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November 20, 1960 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-11-20

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AlIgeria:

A Students

Ar Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
reval'- -

Refugees Con gregate
In Tunisia, Morocco
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The -information in this article was taken from
working papers for the National Student Congress compiled by the Inter-
national Student Relations Seminar for the United States National Stu-
dent Association.)
T the time of the French conquest in 1830, the Algerian educational
system was traditionally patterned, with religious, cultural and edu-
cational centers grouped about the leading mosques in a number of the
principal cities of Algeria.
French colonial policy in Algeria was directed toward dismantling
this system and replacing the traditional culture with one imported
from France. Many of the leading mosques were changed into cathe-
drals. In 1851 the income frotn various community-owned properties

Revolution in Algeria Continues

according to the Charter of the
United Nations. The GPRA wanted
to settle the Algerian problem by
peaceful negotiation and to safe-
guard the chance for cooperation
between Algeria and France. It
agreed to send representatives to
Melun with the object of pre-
paring terms for negotiation. It
was then that the insincerity of
the French government was re-
vealed. The Melun talks uncovered
the real intentions of the French
government. They clarified the
situation, and Algeria now knows
what to expect. In refusing to
discuss the guarantee of self-de-
termination with our government,
in wanting unilaterally to impose
conditions equivalent to surren-
der, Gen de Gaulle was exposed,
and by this attitude the French
have taken over the burden of the
responsibility for continuing the
war.
IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE to think
of, and even less possible to ac-
cept, a people's referendum held in
the presence of the colonial ad-
ministration under the pressure of
800,000 French bayonets.
Since the French government
will not agree to negotiate for a"
fair means of self-determination,
since it will not give up its colo-
nial policies, which are supported
by fear, blackmail, and division,
the Algerian people and their
army will continue to struggle
with inflexible resolution to vic-
tory.
We are a young people who
want to gain our place under the
sun, and we are sure of victory-
sure of victory because in taking
up arms on Nov. 1, 1954, we creat-
ed an irreversible condition--sure
of victory because the Algerian
people are no longer alone in their
struggle. The Arab people, con-
scious of our common fate, con-
tinue to give to the struggle all
the support necessary as long as
it is needed. The democratic forces
in the world, and even in France,
the free people of Asia and Latin
America, also support Algeria.
These people condemn the shame-
ful colonial war which victimizes
the Algerians, and their sympathy
grows stronger every day.
AFRICA IS THE YOUTH of the
world, moving and breaking its
chains. History has placed our
people first in the fight for the
liberation of the continent. We are
persuaded that an Africa, united
in battle for common ideals, will
be able to drive out the last traces
of colonialism.
As for us, Algerian students, we
remain firmly attached to the
ideal of our people: national inde-
pendence as the basis for all eco-
nomic, social, and cultural prog-
ress of our country.
The General Union of Moslem
Students of Algeria (UGEMA) was
created to be a fighting unit with-
in the greater battle taken on by

the Algerian people for the re-
covery of their independence.
Born in the full swing of the7
revolution, its principles, activities,
and objectives have always been+
dictated by the necessities of the
revolution. The life of the UGEMA
is permanently integrated into the,
great movement for emancipation,
which raises up all our people un-
der the leadership of the FLN.-
* * "'
OUR STUDENT'S part in their
own national organization has
been clearly defined in their prin-
ciples and has been implemented
in real facts.
The strike of May 1956, in the
course of which all students left
school and classroom, is the most
concrete evidence of the vitality
of our union, which gives highest
priority to the struggle for liberty.
It marked the mass entry of our;
students into the ranks and their
direct participation in army ac-
tion. Many of our students fell on
the field of honor, many of them
learned and are still learning the
hard conditions in prisons and
concentration camps.
But if we are ready today to die,
so that Algeria may be free, we
must not forget that at the same
time, we have to prepare ourselves
for the construction of an inde-
pendent Algeria, and to build a
respected Algerian nation.
It is with this goal in view that
our national organization has sent
us to different universities in the
four corners of the earth.
In the long and hard fight which
we are going to face, we can count
on the support of the students of
all nations. The world of students
is, on the whole, with us; even
the student organizations of the
member countries of NATO, such
as the United States National Stu-
dent Association, and the National
Union of Students of the Federal
German Republic, whose govern-
ments are helping France in this
war of extermination against the
Algerian people. They are opposed
to the political policies of their
governments. Every day we draw
help and support from them for
our struggle.
Even the National Union of
French Students has declared it-
self opposed to the colonialistic
and aggressive policies of its. gov- .
ernment and courageously leads
in the front against the colonial
war. Similarly, we can count on
the backing of all the Arab coun-
tries. The help of our brothers in
Tunisia and Morocco has sur-
passed our hopes. There are 900
Algerian refugee students in Tu-
nisia and 275 in Morocco. All the
other Arab countries have de-
clared themselves willing to ac-
cept more students.
* * *
THIS UNANIMITY which is
shown concerning our problem is
the best proof of the justness of
our cause, of the legitimacy of our
fight, and of the certainty of our
final victory.
.WE HAVE ALREADY destroyed
a myth. Every day we bring tangi-
ble proof of this uncontestable
truth: there is neither a superior
race nor an inferior race. In the
six years of the Algerian Revolu-
tion, we have acquired more tech-
nicians than in the one-hundred
thirty years of colonial occupa-
tion. It is a fact that France closed
the Algerian schools to whole gen-
erations of Algerians; then the
French accused our people of not
having the intelligence to learn
the sciences. We must not forget
that one-hundred thirty years ago
we had a system of Arab educa-
tion which was known over a large
part of the world.
For this culture, colonialism sub-
stituted the French language and
culture. In fact, they prevented us
from learning our language with-
out teaching us theirs. Thus, they
organized a plan for mass illit-
eracy on which they then built

the lie of racial superiority and of
of the 'inferiority of the native

used for the Islamic educational
-system was confiscated by the
French government. Soon fol.
lowed de facto nationalization of
the Moslem religion with the state
controlling administration of the
mosques.,
ANOTHER keystone ,of French
policy was the suppression of
Arabic as a medium of instruction.
Formerly national language of Al-
geria, 'Arabic may now be studied
only on a secondary level -as an
optional foreign language.
Official figures for 1954 showed
95 per cent' of European children
received primary education, as op-
posed to 18 per cent of Algerian
children. Europeans form ten per
cent of the total Algerian popu-'
lation of 10 to 12 million.
The present revolution erupted
on Nov. 1, 1954, led by the Na-
tional Liberation Front (FLN),
creating an increasingly dramatic
situation for the student commu-
nity. In July 1955 the Union Gen-
erale de Etudants Musulinans Al-
geriens (UGEMA) was formed,
giving Algerian students a na-
tional voice for the first time.
From the outset, UGEA ex-
pressed the fundamental objec-
tives of the struggle for the na-
tional independence of Algeria,
which in turn had led through
1955 and 1956 to a growing num-
ber of police sanctions against the
muslim students. A series of ar-
rests, kidnappings, tortures and
even killings of UGEMA leaders
and members took place.
IN 1959 the government forci-
bly dissolved UGEMA, confiscating
its papers, membership lists and
other property.
The Algerian war continues to
have severe repercussions on the
French student community. Com-
pulsory military service was raised
from 18 months to two years to
meet manpower needs. After a fal-
tering relationship witl UGEMA,
French students put aside their
neutral position on the 'war and
demanded that the French gov-
ernment negotiate with the FLN
to bring peace to Algeria in the
spring of 1960. One month later
the French government revoked
the $17,000 federal subsidy of the
Union Nationale de Etudiants de
France for "political activity" re-
garding Algeria.
A growing problem is presented
by increasing clusters of Algerian
refugee students in Tunisia and
Morocco, some of whom also come
from French universities. These
are in two categories: students
from the French language educa-
tion stream, and those who have
only Arabic langage education.
Most are from the atter group in
both Tunisia and Morocco.
* * *
IN BOTH Tunisia and Morocco,
UGEMA is the major group as-
suming responsibility for the care
and welfare of the student com-
munity. In Tunis, some 325 are
housed, some in an old building
rented by UGEfA in the oldest
part of Tunis and some 250 in
three student hostels.
Conditions are deplorable, par-
ticularly in the house rented by
U G E M A. sanitation, clothing,
sleeping accomodations, heating
and food are sadly inadequate due
to lack of funds.

-OFFICIAL
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Bluilding,
before 2 p.m. two days preeding
publication.
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 20
General Notices
Automobile regulations will be lifted
for Thanksgiving vacation from 5 ,p.m.
Wed., Nov. 23, until S a.m. on Mon.,
Nov. 28, 1960. Office of the Dean of
Men.
Educational Directory, Part 3,.Higher
Education, 1960-61. Word has been re-
ceived from the U.S.. Government Print-
ing Office that this directory can now
be ordered.
Events Monday
Collegium Musicum: The Michigan
Singers, 85-voice choir, conducted by
Maynard Klein, will prgsent a concert
of 15th, 16th and 17th century sacred
and secular music on Mdn., Nov. 21, 8:30
p.m. in Hill Aud. Assisting will be John
Flower, harpsichord, William Osborne,
organ, Millard Cates, tenor, Gustave
Rosseels, violin, and student instru-
mental and vocal soloists. Open to the
public without charge.

.

~1
~1

Radiation Laboratory Lecture Series:
"Radiation from a Plasma Sphere in
an Inhomogeneous Mediu'm" is the
title of the lecture to be given by Prof.
George W. Ford of the Physics Depart-
ment on Mon., Nov. 21 at 4:00 p.m.
in E. Engineering, 2034.
Engineering Mechanics Seminar, Mon.
Nov. 21, at 4:00 p.m. in Rom 305 West
Engineering Bldg. Prof. Lloyd H. Don-
nell, Research Prof. at Illinois Insti-
tute of Technology and Senior Research
Scientist at the U-M Institute of Sci-
ence and Technology, will speak on
"Buckling of a Cylindrical Tube under
Pure Bending." Coffee will be served
in 201 West Engineering at 3:30 p.m.
Automatic Programming aud Numeri-
cal Analysis Seminar: "Basic Cryogenic
Circuits and Their Implications Toward
Machine Organization" will be dis-
cussed by R. F. Rosin on Mon., Nov.
21, at 4 - p.m. in. Computing Center
Seminar Room.
Doctoral Examination for George Jo-
seph Gore, Business Administration.
thesis: "Survey.of Industrial Relations
in Leading Michigan Road Construction
Firms," Mon., Nov. 21, 516 Bus. Ad.
School, at 3:00 p.m. Chairman, J. W.
Riegel.
Events Tuesday
Faculty Recital. Richard Miller, tenor,
will be heard in a recital on Tues.,
Nov. 22, at 8:30 p.m. in Aud. A, Angell
Hall. His accompanist will be Eugene
Bossart. Miller has selected composi-
tions by Gasparint, Scarlatti, Fedelli,
Duparc. Gretchaninoff and Schumann.
Open to the public.
Philosophy Lecture: Prof. John Rick
of Cornell University 'and Princeton
Theological Seminary speaking on "In-
carnation and Theological Language,"
Tues., Nov. 22, 8 p.m., Rackham Amphi-
theater. -
Social' Work-Social Science Collo-
quium: Prof. Robert Vinter, School of
Social Work, speaking on "Comparative
Research on Treatment Organizations,"
Tues., Nov. 22, 4:15, second floor aud.
Frieze Bldg.
Doctoral Examination for Eugene Wal-
ter Alpern, Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
tehsls: "Derivations of Pyrido (2,3-d)
Pyridazine," Tues., Nov. 22, 2525 Pharm
Chem Bldg., at 2:00 p.m. Chairman, F.
F. Blicke.
(Continued on Page 5)

NSA Resolution n
.Colonialism In", Algeria,,
THE 12TH IATIONAL Student Congress reaffirms its position on the
Algerian question as put forth in its previous Congresses, and, in
particular, condemns the French colonial authorities not only for the
continued suppression of academic freedom, within Algeria, but also
for the intensified violation of the rights of the Algerian students in
France by means of:
A policy of integration which has been extended to the educational
field by the imposition of an educational 'system and curriculum that
has seriously impeded the Algerian ftudents in their academic prepara-
tion for positions of leadership in post-university life, which has pre-
vented the full development of- intellectual capacities, and which
denies the inherent right of a student to study his own national heri-
tage, language, literature and culture.

'A
a

S ' *

*

THE DISSOLUTION IN FRANCE of UGEMA, the only representa-
tive national union of Algerian students, and the increasing suppression
of its members.
The arrest, imprisonment, disappearance and torture of Algerian
students, particularly:
1) The illegal imprisonment of the general secretary of UCEMA,
Mohammed Khemisti, who has still not been brought to trial.

3. ..a OWN

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