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November 10, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-11-10

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Seventy-First Year
Tuth Will Prevail"/
torials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Generation Needs Time
For Independent Study

IE NEW GENERATION of college students,
eginning with this year's sophomores, are
brightest, most competent and most inde-
dently active group of students the Uni-
ity has ever seen. At tlxis point it doesn't
a to know quite what to do with them.
he generation is a strange one. They don't
easily into any categories except age-they
e so many hours of advanced credit that
iy of them are a half-class ahead of them-
es, their interests are so diverse, and work
acities so great that many are planning
ble majors-in diverse fields like math and
hese new capacities breed new breeds, edu-
on needs which the University must meet
is to help these students develop along the
rse lines they have chosen and will choose.
the University, galloping its .,determined
r along the treadmill of its academic tradi-
has taken only a few dizzy steps away
a it towards new programs of academic
3E HONORS PROGRAM, underclass and
ivisional, is a step, although a more or less'
bly one, depending on the course and the
artment. The interdisciplinary courses are
Et, but far too few in number, limited in.
lent range, and much too heavily dependent
hain Reaction?
iE DARK BLACK "X" the voter placed next
to the'name of his Presidential choice was
instrument of proscription.
very 20 years, since 1840, the American elec-
te has chosen a President who died in of-
* In that year, William Henry Harrison
elected. He rode to his inauguration on
;eback as the triumphant leader of his
ale. Unfortunately for him, however, it was
ing at the time, and he contacted pneu-
ia and passed on the next month.
score of years later, the lethargic cam-
;ner Abe Lincoln defeated Stephen A. Doug-
for the Presidency. His tragic fate is a
onal legend.
1880, James A. Garfield was victorious, but
'as dispatched a short while later by an
ssin's bullet. The same fate was decreed for
1900 election victor, Willi~am McKinley.
nother 20 years passed, and Warren 0.
ding was elected for a four-year term he
r completed. In 1940, Franklin Roosevelt
an unprecedented third Presidential term
ch he finished; his fourth term ended after
ral months when he was struck down by a
bral hemorrhage.
he record is grim, but Sen. Kennedy and
President Nixon were not afraid, at least
icly. The new President is a brave man
ing to martyr himself for the cause in which
he question for all of us now is-how will
doom fall?
--M. OLINICK, '62

on a single teacher, or on the department from
which they sprang, like*Athena, full-armed.
The most important things these students
need is time-time to learn on their own, time
to belong to activities, time to finish supple-
mentary reading and to do better jobs on their
term papers. The stimulation they need . in
course work is eagerly provided by teachers
anxious to raise academic lovels-what stu-
dents need now is the chance to work out their
own ideas, both within and without the course
ONE WAY of providing this additional time,
suggested by a University English profes-
sor, is the class hour system now used at Har-
vard. Under this system, students attend classes
twice a week, with a third meeting at the op-
tion of the instructor.
With this system there are usually a few Fri-
day classes, but things begin to taper off about
Thursday, leaving a weekend comparatively
free for independent work. It is possible that
such a system here would lead to some TGIF's
starting Thursday and ending Sunday, but this
wouldn't last long. The increased quality, if
not quantity, of work which could logically be
expected of students who have more time to
think, combined with the natural proclivity for
work which seems to dominate the eager beav-
ers who make it to college now, should prevent
laxity from becoming a general pattern. You
don't spend a four-day weekend partying when
you might flunk out because of it.
PROVIDING MORE opportunities for inde-
pendent study would not be a wild, revolu-
tionary step. There i a trend towards more in-
dependent study-even in grammar school the
children are doing scientific "research proj-
ects," and initiative is bred into them with
their schoolwork. Here, there is a general sen-
timent for the term paper, among both faculty
and students, and one History professor makes
an annual apology for his multiple choice final
In this atmosphere, it might be a wise step
to devise a system for real independent study-
a program which would allow the student, un-
der the general supervision of a tutor, to go
off for a semester of creative research, or study
--to go to Harvard, Cal, Oxford, or wherever
his fancy, or his field leads him.
SINCE DEPARTMENTS seem to be realigning
along disciplinary rather than institutional
lines, this seems to be a logical trend. The stu-
dent who can study with the best men in his
field, no matter where they are, has clearly
better academic opportunities than the student
who is relegated to the bias and limitations
of a single department.
This would not be practicable on a large
scale, and it would be unlikely that it would be
requested on a large scale, at least not for a
good many more years. But the opportunity
should be there, for the students who can bene-
fit from it now, and for those who will be able
to benefit from it in the future.

"The Outcome Was, Of Course, Inevitable-"
*t~- ~-L
Y ~
. . .. ..-.
- _ 3--
Institutes Repertory Theatre


lunch counter by seven Negroes
on March 12. In both cases, the
Negroes were refused service, the
lunch counter was closed, the "sit-
in' participants :were arrested by
police after refusing orders by the
city's mayor to leave, and were
convicted in Municipal Court of
unlawful assembly and breaching
the peace. Woolworth's manager
did not request the arrest of the
defendants in either instance and
did not notify the police about the
March 12 demonstration. At the
trials no evidence was submitted
indicating that the defendants had
'acted in a violent or threatening
manner. There was little evidence
of threats from bystanders: before
the. demonstrations officials had,
received a telephone call opposing
"sit-ins" and at the second demon-
stration an unidentified white
person threatened unspecified ac-
IN APPEALS from the Tallahas-
see convictions, now filed in Leon
County Circuit Court, defendants'
in both cases argue that in the
absence of evidence that they had
assembled unlawfully or breached
the peace as defined by law the
findings of guilty were improper.,
To allow the convictions to stand,
their counsel state, "would be to
deprive Appellants of their liberty
without due process of law in
violation o f th e , Fourteenth
Amendment to the Federal Con-
Moreover, the Florida, CLU at-.
torneys charge in the case in-
volving the Negro defendants:
" . . the arrest and conviction
of the defendants was an act of
racial discrimination, constituting
unlawful State action in violation
of Federal law . . . In the case at
bar the defendants had committed
no violence and had threatened no
violence; indeed such 'threats' as
may have been made came from
third Persons, interlopers who had
no proprietary interest in the'
mater who objected to the de-
fendants' presence at the store.
Thus, in arresting the Negro de-
fendants and not arresting the
offending third persons who made
the alleged 'threats', the .Mayor
and police committed a gross act
of racial discrimination. In short,
they arrested the wrong parties,
and for illegal reasons, and there-

fore deprived Appellants of the
equal protection of the laws
guaranteed by the Fourteenth
Amendment to the Federal Con-
,stitution." In addition, as. the
"defendants were endeavoring to
negotiate with and persuade Wool-
worth's to contract with them and
engage in commerce with thm,
their arrest thus deprived them of
"their liberty of contract without
due process of law . . . in con-
travention of the Fourteenth
Amendment and the Federal Civil
Rights Act."
THE APPEAL brief of the white
youths raised still another ques-
tion: the' right of free expression.
Their presence in the store, it was
contended, "constituted an ex-
pression and communication of an
idea. While this idea was express-
ed in silence and symbolically,
nevertheless the content of this
idea was communicated to Wool-
worth's with as much eloquence
as might be contained in a finely-
phrased speech. Appellants submit,
therefore, that such expression
constitutes speech. i$i much the
same way as peaceful picketing,
and is therefore entitled to the
same constitutional protection."
On October 26,. a Circuit Court
judge upheld the convictions of
the 13 Negro and white students.
The students. were fined $300 each
or 60 days in jail for breaching
the peace, but sentence was sus-
pended on the conviction for un-
lawful assembly. The cases will
be appealed. In the Miami case,
18 white and- Negro members of
the Congress of Racial Equality
were convicted of violating a state
rather than a municipal law fol-
lowing their "sit-in" demonstra-
tion at a shopping center lunch
counter. The protesters were plac-
ed on a year's probation. Under
the law the proprietor of a busi-
ness may eject a customer as an
"undersirable patron." The Florida
CLU counsel said the statute was
meeting its first court test.
In another case involving the
Congress of Racial Equality, Ken-
' tucky State College indicated that
some of 12 students expelled after
demonstrations at the school last
spring may be reinstated. The
college board of regents at Frank-
fort is reviewing that records and
charges lodged against the stu-
dents. Most of them belonged to

Sit-In Suits Appeale.
In Florida Courts.

THE ISSUE OF "sit-in" demonstrations in Florida has moved
lunch counters to the courts.
Three separate cases-two in Tallahassee and one in Miaml
focusing attention on the question of whether public authoriti
properly interfere with peaceful attempts to obtain services for N
at food counters that cater only to white persons. The Florid
Liberties Union is providing counsel for each case.
One of the Tallahassee cases concerns eight Negroes who
the F. W. Woolworth store Feb. 20 and sat at a lunch 'counte
second deals with five white college students who were joined

The UN'S Sacred Cow

Daily Stall Reviewer
THE University of Detroit The-
ater is presently engaged in
what has been termed a "bold
and impressive experiment".
operating its winter season of plays
on the repertory system. The bold-
ness of the undertaking is partly
revealed by the fact that U. of D.
is the first university theatre in
the nation to adopt this system of
presentation for its regular sea-
son; in fact, it has become one
of a relatively small number of
true repertory theatres of any
The term "repertory theatre" is
one that is frequently misapplied.
It refers to the system of pre-
senting two or more plays during
the same period with alternating
C *0*
opened in October with a season
that includes Eugene O'Neill's "A
Touch of the Poet," Shakespeare's
"Measure for Measure," Shaw's
"M a n and Superman" and
Goethe's "Faust, Part I." The sea-
son schedule consists of ten sep-
arate weekends with at least two
plays alternating on all but the
first and last. This weekend, No-
vember 11-13, is the second of the
season, in which "Measure for
Measure" will enter into the rep-
ertory to join with "A Touch of
the Poet."
* * *
ACTUALLY, THE repertory ex-
periment is not entirely new to
U. of D. with the winter season.
A successful initial step was taken
last summer with a Repertory
Festival presented during July and
August in a tent on the university
grounds. Performances of Shake-
speare's "Antony and Cleopatra"
and Shaw's "Arms and the Man"
alternated nightly for the three
weeks of the festival,
Attendance records were set,
and the professional critics were
exuberant in their praise of both
THERE HAS LONG been talk
of the need for the repertory
idea for the purpose of revitaliz-
ing and re-culturizing the Ameri-
can theatre. Brooks Atkinson of
the New York Times has said that,
"If our theatre were organized as
an art, and not as a huckster's
bazaar, old plays would always be
available as integral parts of a
continuous repertory where the
public could have accessrtoethem
two or three times every fort-
The training which actors re-
ceive in the repertory system, fur-
thermore, cannot be equalled else-
where. As Dr. Burgwin points out,
the Old Vic and other English
repertory theatres have produced
in a single generation actors of
such calibre as Laurence Olivier,
John Gielgud, Ralph Richardson,
Alec Guiness, Michael Redgrave,
Anthony Quayle, Edith Evans,
Sybil Thorndike Peggy Ashcroft
and others.
* * *
IN SPITE OF THE admitted
merits of repertory and of the

It is this commercialism, with
its frequent compromise of ar-
tistic quality that prompts Brooks
Atkinson to characterize the pres-
ent system as a "huckster's ba-
* * *
sing the most significant trend
on this continent toward reper-
tory theatre in many years. The
summer Shakespearean repertory
companies in Stratford, Connecti-
cut and Stratford, Ontario, for
example, have met with spec-
tacular success in a relatively
brief period of time.
The Ford Foundation has lent
its support to the movement,
granting substantial sums to sev-
eral theatres throughout the
country, in the belief that theatre,

Atheistic Materialism' Not Communism

LOT OF CONGOLESE are commuting to
New York City these days. One who has just
Leopoldville for th United Nations head-
rters is Joseph Kasavubu, leader of one of
more powerful factions in the Republic of
Congo. He has come, presumably, to dispute
port by a United Nations observer criticiz-
the regime presently -ruling the Congo.
avubu is a member of that regime.
he report, prepared by Rajeshwar Dayal of
La, chief of United Nations operations in the
go, expresses concern about the activities
many of the Belgians returning to their
ner colony and about the assistance which
government of Col. Joseph Mobtitu has giv-
;o the anarchy in the Congo.
uite naturally the United States has pro-
ed the seeming bias of Dayal's report. Quite
.rally, President Kasavubu would welcome a
nce to refute it. This situation can produce
ors that United States pressure is forcing
avubu to commute to New York; but it can
obscure the real problems facing the
[E CONGO is, economically and politically,
nearly a wreck. A United Nations expedi-
ary force of soldiers and technicians is
king hard to keep the country from total
apse; it is spending a good deal of money,
much of that money comes from the
ted States.
et, strangely enough, politicians in the Con-
have shown little concern for the great
)lems that face their divided country.
ice Lumumba's government, almost totally
repared for the tasks it had .to face, often
etly h;ampered United Nations attempts to

Lumumba himself is something of a demagogue,
with few hesitations about stirring up mobs on
his side.
Something better, then, seemed in the off-
ing when Colonel Mobutu took office September
14. He suspended the parliament (which had
recently given Lumumba a vote of confidence),
sent Communists out of the country, organized
a "non-partisan" group of young students and
college graduates to run the country, and at-
tempted to stifle his opposition.
DAYAL'S REPORT indicates that Mobutu
has not been much of an improvement. The
only major improvement he has brought about
is a negative one: he does not rage at his ene-
mies quite as viciously as Lumumba did.
And now Belgians are returning to the Congo.
Their return is nothing subversive; after all,
they were there before independence day. But
many Belgians, too, are beginning to exert an
influence in the Congo government. It is un-
doubtable, furthermore, that Belgians have
been instrumental in keeping Katanga province
detached from the rest of the Congo, Daval is
reasonably justified in viewing Belgium with
What the Congo now needs is the United
Nations. It does not need politicians of any
variety, either Lumumbans, Kasavubans,
Tshombeans, or Belgians. This is the reality the
United States must keep in mind when com-
menting on United Nations operations in that
country. Congo politics, in its present stage of
development, only distracts attention from the
rebuilding program that is so urgently required.
OUR DEFENSE of Belgium was predictable,

To The Editor:
IN HIS LAST television appear-
ance and in his speech at Ann
Arbor on October 27, the Vice
President referred to the atheistic
materialism of the Soviet Union,
and, by implication, contrasted
this with the essentially Christian
philosophy of the United States.
What exactly does he mean by
Webster's Dictionary offers three
definitions of materialism, as fol-
lows. 'Any theory which considers
the facts of the universe to be
sufficiently explained by the exis-
tence and nature of matter'. In
other words, there is no need to
turn to the supernatural or to
any sort of theism involving faith
or dogma. Hence it follows that
any person holding such a view
would be an atheist (i.e. not a
theist), or at least an agnostic.
There must be thousands, if not
millions, of such people in the
United States, some of whom are
potential voters for Mr. Nixon.
Secondly, 'the ethical doctrine
that consideration of material
well-being, especially of the in-
dividual, should rule in the deter-
mination of conduct'. Note the
Oualifying word ethical. If Mr.
Nixon uses the word materialism
in this sense then he is contrast-
ing atheistic materialism (i.e.
materialism without theism and
dogma) with Christian material-
ism (i.e. materialism with theism
and dogma). Which is the better?
Lastly, the tendency to givebundue
importance to material things.'
Undue importance to material
may be given by both Christians
and atheists (as in the buying
and selling of automobiles), and
in this sense there is no reason
why an atheist should be any less
ethical than a Christian.
*'* *
IF MR. NIXON is using the term
atheistic materialism as a syno-
nym for communism then clearly
he is wrong, for it is evident that
any of the above definitions might
apply to people who are not com-
munists, and who might be voting

didates would do well to concen-
..trate on the real issues of the
campaign, rather thannindulge in
misleading if, not unintelligible
--D. F. Owen
Frogs Limp . *.
To The Editor:
en's review of "The Frogs" in
last Friday's Daily, I was quite
amazed to note that no mention
was given directly of the prin-
cipals in the cast. That is, Mr.
Zagoren seemed to feel that the
acting in general was on such a
level that it was not even neces-
sary to name in passing the.leads
in the performance.
It is certainly the critic's pre-
rogative to select what he feels
is worthwhile stating about a dra-
matic production. Nevertheless,
even if Mr. Zagoren in this in-
stance had made derogatory re-
marks about the principal actors
and actresses in "The Frogs," he at
least would have accredited them
with something. By eliminating
any direct mention of the leads
Mr. Zagoren has, in my opinion,
left out the most important part
of his review.
--Roselind L. Gans, '61
Frosh Housing -. -
To the Editor:
IT WOULD be a grave mistake
to turn down the Michigan
House System for the considered
freshman housing. The House
system has been copied many
times and I feel proved its orth.
To take the freshmen out of the
environment of upperclassmen
would leave him hanging in air
with many questions unanswered.
As a member of House Council
I can speak from experience that
the questions and problems that
arise among the freshmen are
innumerable. It is my opinion that
a freshman feels more at ease
going to a House member than
to a staff member. .
The Dean's office is right when
it says that the resident halls are

in this country should be a cul-
tural rather than a commercial
Readers will recall that Ann
Arbor itself was several months
ago under serious consideration as
the site for the proposed profes-
sional repertory theatre under the
direction of Tyrone Guthrie. Min-
neapolis, however, was the city
finally chosen.
The New York Times recently
reported that "the idea of reper-
tory is flourishing in this coun-'
try as it has not in more than a
quarter of a century."
It is too early to predict how
far and to what extent the reper-
tory idea will spread. But we can
commend the University of De-
troit for setting the precedent in
university theatre.

for its intramural, program. How
would the frosh feel in their first
game against an upperclass house
as they suddenly, realized that
touch football really isn't touch?
The houses on the top this year
are rich in freshmen but they all
have a good supply of upper-
classmen that seem to be making
the difference in the teams. A'
winning team helps house spirit
more than all the house meetings.
and mixers held all year. Would
the freshmen have the spirit in
their' own house that they now
receive? I think not.
The Michigan House System
depends heavily on the action of
the House Council. Would a newly
elected freshman be able to step
into the president's office and,
lead the house with the experience
and efficiency of an upperclass-
man who has been in the system
at least a year? I feel that the only
way 'a freshman could run a house
efficiently in these conditions
would be to depend heavily on the

staff. How would we have a coun-
cil or just a committee elected by
the men to carry out the R.A.s'
THE FRESHMEN should be left
in the house system where they
may best profit. I have talked Oith
numerous men in my house and
they all feel that living with the
upperclassmen has helped. Pos-
sibly the Dean of Men's office
could spend their time doing a
little research on a deferred rush
program and an effective frater-
nity orientation program for~ the
new men before they are turned
loose for the snow job in first
semester. Many men in my house
are still working to get caught
up because they felt it was neces-
sary to rush the first semester.
I think this would be of better
benefit to the frosh than a pro-
gram where they will be placed
in one group with the same prob-
lems and questions and less people
to answer them and help.
-rDowns Herold, '63


The Daily Offieal Bunetin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of .Michigan ,for which The
Michigan Daily'assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form tor
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m. two days preceding
General Notices
Special Notice to All Persons Who
Signed Up to Usher at the Brothers
Four Concert on Thursday Night at
Hill Aud.:
An error has been made in timing
the concert .and you are urgently re-
quested to be present for duty at 7:00'
p.m., as the concert will start at 8:00
p.m. instead of 8:30 p.m. as originally
Faculty, College of Literature, Science
and the Arts:
Midsemester, reports are; due Fri.,

School of Music Honors Program: Ap-
plications now are being received for
the second semester, 1960-1961. Forms
are available in the School of Music
office. Deadline for receipt of applica-
tions, and supporting recommenda-
tions, by the Honors'Council, Wed.,
Nov. 23.
Agenda student Government Council;
Nov. 11, 4:30 p.m~, Council Room.
Minutes of previous meeting.
Officer Reports dPresident, Letters;
Exec. Vice-President, Appointments:
International Committee-M. A. Hyder
Shah; Admin. Vice-President; Treasur-
Standing Committees: Student Acti-
vities Committee, Willowpolitan (mo-
tion); Calendaring Commhittee, Activi-
ties Approval.
New Business: Seating of New Mem-
bers (motion).
Members and Constituents' Time.

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