Focus of Teach-In Debates: Nature of Vii
By HAROLD WOLMAN
Special To The Daily
WASHINGTON-The most crucial difference between the
administration and many of its critics at Saturday's teach-in on
Viet Nam policy was a question of fact:
What is the nature of the Viet Cong? A Communist-run,
North Viet Nam-supplied army of guerillas, or a South Viet-
namese nationalist army of civilians? Terrorists, or patriots?
The critics of present policy contended that the Viet Cong is
a popular revolutionary group, composed of and led by native
South Vietnamese. It was, they said, essentially nationalistic
rather than communistic, and was supported by a large segment
of the population. The war is therefore primarily a civil war,
they argued, and American policy cannot come to grips with the
Vietnamese problem until it recognizes that fact.
Indeed, Prof. Hans Morgenthau, one of the critics who spoke
at the teach-in, pointed out that up until last February the
administration itself insisted that the war was primarily a civil war.
Administration supporters, however, claimed that, whatever
the Viet Cong may have been previously, it is now largely an
arm of the North Vietnamese government, supplied both with
foreign arms and men, and representing foreign communist rather
than national goals. Furthermore, these supporters continued, the
Viet Cong, is, as it has always been, largely a terrorist organiza-
tion feared, or at best merely tolerated by the population.
Arthur Schleshinger Jr., who defended administration policy
Saturday, expressed his exasperation with those who do not agree
with this when he remarked at the teach-in, "What some people
do not seem able to recognize is that the Viet Cong is riot the
Indochinese wing of the American Populist Party."
Thus the administration, acting on this interpretation of the
At Local TeachIn
By BRUCE WASSERSTEIN
Besides the local hook-up for the national policy debate from
Washington, the Ann Arbor teach-in Saturday featured a hard-
hitting panel reacting to administration policies.
The panelists included Prof. Andrew Collver of the sociology
department as chairman, Prof. George Totten of Eastern Michigan
University, Prof. Rhoades Murphy of the geography department
and Todd Gitlin, of Students for a Democratic Society.
Aside from speculating as to the reason for McGeorge Bundy's
absence from the national debate, the panelists concerned them-
---_--_----- with questioning the gov-
type of enemy it is fighting, has directed both military and
diplomatic efforts at what it considers the motive force of the
war-the Hanoi regime.
However, Morgenthau, one of the administration's staunchest
critics, remarked, "Even is a settlement is negotiated with North
Viet Nam we will be left exactly where we started-with a civil
war raging in South Viet Nam."
A second major disagreement between the administration and
its critics concerned the validity of the domino theory. Basically
the domino theory hypothesizes that if South Viet Nam falls
to the communists, then, by a similar process, the other in-
dependent nations of Southeast Asia will fall one by one under
Communist Chinese control.
Administration supporters cited the domino theory as the
reason we must continue to fight on in Viet Nam. Critics either
dismissed the domino theory as an outmoded simplification, or
contended, as Walter Lippmann and Morgenthau did, that all
of Southeast Asia -will inevitably come under the domination of
China anyway according to the natural course of international
Yet despite these differences, there was not as much dis-
agreement over policy as many people had expected.
Few critics advocated that the United States simply pack
up and withdraw tomorrow (although administration supporters
such as Schlesinger spent a good deal of time, some observers
complained, explaining to' the critics why such action would be
Instead, most of the critics argued for immediate negotiation
and some sort of settlement which would result in the removal of
American troops. Although some advocated neutralization of
South Viet Nam along Titoist lines and others simply accepted
the inevitability of a Communist takeover, most were silent on
the question of what sort of settlement would or could result
Administration supporters replied that negotiation was already
administration policy, as exemplified by President Lyndon B.
Johnson's oft-repeated offer of unconditional discussion.
But, the critics charged, the administration was not pressing
hard enough for negotiations and has put too many conditions
on "unconditional discussion," particularly the refusal to deal
directly with the Viet Cong.
From the tenor of the entire debate, it was obvious that the
critics themselves were not in agreement on precisely what alter-
native policies to pursue, nor were they in agreement on their
reasons for opposing present policy.
Moralists and Realists
There were two main ways that critics explained their stands:
morally and politically.
A significant portion of the critics, particularly in the evening
seminars, opposed American policy for moral reasons. A few were
pacifists, opposed to all use of force; more of them, however,
thought that the United States had no business supporting an
unrepresentative and corrupt government rather than what they
saw as a popular revolution. Many thought it immoral that the
United States should be involved at all in the internal affairs
of another country.
Joined with the moralists in opposition to present admin-
istration policy were the realists, represented by Hans Morgenthau.
The realists accused the administration of misinterpreting
the objective situation, and relying too heavily on military rather
than political means to achieve ill-defined goals. Some, such as
Morgenthau, contended that vitory in a land war in Southeast
Asia was impossible, that air attacks would likely bring China
into the war, and that Chinese domination of the area was
PROF. HANS MORGENTHAU of the University of Chicago ad-
dresses the audience at the Washington, D.C. teach-in held
Saturday. This teach-in is a direct descendant of the original
teach-in held on March 24 in Ann Arbor; the men who planned
the first teach-in later spread the idea to other schools through
the Ann Arbor organization.
seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXV, No. 10-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, MAY 18, 1965 SEVEN CENTS FOUR PAGES
By BARBARA SEYFRIED
The "old" 7090 computer has
seen its day.
The University will replace the
7090, an electronic computer used
here for more than three years,
with the newer 360-67, recently
leased from the International
Business Machine Corp.
The new computer will arrive
in fall, 1966 and fall, 1967 in two
The decision to replace the 7090
was made following a study con-
ducted by the Computer Study
Committee headed by Prof. Don-
ald Katz of the engineering
school. The study committee as-
sessed .the needs of scientists at
the University for a more sophis-
ticated computing mechanism. On
the basis of this study the 360-67
Since the University acquired
the 7090, from three to four years
a go, computer technology has been
racing ahead. The University
signed a lease for the 367-67 two
days after the University had an-
nounced its order for another
model, the 360-66 and seven weeks
after IGM had introduced 360-66
On Line-Real Time
The 360-67 is an "on line-real
time" computer, Burroughs said.
One line means that data collected
in an experiment goes right to the
computer. The sensing machinery
is attached to a console which
sends data from an experiment to
the computer and relays it back
to the experimenter again, he
Burroughs explained that by be-
ing on "real time" the computer
would be able to handle more
than one experiment at a time,
something the 7090 cannot do.
The computer moves so fast, he
ernment's attitude towards Com-
munist China, the Viet Cong and
revolution in general.
According to Murphy, "Viet
Nam is to China very much as
the Dominican Republic is to the
United States. ,Viet Nam belongs
in the Chinese sphere of influence.
-This is reality whether we like it
or not. Our present policy is in-
effective. It is not realistic. The
time left to change that attitude
is very slight."
Murphy claimed, "the position
that Viet Nam is essential to U.S.
national security is awkward at
best. We are too self consciously
a great power, and it is this kind
of nationalism that is causing
most of the trouble in the world."
Gitlin said that many of the
administration's claims about the
complexity of the Viet Nam prob-
lem are an attempt to obscure the
Totten said that the stereotype
of Communist China as "an ex-
panding colussus" is a fallacy.
He said, "Historically China has
had a special relationship with
all of the countries of Southeast
Asia. The Vietnamese are not will-
ing to become part of China, and
China, a unitary rather than a
federal state, does not want to
take over Viet Nam.
"The Vietnamese Communist
movement like that of China is
indigenous. The Vietnamese Com-
munists are powerful in their own
right and do not depend, as yet,
on China. We are not confronting
China as the administration
thinks," Toten asserted.
Totten concluded, "President
Lyndon B. Johnson calls for an
unconditional discussion and in
the next breath says we will not
talk to the Viet Cong. The in-
terests of the Viet Cong must be
considered," Toten warned.
ADLAI STEVENSON, right, U.S. permanent representative to the UN, spoke yesterday an at emer-
gency session of the Security Council. The Security Council called for a cease-fire in the Domini-
Junta Rejects Coalition Plait
SANTO DOMINGO (43) - The
military-civilian junta's forces re-
jected peace moves by President
Lyndon B. Johnson's special en-
voys and stabbed deeper into a
rebel pocket in northern Santo
Domingo last night.
The junta turned down a re-
ported U.S. plan for a coalition
government, saying it would open
a door to Communism.
The junta 'threw tanks, fresh
troops, mortars and field guns in-
to a house-to-house battle aimed
at mopping up rebel holdouts.
The junta president, Brig. Gen.
Antonio Imberta Barrera, turned
down a plea to call off the of-
Imberta said he had reminded
Presidential Assistant McGeorge
Bundy and the three other rank-
ing U.S. envoys that a stated U.S.
objective in the Dominican Re-
public was to prevent the country
from falling under Communist
domination. Imberta contends any
deal with the rebels would lead to
The junta's foreign minister,
Horacia Viciosa, warned that un-
less the rebels abandon their "ab-
surd and unacceptable preten-
sions" the junta will begin an all-
out drive to end rebel resistance.
The fighting flared again while
rumors circulated that the United
States was pressing for a coalition
government under Antonio Guz-
man, 54, former agriculture min-
ister under exiled Ex-President
Juan D. Bosch.
A rebel source meanwhile re-
ported Bundy met in rebel ter-
ritory during the day with mem-
bers of Col. Francisco Caamano
Deno's C"constitutional" govern-
ment. Caamano, the rebels' pro-
visional president, denied he had
any contact with Bundy or any
other U.S. envoys but added that
a meeting was possible soon.
Caamnano did: not dispute the
junta's claims that its forces had
advanced five or six blocks in bit-
ter fighting in the northern su-
burbs in 24 hours. He said the
rebels had never set up permanent
positions in this area..
Some 300 crack troops from the
armed forces training center at
San Isidro Air Base outside the
city joined the battle.
The White House mission was
reported trying to persuade the
junta to resign in favor of some
other government that might be
acceptable to the rebels.
The Dominican civil war began
April 24 in an attempt to restore
Bosch to the presidency.
The inter-American peace team
sent by the Organization of Amer-
ican States departed for Wash-
ington to report on the backstage
maneuvering. A spokesman said
it would return in a day or two.
High Level Mission
Operating in extraordinary se-
crecy, President Johnson sent the
high level mission to the Domini-
can Republic last weekend. Its
probable three-fold objective: to
enm the civil war, bring dissident
elements into a provisional coali-
tion government and keep Com-
munists from gaining control.
U.S. officials tried to keep the
mission's presence in Santo Do-
mingo a secret, and once the se-
cret was out both the White House
and the State Department re-
mained tight-lipped about its pur-
This mission is composed of
McGeorge Bundy, a Presidential
Assistant on National Security
Affairs: Thomas C. Mann, Under-
secretary of State: Cyprus R.
Vance, Undersecretary of Defense,
and Jack H. Vaughn, Assistant
Secretary of -State for Inter-
American Affairs. They have been
the President's chief advisers since
the Dominican crisis erupted April
Acts on Bills
By W. REXFORD BENOIT
Michigan legislators were de-
luged by bills in the House and
Senate yesterday as a'result of the
race to beat last Friday's deadline
for reporting bills out of commit-
tee in the house of origin.
The deluge included two scho-
larship bills for higher education
and a measure which would pro-
vide further state funds for re-
search at Michigan colleges and
In a night session which saw
the Senate moving rapidly through
a pile of appropriations bills, a
scholarship bill was passed bring-
ing $2 million to the coffers of the
state scholarship fund.
When the Senate adjourned at
about midnight, it had also passed
a separate recommendation of
$2.8 million for planning future
construction at Michigan's col-
leges and universities under the
centralized planning authority of
the state's department of admin-
From this amount, the Univer-
sity will receive funds for plan-
ning construction of an architec-
ture building, classroom and office
buildings, a heating plant, general
library, science building and a res-
idential college in the Huron River
The Senate also passed a rou-
tine concurrent resolution approv-
ing self-liquidating projects at all
ten of the state's colleges and uni-
versities. Atthe University, this
includes Cedar Bend Housing
Units I and II, Bursley Hall slated
to be constructed on North Cam-
pus as are the Cedar Bend units
and the new fieldhouse.
Higher education money and
funds for capital outlay were the
topics on the floor when the Sen-
ate finally adjourned. Action is
expected on these measures to-
The Senate also received a bill
callingfor $1 million to replen-
ish a research fund initiated two
years ago. State colleges and uni-
versities can apply for portions of
the fund to finance their indi-
vidually planned research.
The proposed $1 million amount
is up from the $750,000 available
at the program's inception in
Excise Tax Cut Bill
WASHINGTON W-)-President Lyndon B. Johnson asked the
United States Congress yesterday for a $4-billion excise-tax reduction,
promised that "it will not be our last" tax cut, and called on industry
for price cuts to match.
His long-awaited message proposed two big bites of $1.75 billion
each, the first on July 1 and the second next Jan. 1, followed by
$464 million of smaller cuts in annual stages until 1970.
PRESIDENT JOHNSON, above, yesterday
cuts in excise taxes and pronised that this,
will not be the last
The message, however, disap-
pointed the auto industry. The
car-makers had asked outright
repeal of the 10 per cent levy, but
Johnson said the cuts should stop
when the tax reaches 5 per cent
because: "It is an important
source of federal revenues."
The industry has 'served notice
it will continue to press Congress
for outright repeal on July 1. Rep.
Martha Griffiths (D-Mich) an-
nounced she will urge the Ways
and Means Committee to adopt
her pending bill to that effect.
Even the partial relief recom-
mended by Johnson seemed likely
to keep the auto sales boom in
high gear. The industry has prom-
ised to pass any excise tax cuts
on to consumers in full. When the
bill passes, persons who bought
cars last Saturday and thereafter
will get refunds.
There is no legal requirement,
however, that any manufacturer
or dealer must reduces prices.
A prospering economy can af-
ford what he hoped was business-
boosting, job-creating cuts, John-
son said, while still whittling $1
billion off next year's anticipated
Brewster Gives Critique
Of Viet Nam Discussions
DETROIT (P) -- Some "teach-ins" protesting United States
policy in Viet Nam are "on the same level as stuffing telephone
booths," a collegian prank, Yale University President Kingman Brew-
ster Jr. said yesterday here.
Speaking to 400 members of the Yale Alumni Association at the
group's annual dinner, Brewster, 45, said some of the demonstra-
tions make "a ludicrous mockery
of the democratic debating pro-
He said, however, that other
"teach-ins" were seriously moti-
vated and offered constructive
criticism. By ADA JO
By RICHARD F. WHALEN
Associated Press Staff Writer
N E W Y O R K - Businessmen
praised President Lyndon B. John-
son's proposals for excise cuts yes-
terday as a psychological boost
for the economy.
But consumers might find it dif-
ficult to pinpoint savings on many
of the products affected.
The automakers, for example,
have promised to pass on reduc-
tions to the consumer if the ex-
cise tax they pay is reduced. It's
the dealer, however, who sets the
price, which often involves a
trade-in allowance and other fac-
Some businessmen indicated
there might be other considera-
tions affecting possible price
"Among the President's reasons
for submitting the excise tax cut
was to build up better profits for
industry," said one businessman.
"In an industry of this type (pens
and pencils) it's impossible to pass
it on to the consumer.
"You have items that are a
natural at $1 and not $1.10 so
we have to pay it. Passage will
give this type of industry cour-
age to invest in modernization
and plantnexpansion. We have al-
The reductions would affect
nearly all General Electric Com-
panV's consumer nnruts. and a
Celebrates Fifth Anniversary
"I have myself some critcism of
government policy but I don't
think withdrawal (from Viet
Nam) is an acceptable solution
unless it is part of a larger set-
tlement," Brewster said. "I don't
think anyone is in favor of un-
conditional withdrawal and I don't
think anyone is in favor of un-
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee is currently
celebrating its fifth anniversary, commemorating its foundation and
the struggle for civil rights in which it has been a leader.
An anniversary program featuring a speech from Rep. Weston
Vivian (D-Mich) will highlight the week's celebration. It will be
held on Sunday, May 23 at 8 p.m. at the Ann Arbor Community
Ann Arbor Friends of SNCC will also hold a panel discussion
"rnnop.rno CST"', rr o1q ftor.ir.anribilcnnhxr at +1- iir~
realized that while direct action did serve to inject a feeling of1
hope into the Negro community, it was in a sense a superficial means
of bringing about any real change; for the institutions which served
to perpetuate white supremacy were yet to be attacked-education,
employment and the vote," Miss Reymer said recently.
"It was found by SNCC workers that it is in those communities
where Negroes are kept from voting that suppression and control
of all areas of Negro life is most severe," Miss Reymer added. In
these areas, where Negroes 'comprise over' 40 per cent of the popu-
lation, SNCC began to work on voter registration.