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July 31, 1965 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1965-07-31

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Seventy-Fifth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSiTY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBUCATIONS

THE TRUTH ABOUT VIET NAM:
Coming-A New Peace Offensive'

0.

Where Opinions Are Free '420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Troth Will Prevail

NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
0. the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JULY 31, 1965 NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL BADAMO

Public Higher Education:
Lansing's New Involvement

THE REBUFF dealt the University
Thursday before yesterday's approval
of $60,000 in planning funds for a new
classroom building is the most recent in
a series of events pointing out the al-
tered relationship between the University
and the Legislature.
About ten years too late, the Legisla-
ture has discerned the revolutionary
change going on in the state's higher
education and it is trying to enter the
picture to see that the revolution pro-
gresses along acceptable lines. Its new
involvement has lacked coordination and
often blended naivete and partisan poli-
tics with sincere concern for higher edu-
cation, but its decisions have still had a
substantial impact.
The University, as the old leader now
fighting to maintain the top spot in
Michigan education, has quickly become
the focus of attention in Lansing-and,
when criticism has been forthcoming,
the University has usually borne the
brunt of it, a situation aggravated by a
combination of coincidence and recent
University policies.
A FEW BRIEF EXAMPLES make this
abundantly clear:
O The Robinson amendment. Last Feb-
ruary, Sen. Edward Robinson (D-Dear-
born) proposed an amendment (since
withdrawn) thatwould have limited the
constitutional autonomy of state schools
by increasing the authority of the State
Board of Education. The proposal was
introduced at the time of-and was very
possibly inspired by-dissatisfaction with
the University's plans to expand its
Flint College branch.
*The budget cut. In June the House
Ways and Means Committee slashed $6.27
million from the University's 1965-6 state
appropriation. The cutback was later re-
stored on the House floor, but not be-
fore a short, hard-fought battle between
two factions of the Democratic Party.
JUDITH WARREN......................Co-Editor
ROBERT HIPPLER.....................Co-Editor
EDWARD HERSTEIN................Sports Editor
JUDITH FIELDS ...............Business Manager
JEFFREY LEEDS..............Supplement Manager
NIGHT EDITORS: Michael Badamo, John Meredith,
Robert Moore, Barbara Seyfried, Bruce Wasserstein.
Subscription rates: $4 for IIIA and B ($4.50 by mail);
$2 for IlA or B ($2.50 by mail).
The Daily is a member of the Associated Press and
couegiate Press Service.
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
use of alt news dispatches credited to it or otherwise
credited to the newspaper. All rights of re-publication
of all other matters here are also reserved.
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor, Mich.
Published daily Tuesday thruugb Saturday morning.

The reduction was in part a political
move, but at least one Ways and Means
Committee member-one of the same men
currently involved in the audit of Uni-
versity financial records-acted with the
avowed intention of equalizing the ap-
propriations of the University, Michigan
State University and Wayne State Univer-
sity.
" Criticism of the recent University
tuition increase. Along with a number of
verbal blasts, the fee hike has led to an
investigation of the University's finances.
0 Failure of the House Ways and Means
Committee to approve planning funds for
the University two days ago. In many
ways this was an insignificant and some-
what coincidental postponement of action
on a routine request. However, while con-
tending that he had not singled out the
University for criticism and that he con-
sidered the issue separate from the recent
fee increase, one Ways and Means Com-
mittee member conceded that dissatisfac-
tion with the University influenced some
other members.
UNDERLYING Lansing's new interest in
education is the changing character
of the Legislature itself. Reapportion-
ment and, perhaps, a shift in the Michi-
gan's political climate, have replaced con-
servative Republicans with young, lib-
eral Democrats.
The young Democrats tend to favor
free tuition and seem to be most inter-
ested in undergraduate education for in-
state students-the students they hear
most about from constituents.
But, above all else, they are interested
in higher education. The incidents listed
above again serve as apt illustrations.
Robinson is a freshman Democrat, as are
all but one of the legislators who have
gone on record against the University's
tuition increase. Moreover, it was primar-
ily young Democratic members of the
Ways and Means Committee who split
with the group's veteran leadership to
question the University's planning appro-
priation last Thursday and to cut the
budget in June.
THE NEW BREED in the Legislature has
added spirit to that often lethargic
body. Education's problems are urgent,
and legislators are eager to act. However,
while some of them are trying to quickly
become well-informed, they probably will
feel compelled to make decisions before
they are adequately prepared-their in-
terest and enthusiasm is combined with
inexperience, and this is a dangerous
combination.
--JOHN MEREDITH

By GEORGE ABBOTT WHITE
THIS FALL will see throughout
America a struggle of monu-
mental importance for a present
peace and a future for the entire
earth.
It will be grounded at the uni-
versities and colleges and owe a
massive debt to "the tactics and
tone of the civil rights movement.
It will be nothing less than a
struggle to educate the American
public in the meaning, form, and
establishment-now-of peace.
WE ARE TOLD that a major
role of the President is that of
educator.
Yet from past and present per-
formances, we must conclude that
the "old schoolteacher" has failed
both utterly and disastrously. Mr.
Johnson has not only failed to
teach the truth, but misinformed
and taught untruths to America
as well.
Those that point to his recent
words of "negotiation" and his
"caution" in escalating the dirty
war in Viet Nam must recognize
that negotiation and caution aside,
the war is growing, more and more
Americans are to spill blood--
theirs and certainly others-in an
empty gesture of national face-
saving.
THE man-in-the-street wants
to know, yet trusts Mr. Johnson.
He must be taught the things Mr.
Johnson will not tell.
He must understand that if Mr.
Johnson really wanted peace,
wanted to save American lives,
save his program for the Great
Society, save the son of that frail
old woman who wrote to him-he
would have laid the reeking corpse
of Viet Nam on the table of the
Security Council and demanded
aid, not made the empty gesturing
of a letter to U Thant.
And he must learn that only if
he too demands that kind of real
effort towards peace can this na-
tion and this world be saved.
HOW HAS Mr. Johnson been a
bad teacher that students and
educators now must contradict
him and so strongly?

He has repeatedly glossed over
past military mistakes, denied the
dishonor of past "commitments"
to American-made puppets, af-
firmed the importance of empty
"honor" to meaningful peace, mis-
represented democracy with re-
spectsto national revolutions, mis-
represented the reality of the war
in Viet Nam and denied the va-
lidity of his critics, and lied to
America about its true nature and
ends.
The New Teachers must point
out past military mistakes-not to
score academic points, but to in-
form the John Doe who is unde-
cided and trustful, that America's
military chiefs are terribly dan-
gerous and distrustful men; that
they are not gods, do not possess
"secret" information, and are as
foolish and fallable and as com-
mitted to their institutions and
their prestige as anyone else.
SANTAYANA said "those who
forget the past are condemned to
repeat its mistakes." The New
Teachers must stress the horren-
dous consequences of mistakes, of
error in the coming months.
They must expose the empty
and dangerous words "honor" and
"commitment" for the tools they
are and prove how they have been
used to manipulate America. Un-
less these value-laden words are
grounded in the concreta of the
past, they are meaningless.
Mr. Johnson has grounded them,
but his critics must pound home
again and again, that their
grounding is in sand.
WHAT WAS the "commitment"
of Eisenhower but a deal with
Dulles to pacify his hate for the
word Communism? And who was
that commitment made with but
a brute, Diem? Certainly Diem
brought order (the great god of
the bourgeoise)-Mussolini made
the trains run on time-but he
neglected and denied the reality
of his people's suffering.
He ignored it because he was
an aristocrat by nature and train-
ing and our support simply en-
abled his authoritarian threats to
harden into dictatorial terrorism.

And our commitment was to
others who followed.
HAVE WE NOT seen again and
again that "commitment" means
absolutely nothing in Viet Nam;
nothing but the United States
shaking hands with itself? Have
we not seen demonstrated once
and for all that the United States
can topple any puppet it creates
to bring "order," crush any "neu-
tral" who thinks more about his
country and its people than any
abstract doctrine of democracy?
We have, in short, committed
ourselves to ourselves and to the
deaths of thousands of Americans
and Vietnamese alike.
Mr Johnson helped to warp the
lesson of democracy. To people
about the world, democracy has
become a dirty word, a label for
American economic take-over sup-
ported by its military.
THE NEW TEACHERS must
teach democracy as it is, a system
of government responsible to
people before things, concerned
with people before things, a prob-
lem-oriented grid for experience.
Mr. Johnson has never shown
democracy in action in Viet Nam
because it is incompatible with
the desires of the puppets we
install.
one cannot speak for land re-
form, for self-determination, for
freedom -to speak and criticize,
when one owns a great deal of
land or a great business.
AMERICANS pride themselves
on being pragmatic. They ask to
see something function, they dis-
trust things that shine but do not
"work."
The New Teachers must re-
phrase Shakespeare's Falstaff
"What is honor can it set an
arm?" Mr. Johnson's words about
national honor are to be dis-
trusted and discounted. To date
and for the future, they will bring
nothing but horror and more
horror.
The most "honorable" thing to
do would be ending the horror,
now-then our "honor" would
have meaning.

FINALLY, Mr. Johnson's lessons
about rebuilding and reform must
be given concrete being.
The New Teachers must ask:
How can we hope to rebuild a
country we have utterly destroyed,
whose children we have turned to
beggers, whose women we have
made prostitutes, whose youth we
have forced to fight a war they
no longer believe in?
John Doe wonders about his
role as a fighting man in Viet
Nam. He knows the Vietnamese--
North and South-hate the Ameri-
cans. He knows the government in
Saigon to be a farce. Yet his
doubts must not be allowed to be
in vain.
IT IS NOT ENOUGH -to teach
the truth. It is not enough to
expose the bungling, the self-
interest, the self-perpetuating lies.
The New Teachers must go be-
yond, they must offer and then
make the American public de-
mand, meaningful solutions now.
They must teach a peace that will
work.
It is not simply a new lesson
in linguistics. Mr. Johnson has
given too many of these. And
America is far too close to the edge
to quibble about words. The New
Teachers must instill a demand
for peace now, they must teach
peace as an absolute necessity
now. Their lesson must be so
strong, so convincing, so right,
that the American people will no
longer accept Mr. Johnson's words
and false tears, but demand ac-
tion, demand line-drawing.
MR. JOHNSON seems to have
done some of it already. Although
our puppet-Ky-shouts about
freeing the North, Mr. Johnson:
defines our position as a holding
action.
One can almost hear the mili-
tary groan, holding the' reins so
tightly. If there is no other way,
if the military complex and the
State Department will concede no
further, the people must insist, at
the very least, on a line.
Whether it is the line of the
false division-the 17th Parallel-
or a line in space-no further

bombing in the North, the line
must be drawn in fact.
IT IS GOING to be immensely
difficult to teach these lessons.
The New Teachers are and will
continue to face the rankest of
smears.
War-fever must be part of hu-
man nature, but they must not
let it go unchallenged. They must
teach that the time for war and
wars is past, that the very weap-
ons of our' security demand the
end of any war. They must con-
front and destroy War-Fever.
And they must remind their
critics that peace is a value in this
age that transcends national and
ethnic boundaries.
FROM THE SMEARS of "Com-
munist," "draft-dodger," "coward,"
their critics will move to the
subtle. They will question the
right of a sociologist to deny a
general; of a historian to deny
an official of the State Depart-
ment.
This too must be confronted and
destroyed. The New Teachers must
agree that first, data, information,
conversation, can be collected by
anyone. And second they must
say that truth is never absolute,
that the second task-the inter-
pretation of data-is nothing less
than the democratic right of any
man who thinks seriously and
widely.
For in truth, there is no more
United States. China, Russia,
France. In truth, there is only a
tiny green globe that is the pro-
perty of all men.
THE NEW TEACHERS will not
assume a savior-role of "expert."
But they will commit themselves
to the establishment of peace in
the concrete.
A sign hangs over the lone
building which survived: one of
our atomic bombs in Japan. It
say, "This error will not be re-
peated."
The New Teachers will not let
it be repeated, for words, for
promises, for no shining, glittering
ideal or principle. They will not
compromise the future of their
children.

0
A

4

SURVIVAL IS IN THE BALANCE:
Can the U.S. GlobalRampage Be Stopped?

By BERTRAND RUSSELL
In The Minority of One
THE WORLD is confronted with
a great danger, the danger of
subjection to the United States.
This danger has been growing for
some years, but it is now coming
out into the open.
President Johnson has announc-
ed that his government will not
tolerate a new Communist gov-
ernment anywhere on the surface
of the globe, and he has shown
that he counts anybody a Com-
munist who opposes any part of
United States policy.
This policy will lead to disaster
if it succeeds, and to still greater
disaster if it is tried and fails.
LET US DEAL first with the
latest and most flagrant of U.S.
misdeeds, namely, the interven-
tion in Santo Domingo.
The history of this island, ever
since it became free from Spain,
has been changeable, but we need
not go back further than the col-
lapse of Trujillo, who was mur-
dered in 1961. He was a corrupt
tyrant with whom the U.S. gov-
ernment easily preserved amity.
After his death, the policy of
the new authority was to establish
a democratic government by popu-
lar election. The leader of this
policy was Juan Bosch, -a mod-
erate liberal.
IN THE general election which
occurred in December, 1962 he ob-
tained a large majority, but was
ousted from power by a coup in
September, 1963. Johnson (but
not Kennedy) recognized the gov-
ernment which came into power
after Bosch's defeat.
This government, like all the
other opponents of Bosch, favored
a corrupt dictatorship completely

subservient to the United States.
There was a revolt against it
and in favor of Bosch in April,
1965, and it is to suppress this
revolt that U.S. troops have been
sent to Santo Domingo.
THE ARGUMENT used in favor
of sending U.S. troops is that the
U.S. will not tolerate, in the West-
ern hemisphere, any government
whose principles it dislikes.
Nominally, the U.S. favors de-
mocratically elected governments,
but, in fact, as in the case of
Bosch, it objects to them because
they favor economic independ-
ence.
The present U.S. enmity to the
followers of Bosch, who is still
admired by a large majority in
the Dominican Republic, is due
to the fact that the U.S. govern-
ment objects to economic inde-
pendence of any portion of Latin
America.
THIS CANNOT, of course, be
avowed, and, therefore, various
pretexts have to be invented to
account for the presence of U.S.
troops.
They were sent, we were told,
to safeguard aliens in Santo Do-
mingo apd to ensure their safe
evacuation.
The number of aliens thus res-
cued in the first few days was
4,067, and to effect this rescue
19,363 U.S. troops were thought
necessary.
THE PLAIN FACT is that the
U.S. government is determined
that the governments of all Latin
American countries should be mili-
tary tyrannies guided by the eco-
nomic interests of U.S. business.
Any .objection to this policy is
labeled "Communist." Cuba, for

the moment, has to be permitted
to exist, but the U.S. government
has made it clear that it awaits
only a favorable moment to re-
store a subservient government on
that island.
Meanwhile, the U.S. has hoped
to use its Organization of Ameri-
can States to put a gloss of in-
ternational cooperation on its ac-
tion in the Dominican Republic.
But Article 17 of the OAS Treaty
states categorically that the ter-
ritory of a state "may not be .the
object, even temporarily, of mili-
tary occupation . . . by another
state, directly or indirectly, under
any grounds whatsoever."
IN THE Dominican Republic,
the United States, assuming its
moral right to control the West-
ern hemisphere, has acted to pre-
serve its sphere of influence.
In Viet Nam; the U.S. is waging
a massive war on the boundaries
of China. China, because it is a
Communist country, is not per-
mitted to have a sphere of in-.
fluence-that would be aggression.
There is one law for the United
States and another for the -rest
of the world. Both laws are made
in Washington.
WHEN THE Vietnamese finally
overthrew their French colonial
masters in 1954, settlement was
achieved at Geneva.
The terms of the agreement
made there were entirely admir-
able. Viet Nam was to be neutral
and independent. All foreign
troops and bases were to be ex-
cluded.
The country, temporarily di-
vided, was to be reunited and re-
main neutral, and the Vietnamese
were to be permitted free elections
for the first time.
ALTHOUGH these agreements

had the full support of the Viet-
namese, the Chinese, the Russians,
the French and many others, the
U.S. refused to sign them.
Dulles, laboring under the de-
lusion that neutralism was im-
moral, set out to systematically
destroy the Geneva agreements.
He quickly created the Southeast
Asia Treaty Organization (SEA-
TO) to consolidate the U.S. sphere
of influence in that area, and
without a shred of justification in-
tervened in Viet Nam.
It was the U.S. alone that pre-
vented free elections in Viet Nam,
and it has continued to prevent
them to this day. Elections are
only permitted if the results are
favorable to the U.S. government;
and, as President Eisenhower rec-
ognized at the time, at least 80
per cent of the votes would have
gone to the nationalhero, Ho Chi
Minh.
FROM THAT TIME the U.S.
became more and more deeply
involved in the affairs of South
Viet Nam until it was clear to the
whole world that it was directing
and financing a full-scale war of
atrocity against the people, whose
only crime was that they desired
independence, free elections, and
no military alliance with any na-
tion, east or west.
Washington's argument was
simple, if fallacious. We hold, it
declared, that the Vietnamese hate
Communism. Therefore we shall
murder some of them to make
their hatred of Communism more
evident. Consequently, they will
love us.
Viet Nam became a proving
ground for every new weapon.
Napalm was showered down from
the skies to roast people alive.
Chemical weapons, called "de-
foliants," were used extensively on
scores of villages. Peasants had

their heads blown off by new
bullets or their bodies chopped up
by steel splinters.
Eight million Vietnamese were
herded into concentration camps
called "strategic hamlets" and a
further half million were con-
scripted to keep down American
casualties. This army, in the name
of the Free World, managed to
disembowel 3,000 of their fellow
countrymen by cutting out their
livers while they were alive.
WHEN IT BECAME apparent to
the U.S. that even two million
dollars a day could buy enough
friends, and the war in the South
was being lost, the bombing in
the north was started.
North Viet Nam appears un-
likely to give way in the face of
this naked aggression. It is highly
probable, therefore, that unless
the U.S. changes its policy China
will be drawn in. China has un-
dertaken to protect North Viet
Nam if necessary, and the U.S.
is ready to bomb China if neces-
sary. Further, the Soviet Union
has undertaken to go to war in
defense of China, if China is at-
tacked by the U.S.
It follows that the persistence
of America in its present 'policy
leads to World War III.
WORLD WAR III, if not nu-
clear, will lead to undecided guer-
rilla warfare. How long America
will be content with such warfare
cannot be estimated.
It may be a year, or five years,
or ten years, but sooner or later,
America will get tired of this un-
decisive and will resort to nuclear
weapons. This will mean the end
of civilization, if not of man.
For this reason it is of supreme
importance that ways should be
found of stopping America before
it is too late.

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'ADULTS ARE INSECURE REBELS':
What High Schoolers Think About Our War in Asia

The major lines of United
States Foreign Policy are simple
and easily understandable. I am
pretty certain the majority of
high school seniors could de-
scribe them accurately.
-Secretary of State Dean Rusk
Newsweek, May 17, 1965
By ROGER RAPOPORT
T HE CURRENT WAR in Viet
Nam has made many young

are trying to vent their hostilities
on their parents."
ONE National Merit Scholarship
winner at Mumford High School
in Detroit was asked why he
thought two drunken infantrymen
climbed into B-57 jets at Da Nang
and tried to go off and bomb
Hanoi.
"Well," she explained, "it ap-
pears that adults are rebelling
against the dual role society ex-

graduates from respectable upper-
middle class backgrounds."
"WHAT THE ADULTS really
want is attention," claims a boy
from the Bronx High School of
Science in New York. "They want
to be noticed. You know they are
so old and everything and they
are tired of being ignored by the
young people."
"I mean you take that General
Ky, the premier of South Viet

bomb some insignificant coun-
try that could not possibly repre-
sent any threat to the peace and
security of the nation?"
The Scarsdale girl was asked
what she thought of Dean Rusk's
foreign policy.
"DEAN RUSK'S Foreign Policy!
Standing up for every two bit
dictator who says he doesn't like
Communists; that's no policy."
"When you read about all this

School in Michigan says, "The
truth is that the adults are ac-
tually in terror of the adult world.
They feel inadequate to be a part
of it."
ACCORDING to a student from
Shaker Heights High School in
Ohio, "Adults have it so easy these
days that there is no challenge,
nothing to get excited about any
more. So they have to channel
their excess emotions somehow."

1

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