that it will aid
the board and the faculty in deal-
Ing with cheating, especially
where it occurs on a large scale.
The steering committee's prin-
eipal techniques were discussion
within the committee, with other
#tudents, with teachers, and with
James Robertson, associate dean
of the literary college, and con-
sideration of a statistical break-
down of the administrative board's
records on cheating cases for a
one year period.
Ike To Propose
Increased Budget

President de Gaulle has staked
his prestige on the outcome. If
the vote is y p, then the actual
vote on self -determination will
come later. He has threatened to
resign if he does not get a sub-
stantial majority.
Despite the cross-currents of
discontent in this, unhappy land,
torn by six years of the Algerian
nationalist revolt, it is generally
believed that' de Gaulle will get
his majority. This is virtually as-
sured by the large vote in France
where his popularity remains im-
mense.
Tension and agitation gripped
both Algerians and European
settlers in the big cities.
Some reports said the Europeans
would stage demonstrations.
Others said nationalist rebel ter-
rorism was planned. There were
rumors rebel forces across the bor-
der in Tunisia would attack from-
tier posts.
Voters in the villages begin cast-
ing ballots this morning. The big-
ger towns and cities follow to-
morrow and Sunday. There are
some 200 mobile polling booths-
some in jeeps and others in heli-
copters-to reach the remoter
areas.
The voters in Algeria number
3.9 million North Africans, 700,-
000 Europeans and 340,000 sol-
diers. France has 27 million voters.
The ballot boxes will be sealed
See ALGERIANS, Page 3S
Oust Of roy
For A-Test
LAGOS, Nigeria (MP-Protesting
France's recent third atomic blast
in the Sahara, Nigeria last night
ordered the French Ambassador
and his staff to leave within two
days. It also barred French ships
and planes.
Information minister T.O.S. Ben-
son told a news conference Am-
bassador Raymond Offroy must be,
gone by tomorrow night. Transit
of French ships and planes was
barred immediately, he said.
Benson said sterner measures
will be taken against France if
Sahara testing goes on. This could
mean a break of all diplomatic re-
lations with France.
In Paris French government
sources had no immediate com-
ment. France has ignored protests
against the Sahara testing of
atomic devices, insisting they are
necessary for development of a
nuclear deterrent and that all ex-
plosions are carefull controlled.
France exploded its third test
device in the desert Dec; 27 at
Reggan, about 900 miles from Ni-
geria's border. Nigerian news-
papers, trade unions, political par-
ties and citizens immediately pro-
tested.

SEN. RICHARD RUSSELL
. . no stalling on filibuster
Flibuster
Rule Votin
'Anticipated
WASHINGTON UP) - Senators
pressing for a change in Senate
rules to make it easier to shut off
filibusters maintained yesterday
there was no danger the issue'
itself would set off a filibuster.
The bipartisan group of liberals
called a news conference aimed
at dispelling any idea that the
fight could bog the Senate in a
controversy lasting beyond the
Jan. 20 inauguration of President-
elect John F. Kennedy.
They said they can use a parlia-
mentary device to bring the dis-
pute to a vote if Southern Sena-
tors opposing their move should
attempt a filibuster.
Not Stalling
Sen. Richard B. Russell (D-Ga)
told reporters the Southerners
were "not stalling" but he said
that as a practical matter he did-
n't see how any vote could be
taken before next week.
He said he understood some
Senators on both sides wanted a
chance to speak first.
A short time later, the Senate.
agreed by voice vote to take up
the proposed rules changes. Earlier
one of the liberal group said he
would not expect any voting be-
fore next week.
Two Changes
One of the proposed changes;
would permit filibusters to be
halted by a majority of the Sena-
tors, or 51 of the 100 members, and
another by three-fifths of the
Senators voting. At present it
takes the votes of two-thirds of
the Senators voting to limit de-
bate.
At the news conference called
by the liberal group, Sen. Jacob'
K. Javits (R-NY) said "we feel
we have a majority for a rules
change."
Russell previously told newsmen
he thought both proposals for re-
vising the present two-thirds re-
quirements would be rejected.
Senate Republican leader Ever-
ett M. DIrksen of Illinois lined
up with opponents of the plan to
permit a time limit to be clamped
on debate by majority vote. He
told a reporter, however, that his
position on the proposed three-
fifths rule was fluid.
Dirksen said he regarded the
present rule as a weapon for
minorities and as a member of
the GOP minority in Congress who
didn't know what measures the
Kennedy administration might
submit, he would like to have some
weapons to use if necessary.

UN Rejects
Attack Claim
Of Castro
UNITED NATIONS MP) - The
United Nations Security Council
in effect rejected last night Cuba's
charge that she faced imminent
military invasion by the United
States.
The 11-nation Council did so
by concluding a two-day debate
without taking any formal action
on a Cuban complaint filed Satur-
day saying such intervention was
expected in a matter of hours.
This amounted to another de-
feat for the regime of Prime Min-
ister Fidel Castro in its Soviet-
supported campaign to have the
UN denounce the United States as
an instigator of moves to topple
Castro from power by military
force.
Omar Loutfi of the United Arab
Republic, Council president, ended
the meeting with a terse expres-
sion of hope for reduction of ten-
sions between the United States
and Cuba.
He appealed to both countries
to do nothing to aggravate the
situation.
The Council wound up its de-
bate early last night in an atmos-
phere of relative calm compared
Mediation
RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) - A
congressional movement got
underway yesterday for Brazil
to act as mediator in an at-
tempt to restore relations be-
tween the United States and
Cuba.
Some Brazilians looked upon
the split as the worst crisis in
Pan American history, although
official and public opinion
seemed to lean in favor of the
United States action.
Deputy Alfredo Nasser, chair-
man of the foreign relations
committee of the Chamber of
Deputies, said he will ask Pres-
dent Juscelino ubtshek to
offer to mediate when he re-
turns from his trip to the Bra-
zilian interior.
with outbursts by pro-Castro and
anti-Castro demonstrators that
disrupted proceedings Wednesday.
But' some fist-fights erupted in
the lobby of the General Assembly
late yesterday afternoon and again
outside UN headquarters. Guards
ousted the participants from the
lobby and New York police broke
up the fighting outside the build-
ing.
In a final intervention Cuban
Foreign Minister Raul Roa per-
sisted in charging that his coun-
try was in danger of military ag-
gression by what he called the
reactionary and imperialistic re-
gime of President Dwight D.
Eisenhower.

-AP wirephoto
ARMS PREPARATION-Cuban civilian militiamen install a heavy artillery piece to meet what
Castro calls the "imminent invasion" from the United States,
HOLIDAY VISITORS:
Tree Call Cuba Move Error

By GLORIA BOWLES and
JUDITH SATTLER
Three people who visited Cuba
during the Christmas vacation
charged last night that the break
in diplomatic relations between
the United States and Cuba was
a mistake.
The diplomatic action moves
Cuba "a step closer to the Com-
munist bloc," Peter Boehm, Grad,
said. He added that the Cubans
are not Communists and do not
wish to be, but would follow Cas-
tro if he joined the Communists.
Joseph Harrison, an Ann Arbor
businessman, said that it would
be a "major catastrophe" if the
Cuban people were driven to the
Russians. "The United States
should make every effort to main-
tain friendship and keep commu-
nication open." Both Harrison and
Boehm, though attending several
functions of the Cuban-backed
Fair Play for Cuba, were not of-
ficial members of the tour,
Castro 'Demagogue'
Prof. Irving Leonard of the his-
tory department commented that
Prime Minister Fidel Castro is a
demagogue and he will wear him-
self out. However, this break gives
him strength with his own peo-
ple. He charged that "our poli-
cies in Cuba have been governed
too much by special interests and
not enough by the feelings of the
people." Prof. Leonard, though
having been to Cuba previously,
did not go there during Christ-
mas vacation.
Many reasons were given to ex-
plain why Castro took those ac-
tions ' which forced President
Dwight D. Eisenhower to sever
relations.
Miss Naomi Padron, a native of
Cuba and permanent resident of
Ann Arbor, said that it is still
"fresh in the Cuban mind that

the United States granted Cuban
independence as a political ex-.
pediency and that Cuba remained
an 'economic colony' of the Unit-
ed States."'
The Cuban fear of invasion by
the United States was cited by
those who traveled through Cuba
during Christmas.
Newspaper Report
Boehm said that while he was
in Cuba a Cuban newspaper re-
ported that Eisenhower intended
an American invasion of the
country as a last act of his ad-
ministration, and that the people
believed this claim.
Beth Wolland, '64, who also
traveled to Cuba over Christmas,
agreed that the Cubans expect an
invasion from the Urtited States."
She said that there are rumors
of a United States base in Gua-
temala established to train "any-
one who wants to invade Cuba."°
Miss Wolland charged that
parts of the $1 million being given
by the United States to the refu-
gees in Miami who fled Castro is
used to support anti-Castro forces.
Projects Fear
Prof. Leonard said that inva-
sion is "sheer nonsense," but that
Castro is projecting the fear of

the people toward the United'
States.
Another example of supposed
American action against Castro
was cited by Boehm. He said that
an American diplomatic courier
had been found carrying 150,000
pesos of Batista money and jailed
for 15 years.
Miss Wolland said that the
United States may have planned
the break prior to Castro's de-
mands because six Latin Ameri-
can countries broke off relations
before the United States did. Prof.
Leonard said these countries broke
off relations to avoid revolutions
in their own nations.
May Follow U.S.
"A few Latin American coun-
tries may follow the United States
because of economic difficulties,"
Harrison explained, but Castro
may well be much more popular
than the United States in these
countries, and there may be "riot-
ing in support of Castro."
Miss Wolland also believes there
are many Castro supporters in the
Latin American countries, and
said Cubans believe that the
"straw democracies" in those
countries are less stable than the
Castro government.

Blames Ike
For Break
Of Relations
Island Troops MOVe
To Major Outposts
With Reinforcemeul
HAVANA (') - Prime Ministr
Fidel Castro brought out all ava
able wea-onsyesterday and-pl-c
them around his tense island ni
tion to await what he insists
"an imminent invasion" from ti
United'States.
At the._ same. time his Cabin
kept the diplomatic door open
President-elect John F. Kennec
by declaring that "'responsibilii
for the rupture between the Uni'
ed States and Cuba falls entire:
on 'the administration 'of Pre
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Military Reinforcements
Hundreds of militia reinforce
ments poured by train and bus i
to Santiago, capital of - eas
ernmost Oriente Province. Mar
troops moved down onto ti
beaches but even greater nun
bers were sent northeast towai
Guantanamo City and Songo, ou
side the United States Guantax
amo Naval Base,
Antiaircraft, antitank and oti
er heavy weapons sprouted
over Havana. Christmas and Ne
Year's festivities do not end in
til later this week, thus the v1
bore a strange military-holidi
air.
Seafront Arms
Weapons were placed thck
around seafront drive. Some ai
tiaircraft batteries were set up n
far from the almst empty ThnIt
States Embassy building, where-
,dozen diehard Cubans still str
around hopeful of gaining dda
sio to the United States.
The sudden and open displa
of armament is apparently Mi
tended to underscore Cast c
charge that a United States to
vasion is coming within t
weeks, a charge ridiculed 4
Washington.
The appearance of the weapoi
seems to have heightened Cub
invasion fever. All Cuban rad
and television stations have bei
transmitting martial music, o
Castro speeches and anti-Amer
can slogans for four days nc
around the clock.
Charge Terrorism
The cabinet statement blami
the Eisenhower Administration f,
the diplomatic break also backe
Castro's charge that some Unit
States Embassy personnel promo
edcounterrevolution and terroris
here.
Terrorism itself came under til
cabinet's purview, The cabin
authorized death sentences fi
any anti-Castro saboteurs and i
who help them.
United States Charge d'A far
Daniel M. Braddock and his skel
ton staff called In packers to he
move equipment and files from t
embassy.
Little movable property willt
left when Braddock and his aid
leave, after turning over to Swi
Ambassador Walter Bossi custo
of the embassy and protection f
remaining Americans.
The State Department setc
early deadline for removing pe
sonal belongings at governme
expense when, several months a,
relations with Cuba became tes
Embassy dependents wre se.
home last September and tpi
household goods with them.
U.S. Officials
Return Home

From Havana
WEST PALM BEACH, Fla. (A')
Cold, tired and sick of the ter
sion in Fidel Castro's Cuba,
United States embassy personr
arrived here yesterday in respon
to the bearded dictator's deman
to get out of Havana in 48 hour
"The order Castro gave on tel
vision "came right off the top c
his head and even caught his ow
foreign office by surprise," sa
AN-,1 ,-a n ..A

NEW SCHOOL:
Group To Form Plans
On Gran Valley College
By CYTHIA NEU
The planning administration group for the Grand Valley College
will hold its first meeting Jan. 11 - 13 in Grand Rapids and will
meet with the Board in Control of the college in Greenville Jan. 13.
The University named Vice-President for Student Affairs James
A. Lewis and Prof. Algo D. Henderson, director for the Center of
Higher Education, to serve with Raymond N. Hatch, assistant
dean of the education school from

. _.. . ..., ----r ...--- _... _ R

31USICAL ANTIQUES:

Warner 'Revitalzes' Serpent, Ophichde
By MICHAEL HARRAH
The serpent and the ophiclide were brought to 'life' once again
last night after a long silence.
Prof. Robert A. Warner, of the music school and curator of the
yK.. Stearns collection of old musical instruments, traced the history
of the serpent and the ophiclide, assisted by tuba player, William E.
Hettrick, Jr., '61SM, who played them.
The serpent is a twisting instrument, cut from wood and covered
with varnished leather. It was the successor to the cornett (not to
be confused with the present day cornet, which is quite different),
and, though played with a metal cup mouthpiece, comes closer to
' being a woodwind, because it is possible to play a complete chromatic
- scale on it, an accomplishment not attributed to brass instruments.
Marching Music
Prof. Warner said that the serpent was originally used in
orchestral playing, but it enjoyed some popularity in English
marching bands, under King George III.
He explained that the serpent was used extensively in French
ecclesiastical circles to strengthen the bass music in religious services.
He also pointed out that some critics had praised the serpent for
' its tone, dynamic range, and flexibility. But others were not so
Snleased such as composer George Frederick Handel who said, "Thisj

Michigan State University as ad-
ministrative consultants.
Dorr Coodinator
Prof. Harold M. Dorr, dean' of
state-wide education will serve as
coordinator.
Dr. Chris A. De Young, profes-
sor emeritus of Illinois State Nor-
mal University is serving as gen-
eral secretary to the group, and
Dr. Icie Macy Hoobler of Ann
Arbor is the board representative
serving with the consultants.
The new four-year college was
approved by the legislature last
spring, and its charter will become
effective after a site is provided.
for the college and $1 million are
raised from private sources.
Williams Appoints
Then-Gov. G. Mennen Williams
appointed nine members to a ten-
tative board of control, which
must have the approval of the
state Senate before it can become
permanent.
Representatives from MSU,
Wayne State University, and the
University met with L.hWilliam
Seidman, chairman of the board,
and pledged their support to the

Belgians Near,
Compromise
Endin Strikes
BRUSSELS ()-Agreement was
,reported near last night on a
face-saving compromise to end the
17 - day - old violent socialist - led
strikes.
They had threatened to topple
Premier Gaston Eyskens' Catholic-
conservative government.
An informant close to Socialist
party leadership said: "The end is
near."
"In meetings all over the coun-
try, Socialist trade unions are be-
ing told that negotiations are un-
der way for halting the strike," he
said. The Belgian state radio
quoted reports that the strike was
nearing its finish.
The Socialist informant said
everyone was "fed up" with the
strikes which have cost Belgium.
millions of francs in lost produc-
tiinn and nrnerty damae and

WASHINGTON (P) - President
ight D. Eisenhower, before
aving office, will send Congress
n increased budget forecasting
surplus next fiscal year of at
ast $600 million and nerhaps

I

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