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May 29, 1965 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1965-05-29

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Ir i trllaut Eattj
Seventy-Fifth Year'

Africa-Still A Racial Powder Keg


Where Opinions Are ree, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MIcH.
Truth Will Prevail

NLws PHoNE: 764-0552


Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

IURDAY, MAY 29, 1965


The Time Has Come
To Replace Hoover

rHE DIRECTOR of the Federal Bureau
of Investigation, J. Edgar Hoover, has
ver his many years as America's top cop
roved time after time that he is more
han an ordinary law enforcement agent.
He is rather a self-appointed custodian
public morals and safety. He is con-
rvative to the point of reaction and has
paranoid's view of Communist infiltra-
on in the United States.
'Hoover's "Masters of Deceit" is a tes-
mony to an outdated fear of Commu-
ism in America and is indicative of
he kind of cloak and dagger subterfuge
revalent on the part of American Com-
unists and law enforcement agents-in
he thirties.
N THE FOREWORD to "Masters of De-
ceit" Hoover says, "In November, 1917,
ie Bolsheviks seized control in Russia,
wining state power for the first time.
hat breach has today widened into a
ist Communist empire. The attack is
ill being pressed. International Com-
unism will never rest until the whole
orld, including the United States, is
ider the hammer and sickle. This is
hat has happened to the Russian peo-


S THE FAD of sidewalksurfing sweeps
the country, it is becoming increasing-
apparent that civil authorities must ac-
)mmodate the needs of their constituen-
r by setting aside skateboarding pre-
This need is quite apparent. Looking
relative community interest in local
nn Arbor projects, one notes that al-
wough a record six people showed up at
ie last community college meeting, 316
nm Arborites requested the City Council
set off a separate area for skateboard-
Their petition stated, "We feel that
ery Ann Arbor adult citizen has a duty
the young people of this city. With all
e complaints about the idleness and
aywardness of -the youth of today we
iould do all we can to provide adequate
'eas in which they can work off their
Kcess energy in a healthy way,"
'HE LOGIC of their argument is ir-
refutable. It is quite apparent that the
ay to cure juvenile delinquency is to
rn Ann Arbor into a skateboarder's
The shame of it is that the City Coun-
I could have reversed the trend towards
igher crime rates many years ago by
tablishing a welfare city in which every
iild got a free hoola hoop.
DITH WARREN.. .....:.......Co-Editor
BERT HIPPLER ...... Co-Editor
TWARD HERSTEIN .. Sports Editor
pDITH FIELDS ,. . ;.,.,.. Business Manager
iFREY LEEDS ........... Supplement Manager
GHT EDITORS: Michael Badamo, John Meredith,
Robert Moore, Barbara Seyfried, Bruce Wasserstein.
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor, Minh
Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

ple, now held in bondage, who would be
free if they could."
Throughout the book Hoover attempts
to prove the existence of a vast web of
Communist agitators and revolutionaries
centrally controlled by Moscow.
He ignores the fact that contemporary
history proves him wrong at every turn.
THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE, while naturally
desiring the wealth and luxury of the
U.S., do not seem to be inclined to re-
volt against the rule of their leaders. It
is evident that they recognize that things
are considerably better than they were
under the decadent splendor of Tsarist
rule. The Sino-Soviet ideological split
demonstrates the fact that Russia is
definitely not alone in the driver's seat
in leading world Communism.
The ,"vast Communist empire" Hoover
speaks of simply does not exist. Every
country which has embraced Communism
is still subject to the forces of ancient
nationalism. No one Communist country,
from the Soviet Union to Albania, has
either resources or political desire to con-
trol all other Communist countries or
even less to control all Communist par-
ties in various non-Communist countries.
And every major country in the world
today, including the United States, does
attempt to extend its sphere of influ-
ence as widely as men and materialsper-
IN HIS MOST RECENT attack on liberal
and radical forces in the United States,
Hoover charged before a congressional
committee that the student protests at
the University of California's Berkeley
campus were Communist infiltrated and
Hoover's accusations are often logically
indefensible. But the harm comes not
with his errors but in the widespread be-
lief in his errors.
In many quarters he is respected as
the foremost authority on Communism.
The Christian Herald said of "Masters of
Deceit," "This is the most important-
indeed the most imperative book of the
decade ... powerful and informative and
HOOVER HAS BEEN of much valuable
service to his country in the past. He
has done a tremendous job of organiz-
ing the FBI into an efficient law enforce-
ment agency. The inroads and attempted
inroads on organized crime in America
(perhaps a better object than Commu-
nism for the FBI) made with his leader-
ship are to his credit.
But the time comes in every public
servant's life when his usefulness to his
country ends. J. Edgar Hoover reached
this point many years ago.
The standard age for retirement from
non-elective government posts is 65.
Hoover is over 70. He has reflected more
and more in recent years his inability
to carry out the functions of his office.
THE TIME is long overdue that Hoover
be replaced with a younger man, a
man better fitted to the world of today
and not steeped in the prejudices of the
past. President Johnson should take this
step soon-for the benefit and well being
of the FBI and of the American people.

AMID recent attention given to
the Viet Narn and Dominican
situations, the Problems of Africa
have somehow been relegated an
unfortunate second place. This
relegation may have been neces-
sary, but it has obscured the fact
that Africa today is a racial pow-
derkeg awaiting only the proper
match to set it off.
This situation is most serious
in seven nations: Angola. Basuto-
land, Mozambique, Rhodesia,
South AfricadSouth West Africa
and Swaziland.
With white population percent-
ages ranging from Mozambique's
0.87 per cent to South Africa's 43
per cent, these nations represent
what is perhaps the world's great-
est potential trouble spot.
TWO FORCES combine to create
this fearsome potential. The first
is Communist pressure; Russia,
and to a recently increasing de-
gree China, have found it con-
venient to encourage the black
nationalist movements in Africa
while at the same time estranging
these movements from one an-
The result of the technique, they
hope, will be a political vacuum
in Africa into which Communism
may be -inserted.
Communism combines with the
second force, a blend of rabid
white supremacy and rising black
nationalism, to produce today's
The combination of supremacy
and nationalism is a particularly
insidious one, as the two elements
feed on one another; supremacists
take steps to secure their position
which, because of the restrictions
thus imposed on the blacks, only
increase the determination of the
nationalists to be free, and thus
of the whites to protect them-
selves further.
RHODESIA is the best current
example of such a dilemma. The
country was originally colonized by
English settlers interested in the
excellent tobacco soil there.
Through the years, colonization
created the usual dual society, the
English being prosperous, educat-
ed and possessing the vote, with
the native peoples remaining poor,
illiterate and without the vote
Five per cent of Rhodesia's
people are white. But the Rho-
desian constitution allots them

50 of the legislature's 65 seats. The
economy has remained that of a
colony; still bound to England.
the country exports tobacco and
little else of value. The only major
labor market is that of the to-
bacco plantations, and the English
own those. The black man in Rho-
desia is thus effectively straight-
jacketed, economically and politi-
EVEN THESE conditions had
appeared surprisingly stable until
early in May, when Rhodesian
Prime Minister Ian Smith's white
supremacist Rhodesian Front
party won a landslide victory in
the legislative elections; the. op-
position white party, the Rho-
desia Party, won none of the 50
seats allotted to the whites.
The primary election issue was
whether or not Rhodesia should
declare its independence from
England, and Smith's victory was
a clear mandate from the nation's
whites to declare independence,
thereby removing England's mod-
erating influence on Rhodesian
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
spoke for England when he an-
nounced that Great Britain would
not tolerate sucha unilateral dec-
laration. Independence would not
be granted. he said, until the
English government was assured
that the nation's blacks would
have a voice in the governing of
their country.
WILSON WAS NOT making idle
threats. A great deal of English
capital is currently financing Rho-
desian business; withdrawal of
this capital would leave the coun-
try internally paralyzed. In addi-
tion, England buys, over half of
Rhodesia's yearly tobacco crop,
the source of most of Rhodesian
foreign exchange credits. An
English embargo on this tobacco
could cripple trade beyond repair.
Rhodesia's business community
is well aware of these possibilities.
A joint report recently issued by
the Association of Rhodesian In-
dustries and the AssociatedCham-
bers of Commerce of Rhodesia
warned that a unilateral declara-
tion of independence, locally
termed UDI, would eventually
"cripple the economy."
But these warnings evidently
went unheeded, as the election
results show. Supremacists have
begun theorizing that if indepen-

dence were declared in October,
after this year's tobacco crop had
been siezed, growers would have
until the following March to find
new markets.
MANY WHITE Rhodesians re-
portedly feel that they aret only
taking the best of two bad alterna-
tives: strengthen their stand and
maintain what they have built up,
or moderate it and see the coun-
try collapse into chaos They
support such beliefs by opinions
about what caused the failure of
the multiracial portions of the
short-lived Federation of Rho-
desia and Nyasaland.
For it must be remembered that
even the "voice of reason," Rho-
desia's business community, is
evidently being "reasonable" only
because it fears what a UDI would
do to profits. There has been vir-
tually no powerful independent
voice calling for' a moderation in
the Rhodesian Front policies.
After the election, Smith said
"we hope to gain independence by
negotiation." But it is difficult to
see how negotiations can help
reconcile two such divergent view-
points: the English who insist on

a black voice in the government,
if only to prevent another Congo,
and the Rhodesian whites, who
have equated black votes with the
destruction of their way of life-
probably not an improbable equa-
THE DANGER in the situation
is the pressure now brought to
bear on Smith's government to
issue a UDI. Economic considera-
tions are well and good, as are
talks of "negotiation." But when
it comes right down to it, there's
nothing quite like defending
mother's apple pie, especially with
80 per cent of your electorate be-
hind you; in that -context, there
is often little that seems unreason-
able. Clearly, another Congo-size
crisis is being created.
At the moment, there are no
obvious signs of Communist ac-
tivity in the area, but this means
little. Even if agents are not now
present in Rhodesia, it is reason-
able that they can be easily put
Fresh from blundering lessons
learned in Kenya, the Russians
would probably be only too happy
to have another chance. And the

Chinese, especially on the eve of
the Bandung conference, 'would
certainly like nothing better than
a chance to upstage them.
course, is that Africa is in tran-,
sition. Just how does one change
a, nation from a largely colonial
state like modern Rhodesia to an
integrated nation? Certainly, there
will be trouble, because all of the
parties involved are impatient, and
justifiably so.
America's policy must be to see
that as little trouble as possible
occurs, while assuring that a rep-
resentative government is estab-
Lately this country has appear-
ed to the world too much as the
brash giant blundering its way
through situations it knew too
little about.
IT KNOWS about Rhodesia.
The possible antagonist there is
one of its closest allies. Hopefully,
this involvement will result in a
better educated policy toward
troupe in Rhodesia than the Unit-
ed States has recently had toward
other world danger spots.

Kenya's Jomo Kenyatta (center) - African Nationalist Leader



Preparing T.o Attack Aboard a 7th Fleet Carrier


-On the eve of the launch,
the great carrier presents a scene
of intricately ordered activity as
strange as it is beautiful.
In this bright, balmy air, the
sea and sky are piercingly, incom-
parably blue. The carrier's vast
deck is dingy gray, but this great
expanse is no more than a con-
trasting background for a rich,
purposeful, changing pattern of
men and aircraft.
At first glance the men seem
impersonal, indeed indistinguish-
able except by their colors-for all
the specialities, plane captains and
plane pushers, catapult tenders
and the rest have colors of their
own, scarlet or purple, chestnut or
emerald green, sulphur yellow or
BUT THEN one glimpes the taut
strain on the face of a young
plane pusher; the intent look in
the eyes of a veteran pilot as he
closes his jet's canopy. The dots
of color are transformed into men
united in a common task-and a
desperately hard task at that, for
the deck crews have been averag-
ing 110 hours a week since Feb-
It is 11:30 a.m., the target mo-
ment for the launch. The catapult
officer gives his signal. The work-
manlike Skyhawk, already posi-
tioned on the cat, roars forward,
dips its tail as it leaves the deck

and climbs gracefully skyward.
The catapult bridle slides back-
ward to its first position and a big
Skywarrior rolls forward to be
launched, losing its slow ungain-
liness as it unfolds its swan-like
OFF THEY GO, now two by
two, from both forward catapults
-more Skyhawks, another Sky-

warrior, elegantly murderous
Phantoms and Crusaders and last,
and most astonishing, the Tracer
with its huge radar dome that
makes it look like a winged ter-
Again and again the busy scene
briefly congeals; the catapult roars
and another plane is airborne.
With the whole mission on its
way to its rendezvous, high in the

French Patriotism And
Trains, Trains, Trains

bright air in the direction of North
Viet Nam, there is some time in
hand. The lean, quiet-spoken air-
wing commander, Peter Mingolar-
di, suggests visits to some of the
squadron ready rooms.
WITH THEIR serried ranks of
chairs, and their pilots reading,
talking or just lounging, the ready
rooms are a strange blend of lec-
ture hall and clubroom.
But lecture halls and clubrooms
offer few such tales as one hears
here, of truck convoys surprised by
night; of hard tasks of flak sup-
pression and of the efficient de-
struction of endless targets
("Small targets maybe, but those
are the orders.").
Every ready room is interesting.
One or two have their reminders
that these missions sometimes
carry their penalty - Fighter
Squadron 154 has lost two pilots
killed and one captured, including
a squadron c'ommander.
Two hours have now passed, and
its is time for the recovery. An-
other scene of strange hard-work-
ing beauty swiftly unfolds. Plane
after plane looms in the sky.
Plane after plane comes down
with negligent precision, and each
time, as the arresting hook en-

gages the waiting wire, the airy
elegance of flight is transformed
into a wild, frustrated roar of
sound and movement that ends in
motionless, momentary quiet.
WITH ALL 18 planes accounted
for there is nothing left to do but
wait for the Saigon communique
about the morning mission-for
under the news clampdown order-
ed by the President, no doubt to
promote the morale of the men
who are doing the fighting, all
news of current operations must
come from Saigon.
When the communique appears
there is only a single fragment
that fits the mission's timing-
"Two U.S. Navy Skyhawks from
the Seventh Fleet carrier USS
Coral Sea struck a new bridge
along Route 116 during an armed
So the mission that was so
splendid in its launching must
have been assigned to do more
"damned roadwork," as one pilot
was heard to mutter during a dis-
cussion of these operations.
A LOT for a little, it seems-
but that is how it is owadays,
(c) 1965, The Washington PostCo.


At the Michigan Theatre
NOT SINCE "The Great Escape"
has there been a war picture
from Hollywood with as much taut
excitement and real enjoyment as
there is in John Frankenheimer's
"The Train."
And if you happen to be one
of those people who really dig the
grand old coal-burning locomo-
tives you will have double the
pleasure. Obviously Frankenheimer
is a train addict himself, for he
lovingly caresses the magnificent
iron monsters with some of his
most effective black and white
photography to date.
The engine is viewed from every
conceivable angle, and each shot
is made with such care that one
easily feels the kinship and real

affection that railroad men dem-
onstrate in the film. One can un-
derstand their loyalty and bravery
in regards to their trains.
The story centers around a Ger-
man colonel's desperate attempt
to move by train several hundred
art treasures from Paris to Ger-
many at the close of the war. The
French Underground undertakes
to delay the removal until the
Allies can arrive.
roic Resistance worker is perhaps
the only weak spot in the film. He
is more than capable for all the
athletic stunts he must perform
but when he has to carry dialogue,
the entire pace of the movie slows,
and his traditional unemotional
delivery is particularily unsuitable
However, Paul Scofield as the
German colonel is excellent. His
fanaticism for the art work that
he alone cares for is genuinely
and effectively portrayed. Jeanne
Moreau is her same elusive self.
She exudes such presence, such
an aura of emotional power at all
times that she transforms the in-
significant role she has into a
most memorable one.
But the real hero of the film
is the Train itself. Never once does
Frankenheimer lose sight of the
huge iron machines and every
important action includes them
in one way or another. The loco-
motives take on a grace and emo-
tional significance way beyond
their actual presence. Hence when
the final sacrifice is needed to
save the "heritage of France" the
trains, along with the French
people, offer their lives.

Premiere of 'Hero':
Excellent Theatre

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At Trueblood Auditorium
T ONIGHT'S WORLD premiere of "The Hero" by the University's
Carl Oglesby is excellent theatre due to the contributions of play-
wright, director, actors, and technicians.
The play is the third part of Oglesby's Hopwood winning trilogy
presented by the University Players. The first two plays were "Season
of the Beast" and "The Peacemaker."
Within the framework of the classical Greek structure, Oglesby
presents us with his hero-Barnaby Luke. Luke's life has been one
monstrous evil act after another. But his tragic flaw, his conscience,
will not give him freedom to be completely amoral. He is a man tor-
tured by guilt who has fabricated a world which permits him partial
denial of the realities of himself and his deeds. Oglesby thus presents
an inerted Sophiclean tragic hero.
ACCA, BARNABY'S wife, is not only a victim of his crime, but
also the driving force behind his ultimate self-revelation.
The skillful direction of Arnold Kendall prevented a potentially
heavy plot from overshadowing many comic moments. This is truth-
fully in spots one of the funniest plays done in a long while.
In these days of absurd theatre we are also grateful to Oglesby
for his respect for the natural rhythms and poetic qualities inherent

ARGU~t' T I Frc&tw


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