THE MICHIGAN DAILY SATU
Skinner Discusses Teaching Machines
By CAROLINE DOW down a topic into sinle steps A; essful at one stage before
A teaching machine must allow offers the immediate re-enforce- going to another. f
immediate re-enforcement of ment f success with each step. An average eighth grade class in
lvation" Prof. B. F. Skinner Mere success, if offered often Roanoke, V. took a year of ninth
the Harvard Department of enough, will help shape new grade algebra on the machines in
ication said yesterday. learning behavior. one semester. With no teacher, no
rof. Skinner reviewed the pre- Working with a machine stu- class and no homework the eighth
Eisenstadt Cites Causes
Of Empire Deterioration
BURRHUS F. SKINNER
...talks on teaching
grade class averaged equally well
in national tests with ninth grade
students who had taken a year of
There is no reason why the
machines could not introduce to
the young child in his otherwise
wasted year, the contingencies of
learning. We could also get away
from purely yerbal and subject
instruction. Non-verbal math could
be taught. Education in general
could be speeded up, he said.
With machines, high school and
college could each be completed
in two years. Professors could
spend more time with the intan-
gibles of knowledge once the basics
were mastered through machines.
An alternative to reducing higher
education to four years would be
to teach twice as much in the
With machines freeing the stu-
dent and teacher from rudimen-
tary learning problems. modern,
education with machines can
educate a people to "produce a
strong cultural pattern."
By SANDRA JOHNSON
"Very often the rulers of em-
pires themselves create the condi-
tions which undermine their own,
regimes," Prof. S. N. Eisenstadt
of Hebrew University said yester-
"Two conditions," Prof. Eisen-
stadt explained, "tend to bring
about the deterioration of empires'
that have been established."'
"I am referring now to historical
political systems such as the Chi-
nese Empire, the Byzantine Em-
pire, the Roman Empire, and cer-
tan Arab Caliphates. However,
these conditions can apply to con-
temporary political systems too.
"The first of these conditions is
the arising of conflicting interests
between the ruler and other tra-
ditional groups. These groups may
be the church, the aristocracy,
or any other established organiza-
tion which could be powerful poli-
"The rulers, wanting to be in-
dependent of these traditional
groups, looks for means to under-
mine their strength. In the Middle
Ages," Prof. Eisenstadt pointed
out, the monarchs attempted to
promote the free peasantry and
some free urban groups at the ex-
pense of the aristocracy.
"This policy, however, is one
the rulers are afraid to carry too
far. Their own symbols of status
are still aristocratic.
Therefore while the rulers are'
lessening the powers of the aristo-
cracy, they are also diminishing
their own strength.
"The second condition which
causes the deterioration of em-
pires is emphasis by the rulers
upon internal or external expan-
sion. Whether it takes the form of
war or international diplomacy,
this expansion is costly.
To finance these enterprises, the
ruler finds it necessary to take
money from the very groups that
support him, that is, the peasantry
and the middle class.
"Eventually the strength of
these two groups is depleted, and
the ruler, having lost his support,
loses also his power.
"A contributing cause to the
decline to the empire is the aristo-j
cratization of the bureaucracy.
Not only do the officials of the
government then become less effi-
cient and more corrupt but as
aristocrats they became allied with
the enemies they had previously,
as the supporters of the ruler,
been opposed to.
"Yet this same bureaucracy is
but a manifestation of the condi-
tions necessary for the emergence
of an empire.
"There are two conditions,"
Prof. Eisenstadt said, "which are
necessary if an empire is to be
"First of all a strong and able
ruler must arise. At the same
time, social institutions must exist'
which enable the ruler's govern-
ment to be effectual.
The establishment of a well
organized central government is
essential, and with it the bureauc-
racy. Consequently the elements
of the decline of an empire are
inherent in its development.
.fr,fpqe44 at 7l,"'n
by SIDNEY KINGSLEY
directed by JERRY SANDLER
Winner of Drama Critics Circle Award
Women's Week, a series of lec-
tures and panel discussions focus-
ing on the college-educated wo-
man, will be presented by the
Michigan League beginning Mon-
All of the week's programs will
begin at the same time, in the
To Discuss Africa
"Let's Look at the African Prob-
lem" will be the subject of a
speech by Prof. Henry Bretton of
the political science department
A panel of recent University
women graduates will relate col-
lege experiences to their present'
life Wednesday night.
Panel members will be Mrs.
Harold Oberman, president of the
League in 1957-58 and now an
elementary school teacher ifs Ann
Arbor; Jo Hardee, past president
of Mortarboard, past executive
vice-president of SGC and cur-
rently a reporter for the Detroit
News; Mary Wellman, past Pan-
hellenic president and now assis-
tant program director in the
Ruth Alkema, past vice-presi-
dent of Assembly Association and
now assistant to the dean of wo-
men; Mrs. Robert Weaver, presi-
dent of Sink, an Ann Arbor asso-
ciation of alumnae of the Univer
sity; and Mrs. Robert Warrick,
former president of Assembly and
now an elementary school teacher
will also participate.
Thursday night a group of Ann
Arbor civic leaders will discuss
volunteer activities available
Blanshard to Talk
On Church, State
Paul Blanshard will speak to
Challenge on the separation of
church and state at 8:00 -p.m.
Monday, in Rackham Aud.
A journalist, lawyer and author,
Blanshard is the author of "God
and Man in Washington" and
"American Freedom and Catholic
Power". He was head of New
York City's Department of In-
vestigations and Accounts for four
Bond Views 'Animal Keep(
By LINDA SIGESMUND
"Just bring food, and you will
By IICHAEL HARRAH be accepted," Thomas M. Uzzell,
Jr., last year's animal keeper at
Although our deficit in the bal- the University zoo, said.
ance of payment is a contributory "There is as much variance in
factor to the increasing competi- personality among the animals as
tion for American goods on the there is among people," Uzzell re-
world market, the real threat is
the growing danger of. commu-
nism, Prof. Floyd A. Bond, dean
of the business administration
school, said yesterday.
Speaking before the University
Press Club, Prof. Bond said, "This "
(communism) -is the real compe-
tition. This is the competition for
men's minds. The Comnunists will
intensify their propaganda cam-
paign, because they now believe
that the capitalistic societies can
be destroyed by peaceful means-
through peaceful coexistence. This
is the height of class conscious-
Clear Up Problems
Prof. Bond called upon the
United States "to put our own
house in order," by clearing up the
racial and social problems as best
He said this nation could then
institute a more vigorous foreign
policy, which would educate the
backward countries by spreading
the truth. "Then America would
show the world that we mean what RED FOX
we say." .. wants handouts
"However," he continued, "these marked. "Among the raccoons
mus alo e slve t coplee-there is always one dominant
must also be solved to complete- and one who finds himself on
ly stabilize American goods on thde bottom.
tebotm"the foreign markets."t
"In the year ending Dec. 1959, Bears Differ
five American exports had suf- The former animal keeper also
fered setbacks: Petroleum, coal, pointed out a difference in the
pig iron, steel, and cotton. The personalities of Maisie and Blue,
quick solution of the Suez crisis the zoo's bears-"Maisie, like most
left a lot of countries overstocked females, is rather unfriendly while
on these commodities and thus Blue, being a male, is quite the
there was a substantial decrease opposite."
in the foreign demand." Yet certainly the most dynamic
Prof. Bond said he saw no par- personality ever to inhabit the
ticular reason to feel that the de- University zoo was the wolverine.
mand would return, for the coun- In the early '30's an automobile
tries seemed to have other sources. company donated the animal to
"After the war, when foreign the athletic department for use
economies needed a boost, we en- as a mascot.
couraged this discrimination," he "The wolverine was paraded on
said, adding that it helped re- the football field during the gare
store their economy. and became so vicious that he
Swimming Clubs Annoucnce
Names of New Members
The new members of Michifish Karen Kuivimen, '63; Ann Laing,
and Michifins, chosen by trials, '64; Judy Martin, '64. Also mem-
have been announced. bers are Mary Mohn, '64; Susie
The new members of Michifish, Oppel, '64N; Carolyn Osborne, '64;
a synchronized-swimming club, Jackie Plamondon, '64; Martha
Bauer, '64; Suzanne B Bishop, 64:Ann Puray, '64; Mase Riddell, '64;
Ellen Brockman, '64; Lucia Brown, Schidt,Schul en Shaw 6ria
'64; Shari Butler, '64N; Rhoda Cheryn Skromme '64N; Sherryl
Dianey a,4; Kay Csllo FreSpietz, '64; Jane Van Volkingburg,
'64. Others are Judy Gates, '64; Judy Walker, '64; Karen
mani a Grant64;GchnWarmbod, 64; Gwen Farmer, 62;
Groth, '64; Nancy Guile, '64; Mary mond, '64; Marilyn Humphrey,
'64; Barbara Herrick '64; Sandy 63 rs ,64;Caro64Ki.-
Hilderly, '63; Chris Klemach, '64; __nger,_'64.
Alex Ozalev '64; Karen Ryan, '64;
and Nancy Wager, '64. Junior P!1n he
The new members of Michifins,
the training group for Michifish,
are:. Bonnie Adams, '64N; Claudia To Study Rush
Barrack, '64; Terry Birk, '64; Jane
Byrne, '64; Cathy Calcaterra, '64; Junior Panhellenic will begin a
Sharon Cantera, '63; Mary Con- study- of rush from the rushee's
ger, '64; Judy Dearing, '64N; standpoint Tuesday, Fran Harris,
Sandy Emerick, '64N; Karen Eu- '62, rush committee chairmar
finger, '64; Bonnie Kleinman, '63; said.
LYDIA MENDELSSOH N - Box office opens 10:3C
Curtain Time 8:00
All Seats Reserved
Season tickets still available
ANN ARBOR CIVIC THEATRE
...... refreshes your taste
iai'r-softens" every puff
U of M Folklore Society Presents
OLD TIMEY FOLK MUSIC
FOR GOOD TIME PEOPLE
Friday, Oct. 14-8:30
"BATTLE IN OUTER
"12 TO THE MOON"
.w r. A...::