By ROBERT MOORE
EDITOR'S' NOTE: This is the second in a series of articles explaining
the new draft call-up.
President Lyndon B. Johnson last week sent draft calls spir-
alling to 35,000 men per month, the highest call-up rate since
the Korean War. The reported "draft pool" of 80,000 men (un-
married men already classified I-A-ready for induction) would
last less than three months under the new quotas.
The question for students, faced with the prospect of more
call-ups, is, naturally, how do I avoid this draft?
About 18,000 University students are nestled in the student
deferment category-II-S-although, reports Thomas Clark, Uni-
versity Selective Service counselor, some will find themselves
less secure if student deferment rules are changed.
Clark, who works for the Office of the Registrar, handles the
University's end of the draft process: certifying that a man is
going to school full time, entitling him to the II-S rating.
The University's standard for a "full-time, continuing pro-
gram of studies," the deferment requirement, is 12 hours for
undergraduates, 10 hours for graduates. As long as the student
is going to school, at the present time, he is safe. It is only stu-
dents who take a semester or so off, or who are requested to with-
draw from school who are in danger of being classified I-A.
For the student with a II-S deferment, then, the primary
importance lies in staying in school. In the past, to get a student
deferment, students have had to be in the top portion of their
class, as high as the top one-fourth for seniors. Clark said; but
in 1962 these rules were relaxed.
Now a student who consistently dips below a 2.0 honor point
average may not only get a "Request Not to Register"-but a rifle
The other deferments-occupational, agricultural, extreme
hardship, registrant with child-are not too common on campus,
Clark reported, although in some cases students at the Rackham
Graduate School who are not taking enough hours to qualify as
a full-time student but are doing "important research" are given
II-A occupational deferments.
Some of those drafted never make it into uniforms-the
IV-F. Those classified IV-F are "physically, mentally or morally"
unfit for service.
One Selective Service bulletin lists roughly 200 "disqualifying
obvious defects and manifest conditions," including drug addic-
tion, height less than 60 or more than 78 inches, leprosy, weight
less than 105 pounds. overweight that "would interfere with wear-
ing of the uniform," and sexual perversion-which is undefined
in the bulletin.
Draft laws further exclude any man who, "by reason of
religious training and belief, is conscientiously opposed to par-
ticipation in war in any form."
The law defines the belief the conscientious objector must have
as a "belief in a relation to a Supreme Being involving duties
superior to those arising from any human relation." The law
excludes "essentially political, sociological, or philosophical views
or a merely personal moral code."
Last March, a new dimension was added to this law. The
United States Supreme Court ruled that the Selective Service had
been misinterpreting the provision that "the test of belief 'in a
relation to a Supreme Being' is whether a given belief that is
sincere and meaningful occupies a place in the life of its possessor
parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in God of one who
clearly qualifies for the exemption."
One authority analyzed the impact of the new ruling:
"Those who hold a belief which takes the place of a belief
in a Supreme Being (Truth, Justice, Love, Brotherhood, Creator,
Over-all Power, etc.) now clearly qualify for CO classification if
the sincerely-held belief involves a sense of obligation not to
participate in a 'war of any form.' Such an applicant holds a
belief in a Supreme Being whether he realizes it or not, accord-
ing to the Court's decision.
"Just as clearly, an avowed atheist or avowedly nonreligious
claim will continue to be rejected."
The claim of a conscientious objector involves a long legal
process aimed at determining the sincerity and validity of a CO's
appeal. The Central Committee for Conscientious Objectors, based
in Philadelphia, publishes a 112-page handbook outlining the steps
The draft has been attacked ever since Roman times; but,
sadly, it appears inevitable. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara
recently estimated that it would cost the U.S. $4 billion if it ended
Inevitable it may be; but that does not stop some 86 million
un-drafted American men from hoping they avoid it.
YOUTH MUST OPPOSE
U.S. WAR POLICIES
See Editorial Page
'i C igaYt
Chance of showers
Seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXV, No. 60-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, AUGUST 3, 1965 SEVEN CENTS
"ONE MAN-ONE VOTE':
Debate Dirksen Am
Er L1A Ym £'aln F-
By MARK R. KILLINGSWORTH
Special To The Daily
WASHINGTON - The Senate
voted yesterday to consider a con-
troversial constitutional amend-
ment aimed at overturning the
Supreme Court's one-man, one-
The amendment's sponsor, Sen.
Everett Dirksen (R-Ill) said: "I
want a final vote, and I intend
to get it."
Under an agreement- reached
yesterday, the Senate will meet
two hours earlier than usual to-
morrow to consider a substitute
amendment proposed by Sen.
Jacob Javits (R-NY). Debate on
the Dirksen amendment will then
It' will take only a majority to
tack the Javits' amendment onto
Dirksen's proposal, and a simple
majority will also be enough to
start consderation of the Dirksen
proposal itself. But final passage
of either will require a two-thirds
"The Senate comes to a stand-
still until I can get a vote on this
question," Dirksen said. "I will
block everything else until I do."
Sen. Paul Douglas (D-Ill), the
leader of opposition to Dirksen's
proposal, promised there would be
no parliamentary tricketry em-
ployed to stop a vote on the
But if the amendment is itself
changed or 'amended, Douglas
said, his forces would want to
consult on it and begin "an ex-
tended discussion" - a polite
phrase for filibuster.
Douglas is concerned that a
last minute change in Dirksen's
proposal might leave Senate lib-
eral ranks in confusion and pos-
sibly produce enough defection to
provide the 67 votes required for
At present, liberals claim more
than the 34 votes needed to defeat
Dirksen himself was equally
concerned about parliamentary in-a
fighting. "No curve balls should
be thrown, he said.
"No senator will have his in-
terest abused," Majority Leader
Mike Mansfield (D-Mont) pledged
Ac I1U1minn Lteateon
ATHENS (A)-Police rushed into
Parliament last night and broke
up fist fights between opposing
deputies during a debate on a
confidence motion for Premier
George Athanasiadis Novas' gov-
While bedlam reigned inside
Parliament, about 2,000 backers of
George Papandreou, ousted by
King Constantine July 15 in a
dispute over control of the armed
forces, shouted anti-government
Papandreou had prevented a
quoruum Friday night when the
government sought its first vote
of confidence. But he sent his
Center Union deputies back last
night, hoping to hasten debate
and overthrow the government. A
SEN. PAUL DOUGLAS vote of confidence motion is ex-
pected later this week.
As it stands now, the Dirksen Policy Statement
amendment would: Ste
I law ML/ML A.-/ AL M-
Viet Peace Privately
Governor Denies Plans for
Trip to Viet Nam This Fall
Despite reports to the contrary, Gov. George Romney denied
late yesterday that he plans to travel to Viet Nam with several other
governors this fall.
However, Romney did not rule out the possibility that he may
decide to go to Viet Nam.
Earlier in the day, Oov. Philip Hoff of Vermont had said a
delegation of 10 governors, including Romney, and Democrat John
'Connally of Texas. plan to make
a fall trip to the war-torn Asian
Seizures Halt nai.
zs HHoff had said that the State
Light Protest Department will sponsor the trip
ig s tela in October. The purpose, he
explained, would be for the gov-
CHICAGO (P) - Police seized ernors "to lend our moral support
about 65 integrationists last night to our American troops there."
who had marched to Mayor Rich- No Invitation
ard J. Daley's home o Chicago's The Detroit Free Press reported
south s id e protesting school last night, however, that one of
policies. the governor's aides quoted Rom-
They were seized on charges of ney as saying:
failing to disperse and causing a "I have not received an invita-
hazard. tion to go to Viet Nam, have never
The demonstrators climbed into discussed it and have no plans
police squadrons with the admo- to go."
nition from Negro comedian Dick But the aide did say that Rom-
Gregory, who led" the march and ney hopes to accept a State De-
who was among those arrested: partment invitation to go to Japan
"Do not go limp. Do not give in late October - and Hoff had
police any trouble. We have not listed a Japanese visit as the
broken the law." starting point for the Viet Nam
Capt. Howard Pierson said he venture.
ordered the arrests after the According to Hoff, the delega-
marchers-protesting the rention tion was recommended by the ex-
of schools Supt. Benjamin C. ecutive committee of the National
Willis-refused to disperse. The Governors Conference. The na-
integrationists want Willis re- tions governors met in Minneapo-
moved from office immediately lis, Minn., last week.
and they say Daley could accom- Briefing
plish this if he wanted. Most of the governors also flew
"Our presence is creating a to the capitol last Thursday for
dangerous situation," Pierson told a briefing on Viet Nam by Presi-
.ctr...~~. .. ..... .i ..-y. ,-, l v trr _ 4 :...y. -. T? _. +. . A P-
-Allow a state-wide election to'
determine if a state's voters want
to apportion one house of their
legislature on factors other than
-Require that, at the first
election, a straight population
plan be submitted along with the
vote-waiving plan, and that there-
,after the successful vote-waiving
plan be put up to a yes or no vote
every ten years.
Javits, arguing for his alterna-
tive amendment, said yesterday
that, unlike the Dirksen proposal,
his plan would provide that popu-
lation always be one factor in ap-
portioning both houses. of a state
legislature and that a 10-year
referendum on a successful vote-
waiving plan would always have
to include a straight population
Javits continued t h a t his
amendment, contrary to Dirksen's
would "maintain the court's role
in determining the fairness of the
apportionment of both houses" of
legislatures by having it judged if
vote-waiving plans were "ration-
ally related to achieving the valid
goals of the state."
Dirksen's proposal was brought
to the floor yesterday in an un-
usual manner. After a Judiciary
Committee deadlock prevented the
amendment from reaching the
floor through the normal channel,
Dirksen introduced his proposal
as a substitute by tacking it onto
an obscure Senate resolutiones-
tablishing a National American
Legion Baseball Week.
A Senate rule permits him to
strike everything out of the
American Legion resolution ex-
cept for its number and enacting
clause and then insert his con-
stitutional amendment instead.
As Athanasiadis Novas read his
government's p o 11 c y statement,
Papandreou's deputies s h o u t e d
and banged their desk tops. Speak-
er Emmanuel Baklatzis called re-
peatedly for order, but to no
The premier continued and fin-
ished reading his government's
The free-for-all began when the
National Radical Union leader,
Panayiotis Cannelopoulos, a right-
ist, delivered a blistering speech
Center Union deputies rose in
their seats and screamed at Can-
nelopoulos. Rightist deputies bang-
ed on their desks. Some raced
over to the Center Union benches
and fists began to fly.
Police moved in and the melee
ended in five minutes.
until tonight after five hours of
debate. Some deputies said the
confidence vote could come by
Wednesday night. Under parlia-
mentary rules, the vote must be
taken by Friday night.
Demonstrators have been active
in the streets for Papandreou ever
since King Constantine fired him
and installed Athanasiadis Novas.
Meanwhile, a Greek army gen-
eral's report was made public fol-
lowing an investigation into an
alleged clique of leftist officers.
The political opposition had ac-
cused Papandreou's son,nAndreas,
of being involved in ASPIDA, a
leftist military group seeking to
cut Greece'sties with the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The general's report showed
that Andreas Papandreou was in
no way involved. The younger
Papandreou, a former economics
professor in the United States,
gave uphis U.S. citizenship to en-
ter Greek politics.
HOUSE MINORITY LEADER GERALD FORD (R-Mich) is shown above meeting the press yesterday
to deny that he had released the contents of a Viet Nam memo prepared by Sen. Mike Mansfield
(D-Mont). President Lyndon B. Johnson had charged Sunday that a prominent Republican leader
had made a distorted version of the Mansfield memo public.
Ford Denies Johnson Charge
WASHINGTON )IP) - House
Republican Leader Gerald R. Ford
(R-Mich) said yesterday if Pres-
ident Lyndon B. Johnson is angry
with him it may be due to a mis-
understanding, and he refused "to
be baited into a verbal donny-
Ford said such a dispute would
delight the Communists and "I
urge we get on with the awesome
task ahead without further delay
and without splitting the nation's
Sunday Johnson told newsmen
in Texas that a leading Republi-
can congressional figure violated
his confidence after a Tuesday
White House briefing on Viet Nam
and made available to newsmen'
information which was "untrue
and perhaps malicious."
The published report Johnsonj
referred to was one that he was
dissuaded from calling up the re-
serves in the Viet Nam war by a
memo from Senate Democratic
Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Mont).
Johnson did not name the Re-
Tension Reaches High Point
In Americus with Arrests
AMERICUS, Ga. (P)-Uneasiness increased in Americus yesterday
with a report that permits for pistols were "selling like hotcakes" and
a crisp warning from County Ordinary Eugene Horne that white
residents would shoot if they considered themselves in danger.
"The people here are excited about their own safety," said Horne,
"but there won't be any murder without provocation."
Twenty-three civil rights pickets were arrested outside a grocery
as the Sumter County grand jury met to consider indictments against
two young Negroes, Eddie Will
Lamar and Charles Lee Hopkins,
>:> charged with murdering Andrew
A. Whately, a 21-year-old white
Marinee enlistee. The jury recess-
r;..ed without making any present-
publican but several newspapers
reported he was referring to Ford
who had a "background briefing"
with some reporters on Thurs-
day, the day after Johnson an-
nounced a doubling of the draft
calls in order to reinforce United
States manpower in Viet Naze.
A "background briefing" is one
in which newsmen are given in-
formation which can be printed
but without direct attribution to
the man supplying it.
Ford said Sunday night Mans-
field's memo at the secret brief-
ing made no mention of the re-
serve callup and "I have made no
subsequent comment to anyone
connecting Sen. Mansfield's views
with the President's decision not
to call up the reserves..s"
Ford pursued this point further
yesterday, saying that "Johnson's
remarks . . . , if he was referring
to me, are the possible result of
a misunderstanding which I trust
the White House will correct."
He did not elaborate in his state-
ment but said after reading it
that several reporters cajled him
on Wednesday-24 hours before
his background briefing-and in-
dicated they knew what went on
at the White House conference of
His implication seemed to be
that if misinformation on Mans-
field's memo was given to report-
ers it came from someone else.
Sen. Everett M. Dirksen (R-
Ill), the Senate Republican leader
and a participant in the meeting
with Johnson, verified yesterday
that Mansfield made no recom-
mendations for a change in course
in Viet Nam.
Mansfield refused last Friday
and again yesterday to make pub-
lic his memo to the President.
Says Hanoi Rejection
Of UN Assistance
Not End of Attempts
WASHINGTON (P) -- Secretary
of State Dean Rusk suggested
yesterday that oifficers of the
United Nations could explore pri-
vately the possibilities of a Viet
Nam settlement despite the lat-
est North Vietnamese rejection of
a formal UN role there.
And there is yet a possibility
for a "formal action" by the Unit-
ed Nations, Rusk told a news con-
Rusk's remarks were in response
to a request for comment on a
statement attributed to North
Vietnamese Deputy Foreign Min-
ister Nguyen Co Thach. Thach re-
portedly said that the UN cannot
use its influence to bring about
Informed sources in New York
indicated that Secretary-General
U Thant is expected to continue
his Viet Nam peace efforts de-
spite North Viet Nam's rejection
of UN Intervention.
There was no immediate com-
ment from UN officials on the Ha-
noi radio report or on Rusk's
Rusk said the United States
would give full support to what-
ever the world organization can
do in Viet Nam.
The peace in Viet Nam, Rusk
continued, "rests with Hanoi."
American forces, he said, would
not be in Viet Nam at all had it
not been for the North Vietnamese
attempts since 1959 to infiltrate
and take over South Viet Nam.
/ Rusk's Pledge
Rusk pledged that the U.S. will
"prevent, defeat, and stop" this
See Related Stories, Page 3
Asked to comment on the sug-
gestion jointly made by Yugo-
slavia's President Tito and Indian
Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shas-
tri that the U.S. suspend bombing
of North Viet Nam, Rusk remark-
ed that the air raids were once
suspended for a brief period, but
"we got a harsh reaction."
On the other hand, Rusk said,
the U.S. does not want to extend-
the war or make what he called
a "general war."
This was Rusk's first news
conference since May 26. On oth-
er subjects, Rusk said:
-The U.S. does not acknowl-
edge the existence of a "priority"
between- a nuclear nonprolifera-
tion pact with the Soviet Union
and an arrangement for the nu-
clear defense of the Western alli-
-In connection with the Gene-
va disarmament talks, he regards
as "an important contribution" the
proposal by Italian Foreign Min-
ister Amintore Fanfani that all
The pickets were arrested after
the store manager pointed out
that the sidewalk in front of his
grocery is private property. Police
arrested them on charges of tres-
Massive street demonstrations
began in Americus after four
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