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October 05, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-10-05

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Sev~enty-first Year
FfRW-,I .W.1 AIt W VTU~'#~'UWTT~v~u~'' ~ A an.a MAIAa iRa,. s. ,./ s'a nip., .. S S a ..rvn,..n., =srr =OP MICHIAN,

Educational Dream Realized


Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Question Twining's Power
Stress on Foreign Policy

GEN.Nathan Twining, retired chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, made some rather
unfortunate remarks in a "farewell address"
delivered shortly before his exit from public
life. The remarks are unfortunate because in
tone they are at least 50 years out of date:
One might think he was hearing for reading)
a message by Field Marshal Rt. Hon. Sir
Nathan Twining, K.C.B., retiring Chief of the
Imperial General Staff.
The spirit of the general's remarks are per-
haps well summed up in this quote: "Being
loved is an unreliable alternative for a foreign
policy. It is enough to be respected. .."
"Our national objective must remain clear. It
is to develop and hold power sufficient to win
in all aspects of military struggle, all-out or
EN. Twining's basic difficulty seems to be a
feeling that what is is what ought to be.
The United States has been concentrating on
winning the military power race, but, un-
fortunately, winning this race is almost ir-
relevant to the ultimate national interest. Cer-
tainly, an effective deterrent must be main-
tained, but if winning the military struggle
means gaining power to destroy Russia some
day in an effort to reduce international ten-
sions, then winning becomes inimical to Amer-
ican ideals. The only real significance of the
military race is that success in it enables a
nation to employ other and effective strate-
gies in the international game of chess.
But, according to Gen. Twining's assump-
tion, these other factors seem as irrevelant as
the military factor seems to this writer. Love
Freedom With
TRUSTEES at the University of Illinois re-
cently unanimously defended their firing
of Leo F. Koch, former Illinois biology profes-
sor, in a letter to some 229 faculty members
who protested the way the Koch case had been
Koch was suspended last April by Illinois
President David Henry after the professor
wrote a letter to the student newspaper, The
Daily Illini, condoning premarital sexual rela-
tions between "mature" students. The Board
of Trustees acted upon Henry's recommenda-
tion and terminated Koch's contract June 14.
The trustees denied that the basic charge
against Koch was that he expressed views "of-
fensive and repugnant" and "contrary to the
commonly accepted standards of morality,"
but rather it was that "his actions in writing
it (the letter) and securing its publication
constituted a decided and serious breach of
the academic responsibility inherent in his
T'HEboard continued that it recognized the
right of the faculty members to "responsi-
ble" expression of their views, regardless of
whether they were unpopular or untenable. But
whether an expression is "responsible," the re-
port said, would be guided by criteria in the

is an unreliable alternative to a foreign poli-
cy? Hardly: It is a very reliable alternative.
The barrenness of the Twining point of view
derives from the fact that creation of inter-
national amity-or love-is impossible when a
nation must arm to the teeth solely to com-
mand respect of other nations. Like the pro-
verbial bully, the "little kids on the block" are
afraid of him, and hate him at the same time.
PRACTICALLY speaking, the barrenness of
the Twining point of view is shown by the
marked ineffectiveness American policy has
sometimes evidenced.
What is the alternative? Simply to stop
talking about deterrents and to start talking
about helping other people--and the talk has
to start before a local crisis in some out-of-
the-way place provokes an American aid pro-
gram. It also may mean, as Gen. Twining said,
moments of firmness with Mour allies, and pres-
ervation of our international independence to
act. But his should be the firmness of the
Dutch uncle, not Jack Dempsey.
That this strategy will work also for the
United States' own interests is evidenced by
the success of our policy in the United Nations
and the Congo; and in the increasing Latin
American agreement about the problem of
The upshot is simply this: As a nation, the
United States would do better as a member
of the world community by taking a tack op-
posite to the Twining course. It would do
better morally, and it would do better in cur-
rent power politics. The former consideration
is the most important.
A Safety Valve
university statutes. Koch's expression of his
views, according to the report, was not a
responsible one.
So, what does all this boil down to? Un-
doubtedly that the good professor can think
whatever thoughts he likes as long as he
doesn't tell anybody about them; which, after
all, is a pretty open-minded way for the trus-
tees to look at it. That way the university does
not have to blushingly admit that there's a
radical on the faculty.
Koch's philosophical opinions are not, of
course, the really relevant issues. What is rele-
vant are those trite, hackneyed concepts-
academic freedom, freedom of speech. Academ-
ic responsibility is at best a pretty nebulous
thing, and its whole worthwhileness can well
be called into question. But where it is used
merely as an out to relieve the embarrassment
of a delicate situation, it's being used care-
lessly and thoughtlessly.
When academic freedom has limits, it has
been said, so does education. In the universi-
ties, of all places, should there be full oppor-
tunity for free intellectual growth and develop-
ment, unhampered by the personal prejudices
of any administrative body.

Daily Staff Writer
IN CALIFORNIA, a country
known for its wild and esoteric
experiments, two young men have
started a school devoted to a wild
and esoteric principle - that edu-
cation is a form of group therapy.
Emerson College is based on a
synthesis of ideas, principles, goals
of many of the major educational
experiments of the past half-
century. "The end of higher edu-
cation is wisdom, which pre-
supposes knowledge," Mark Goldes,
the youthful director of the college
quoted Robert Hutchins.
"All colleges depend on know-
ledge - Emerson will teach wis-
dom through personal inter-
*« * *
BUT THE GOALS of Emerson
are far higher. Goldes sees the
ideal of Emerson as a kind of
total interaction between teacher
and student, interaction which will
transcend mere learning and start
the student towards the final goal
-- the establishment of a basic
world community. "World com-
munity does not necessarily mean
world government," Godes was
quick to point out, but more a
feeling of the essential community
of aims for all men, in a world
which has grown too small for
aims to differ from group to group,
This goal is a highly improbable
one, as Goldes freely admits. But
it is a possible one, and Emerson
aims at making its curriculum
and its students fit as closely as
possible to this ultimate dream.
The courses, for example, are
slanting towards what Goldes
would perhaps call wisdom - that
is, a kind of creative effort built
on knowledge. Emerson offers a
course in Utopias, which examines
many of the great past utopian
schemes from Plato to Marx, and
ends with the students devising
their own plans for a Utopian
* * *
TO ADD TO THE feeling of
community, Emerson allows its
students the maximum possible
freedom. Students are freely al-
lowed and even encouraged to take
off for any other school, at practi-
cally any time - to Harvard if
there is a man there to study
with in a special field, or to
Oxford for a change of viewpoint.
Alongside the cosmological view-
point, Emerson has a strong tran-
cendentalist - Walden caste. Its
original catalogue rather affected-
ly called it "Walden West," and
Goldes says that "one or another
of us (on the faculty) goes on
a Thoreau kick periodically." The
name has its obvious antecedent,
and the locale, the wild and mag-
nificent Monterrey peninsula ap-
pealed to the founder's instincts
towards nature.
At this point, Emerson has little
but imagination and love with
which to fullfill its dream. It is
housed in a huge old, Charles
Addams mansion in one of the
over-quaint small communities
which dot the peninsula. At pre-
sent, college consists of twelve
students and seven completely un-
salaried faculty members, who
teach from sheer devotion, and
find some other way to live.
* *
Grove is quite hostile to Emerson
-- the local newspaper is trying
to get their building use permit
revoked "more out of the editor's
boredom than anything else" ac-
cording to Goldes, although he
attributed part of the hostility to
the fact that four out of twelve
students were involved in the
student House Un-American Ac-
tivities Committee riots last year.
Emerson is largely the result
of Mark Goldes' dissatisfaction
with American colleges. Goldes
spent a good part of his college
years drifting from school to
school, and finding flaws as well
as merits in most of them.

In 1954, when he was a graduate
student in education at San Fran-
cisco State College, he suddenly
realized "that everything worth
while that had happened to me
since high school had happened
outside the classroom."
gree, I convinced them to let me
go on a junket across the country
to study American colleges and
then match them against the ideal
college I had designed for myself,
rather than writing a formal mas-
ter's thesis."~
He visited colleges across the
country -Sarah Lawrence, Benn-
ington, Goddard, Reed, and others
-and none of them quite matched.
"Small colleges become rather pre-
cious because they are so small -
they begin to radiate a kind of
After that, Goldes decided that
the only thing to do was start a
college of his own. He made up
a college, composed of his ideal
image of college, plus all of the
elements he had liked in the pro-
progressive schools across the.
plans were taking form, Goldes got
an irate phone call from a man
who identified himself as Al Des-
kin. "What the hell do you mean,
stealing my college," the stranger

thoroughly disgusted with what
goes on in 'education' " and by
March 1960, began their first,
"experimental" quarter. "People
kept saying 'you can't do it, you
can't do it,' so we did."
* * *
ficiently successful, in spite of the
HUAC incident and the local hos-
tility, that Emerson will open its
doors for its first full-scale pro-
gram this fall, if on a rather
shaky financial basis.
Applications have begun to
trickle in slowly from the area
a radio interview with Goldes
on San Francisco's far-out KPFA
resulted in a few faculty applica-
tions - Goldes said "we've been
getting a faculty application a day
since the broadcast, but most of
them disappear when they find
out we have no money to pay
The present faculty is a strange
group, made up of those who got
though the rather rigorous test
of being able to support them-
selves outside the college - in-
cluding a research physicist who
teaches part time, and one of San
Francisco's farther-out beat poet-
painters, whose wild escapades
(last year he did a mural with a
spraygun on the inside of a res-
taurant) hit the San Francisco
papers occasionally.
Goldes didn't seem quite sure how
he got on the Emerson bandwagon
- but as long as he was there he
was welcome aboard. The cata-
logue refers to his position with
Emerson as "recruiting guest poets
and painters to bring to the col-
lege less, as wll as equally, con-
troversial points of view" as his.
* * *
THE FACULTY, among other
things, has contributed all of the
Emerson College library to the
.old mansion. Goldes estimated
that the library contains $20,000
worth of books, and Is still grow-
ing, whenever anybody has any
money to spend on books.
Right now, Emerson is looking
for students, for students who
have had enough university train-
ing to be thoroughly disgusted
with what Goldes calls "the
Emerson looks for intelligence
enough to profit from this kind of
experiment, self-reliance sufficent
to withstand the temptations of
freedom, and "enough emotional
stability to be able to deal with
our kind of loose structuring."
Right now it also looks for
bravery, since Emerson gives
neither credits nor degrees, and
charges $300 per quarter tuition.
"Sooner or later, facing the hard,
cruel facts of the world, we will
probably have to give degrees,"
Goldes said, but in line with the
progressive tradition, grades and
credits are considered irrelevant.
. . .
THE EMERSON program is de-
signed by the student to suit his
own needs and desires. Within the
general quarter system, the stu-
dent takes courses with no pre-
requisites needed, works closely
with a tutor, and studies on his
own. "There is a kind of structure,
but it is an individually tailored
kind," Goldes said, "we need
students who will be able to handle
this kind of structure intelli-
gently," With this kind of struc-
turing, the student will stop being
an "academic commodity," and
become a person and a student.
They expect the student to be a
little older than average, a per-
son who knows what he wants
to do, and who has had other
experiences which have shown him
at least the way he doesn't want
to do it. Like the psychothera-

peutic patient, a little experience
in the wrong direction is basically
In a situation like the Emerson
one, Goldes thinks that a form
of group therapy is inevitable. A
small group of scholars, working
closely with each other, in an
environment which "allows the
student to unfold," where all the,
screens between faculty and stu-
dent are down, will "ultimately
become a form of group therapy."
"We won't plan it that way -- it
will just happen," Goldes said.
* * *
its intrigue and its faults. It is
highly imaginative, and burns
with the kind of reforming fire
that Calvin probably brought to
Geneva. Goldes has a grand vision,
of a world community of scholars
-- with a few monster universi-
ties, like this one, set up primarily
as research and resource centers,
with a few alcoves for timid
scholars, and a wider, freer aca-
demic world of small colleges like
Emerson, which will be insecure,
vibrant and vital to imaginative
learning and teaching.
This is a grand dream--a dream
as improbable as it is dramatic.
But its. flaws lie in the very
things which make it exciting.
The loose structuring of Emer-
son will not work in the tightly-
bound world of today. The day of
the wandering scholar who tasted
the arts across Europe is definitely
over; there are too many facts to
know, before you can concentrate
on the wisdom which will sup-
posedly come from them.
* * *
EMERSON AS A unique institu-
tion is commendable, as educa-
tional experiments always are. It
offers something that probably
no other single school can offer
- an aura of its own, which could
change the lives of its students
as the University never could.
But Mark Goldes' dream of a
world of colleges like Emerson is
an outdated dream, and one
dreamt only for a few, however
exciting it may be to those it

60 girls in the housing unit after
all women students have voted on
the question.
THE PROVISION can only be
used when a specific issue is taken
to the whole female student body.
The rest of the time housing units
per se, not individuals in equal-
sized groups, are represented In
Senate. Because each delegate has
one vote which theoretically rep-
resents the opinion of her hous-
ing unit, there is a tendency for
delegates to revert to their Assem-
bly and Panhellenic ties and form
This causes, the Senators to con-
sider issues in terms of their out-
side commitments and not as they
affect women students in general.
Often the real points of debate
have nothing to do with differ-
ences between affiliates and in-
dependents. An even more crucial
problem, which will be discussed
more fully in a later article, is
that the two pre-formed factions
may tend to enter Senate with
pre - formulated opinions and
weaken the utility of the meetings
as creative problem-solving ses-
Also, when votes represent hpus-
ing units of varying populations
small factions tend to carry un-
equal weight. This situation also
exists within Panhellenic and
Assembly, however, and does not
seem to be a great obstacle to
*'-* *
objective of all-women's represen-
tation if it degenerates into merely
a joint meeting of Assembly and
A related problem is that not
all women on the campus are
offered even an unequal represeh-
tation under the existing arrange-
ments. Women who live in League
Houses are entitled to a voice in
Assembly, but most have ignored
the privilege. A small number of
undergraduate women do not live
in any type of University-spon-
sored housing; students in apart-
mnents have no provision for re-
presentation on any women's
legislative body.
- * .
IN SPITE OF THE need for
some sort of equal representation
in Senate, the value of conven-
ience must not be overlooked. The
organization cannot function ef-
fectively if it is too large for
every delegate to personally par-
ticipate in the discussion sessions
and thus feel committed to help
solve the problem.
Proportional representation
alone has proved unsuccessful;
straight housing unit representa-
tion alone does not give a clear
or fair picture of the issue; the
present dual system gives some-
times fair, sometimes unfair re-
presentation. The conflict between
convenience and equal representa-
tion is one of many which must
be resolved if Women's Senate is
to become an effective organiza-


Daiy Reviewer
OT only is the roadshow trend
in motion picture release pat-
terns encouraging hazardous set-
backs to the local motion picture
exhibitors, but it is also causing
an unnecessary disappointment to
be generated among a good per-
centage of the motion picture pa-
trons themselves. Very few highly
publicized films can measure up
to their advance ballyhoos.
And this raises another serious
question concerning the advisabil-
ity of mass roadshow marketing
principles-how much of the cur-
rent fare available now being
given this special type of market-
ing actually warrants such spe-
cialized selling?
* *. *
THE ROADSHOW engagement,
it must be remembered; came
about almost wholly as a neces-
sity for dealing with films of
excessive length that would not
sufficiently benefit from a policy
of continuous performance.." The
audiences that came to such films
were composed of a special mettle
with sufficient enthusiasm and
stamina to reap the most of the
motion picture experience ahead
of them.
And on the basis of length there
is legitimacy for such entries as
"Ben Hur," "Around The World
In Eighty Days" and "Spartacus"
being given the roadshow treat-
* * *

Dual Votng Systems
Weaken Effectiveness
Daily Staff Writer
WOMEN'S SENATE operates under two different voting procedures
to facilitate both fair representation and convenience.
Originally, one delegate was elected for every 60 girls in a housing
unit. This made the body unwieldy and also tended to make the
position of Senator less important. When members of Panhellenie
and Assembly became the regular Senate delegates, each girl was
given one vote, but a provision was retained whereby a women's
referendum is called for major issues and one ballot is cast for every

to the


Jarring Note .. .
To the Editor:
HAVE A GREAT faith in my
government and in its system
of operation. For this reason, I
found Mr. Fival's naive discourse
of Tuesday a disgrace to my coun-
try. It is his opinion that the
University of Michigan band
would be led to communistic syth-
pathy if allowed to tour the USSR.
The communist government had
no apparent fear in sending us
Mr. Chalenko as an exchange stu-
dent last year, but we are to
believe that the band would "wal-
low in the baseness, yes, the de-
generacy of the beasts in Rus-
sia," which would "taint a student
for life."
* * *
It is my opinion that these stu-
dents could not experience a more
valuable education in the fallacies
of the communist system, than by
comparison with our own. I don't
expect that they would find
"beasts" spewing "venom" upon
them, but rather, unfortunate
people, victim to the very forces
of limitation which Mr. Fival
would promote.
--William M. Colby, '63

'A T7 I .Y .

3 E INTERVENTION of the five neutrals,
which was made last Friday, has for its
object the renewal of diplomatic contact, now
broken, between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S.A. As
a means of accomplishing this, the neutrals
ask "as a first urgent step" the renewal of con-
tact between Mr. Eisenhower and Mr. Khrush-
chev. This has been interpreted as meaning per-
sonal contact, a face-to-face reconciliation be-
tween the two men, and some remarks of Mr.
Nkrumah support this interpretation,
But the draft resolution offered by the five
neutrals is carefully worded. It does not spe-
cifically call for personal contact. Its purpose
would be realized if official diplomatic contact
were restored, and to this the President in his
statement on Sunday agreed.
The door is, therefore, open unless Mr. K.
slams it shut and locks and bolts it,
IN EMPHASIZING the distinction between
personal contact and diplomatic contact, we
shall, I believe, be thinking realistically. Since
the U-2 and the aftermath at Paris in May, Mr.
K. has conducted a violent feud against Mr. Ei-
senhower personally, The crucial question is
whether this irreconcilable personal feud is
separate from or is part of an irreconcilable and
lasting feud between the Soviet Union and the
United States.
The neutrals assume, or at least they hope,
that the personal feud is transitory, and that
underneath it there still exists the possibility of
and the need for negotiations. For my own part,
T am .,.n c a is. tat hw r i t'fix t a v

st Intervention
accept the defeatist view that diplomatic nego-
tiation cannot be renewed.
1JHE NEUTRALS will be wiser, it seems to
me, not to emphasize, not to press too hard
for, a personal meeting. Both men have been
humiliated, Khrushchev by the avowal that we
had some kind of right to fly over his territory,
Mr. Eisenhower by the insults heaped upon
him. Both men are angry. They cannot forgive
and forget. They cannot be expected to meet
and talk away their quarrel and shake hands.
Nothing can be done with this quarrel except to
outlive it.
What can be done, however, is to restore dip-
lomatic contact at lower levels. Even this can-
not be done quickly because Mr. Gromyko and
Mr. Herter dare not forget or forgive the
quarrel of their chiefs.
rpl E UN is faced with the question of whether
the Eisenhower-Khrushchev quarrel will be
prolonged into the next Administration. It may
be. We cannot be sure that Mr. K. is not on a
new line---one of intransigent cold war. It is
also possible that the candidates may talk
themselves into a box where they are in honor
bound to continue the feud to show how bril-
liantly they can stand up to Mr. K. by making
it impossible to sit down with him.
If so, the prospect is dark. An irreparable
break which split the world, which broke the
United Nations, might not lead to war, but it
would surely lead to widespread disorder and
violence in all the continents and to a condition
of profound and universal uneasiness. It is

Exporting Country
. 4

attractions more conventional in
length and not boasting any par-
ticular outstanding qualities de-
manding specialized audiences?
How successfully are they able to
fare with the roadshow policy?
Consider the current tenant at
the Detroit Madison, the most re-
cent of the Detroit first-run
houses to refurbish its decor and
modernize its projecting facilities
(the others being the United
Artists, The Music Hall and the
Mercury). Currently it is show-
casting "Can Can."
"Can Can," based loosely on the
Broadway musical of a few sea-
sons back and tailored more or
less in the genre of the once very
popular but now quickly disap-
pearing super-spectacular Holly-
wood musical, is at its best mo-
ment only an occasionally divert-
ing confection.
But "Can Can" becomes an
even greater disappointment to
its audience when given the high
expectation the road show en-
gagement most naturally arouses
and priced at an exorbitant three
dollars per head ceiling admis-
"Can Can" have neither the suf-
ficient box office stamina to sat-
isfy their exhibitors fully nor the
super spectacular element pres-
ent to fully satisfy their specializ-
ed audiences and have no justifi-
cation to special handling.
Now "Can Can" is certainly not
the isolated example of the road
show film that failed. Practically
all of. the special engagements
have yielded disappointing re-
turns, and only a handful have
actually handsomely succeeded-
the cinerama group, "The Ten
Commandments," "Around The
World In 80 Days" and the cur-
rent smash "Ben Hur."
Certainly special engagaments
have their place in a Sound eco-
nomic releasing patterns. But let's
save only very special films for
special engagaments-the indus-
try and the exhibitors will be
much healthier for it.
The Daily Official Bulletin is as
official publication f The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN foram to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m. two days preceding
GeneaPl Nate


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