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July 21, 1965 - Image 2

Resource type:
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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1965-07-21

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Seventy-Fiftb Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

Information Aout China-A Must

e Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MicH.
'ruth Will Prevail

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DNESDAY, JULY 21, 1965 NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT MOORE

The Balance of Power:
A Historical Principle

THE FACT that a struggle between great
powers is now In progress and has
existed for a number of years is not to
,be questioned. More pertinetnt and ,rele-
vant to the world's survival are the char-
acter and implications of this power
struggle.
The balance of power has been a poli-
tical and strategic reality for thousands
of years. When a reasonable balance of
power exists in a given area peace with
competition usually prevails. However, if
the balance is in any way shifted from
one side to the other, violence in the form
of war erupts and continues until a new
balance can be established.
The problem in today's situation con-
cerns one aspect of the balance of pow-
er-the buffer state.
The buffer state was first employed by
the ancient Romans. Through it they
preserved their empire when it would
have otherwise been destroyed. It
has been the practice of nations since to
make free use of the independent and
neutral buffer state as a no man's land
when dealing with problems of power.
THIS PRINCIPLE has been negated in
today's world situation.
From the time of Napoleon's downfall
until the end of. World War II, Europe
was effectively divided in half, with Ger-
many thrust into the role of the strong
and independent buffer state. Germany
was the meeting ground of East and West.
When Germany attempted to extend its
influence too far the balance of power
was destroyed, resulting in World Wars I
and II in which a coalition of East and
West combined to defeat it.
At the end of World War II Germany
as a buffer state ceased to exist. In-
stead what was once Germany became a
frontier outpost for both East and West
to engage in the power struggle directly.
[N THE FAR EAST a similar situation
has developed.
The nations of India, Pakistan, the In-
dochinese states, Japan and possibly Ko-
rea should provide the buffer states be-
tween China and the United' States'
,sphere of influence which includes the
entire southeastern Pacific area.
This, however, has not happened.
India is weak, overpopulated, and inef-
fectual. It does possess the natural advan-
tage of immense size, which is an asset for
any buffer state. But India is too willing
to be influenced by whatever power seems
to hold the upper hand at a given instant.
Pakistan is much the same.
The Indochinese states in general do
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor. Mich.
Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

not have buffer state qualifications sim-
ply because they are for the most part
directly dominated by the United States.
The only Indochinese state which could,
if permitted, be an effective buffer state
is the northern half of Viet Nam,
Its president, Ho Chi Minh, has demon-
strated in the past that he will not fol-
low the Chinese line because, in part,- of
the historically bitter conflict between
Indochina and China.
If Viet Nam were united under Ho's
leadership the entirety of the country
would provide a portion of the buffer
necessary in the Far East.
JAPAN, WHICH HAS the economic might
to provide an effective buffer state,
will not function in this role because of
a great reliance upon the economic influ-
ence of the United States. Japan feels if
it acts independently of the United States'
policy line American markets and Ameri-
can economic investment would be lost.
Korea, if united, could provide another,
buffer state along the Chinese border.
The chances of reunification, however,
are so small as to be nonexistent.
None of the Asian countries can pro-
vide an adequate buffer between China
and the United States on its own, al-
though together they possibly could form
a neutral chain.
Despite President Johnson's platitudin-
ous statements concerning the welfare of
the Vietnamese people, freedom for every-
one, and the constant repetition of the
word peace, and despite an apparently
paranoic fear of the catch-all word, Com,-
munism, the reality remains that the
principles of world conflict today are es-
sentially the same now as they were 2000
years ago when Caesar defeated the
Gauls.
Imperialism is practiced by each of the
today's three great powers vying for dom-
ination. The United States' military in-
tervention in Viet Nam and the Domini-
can Republic is imperialism. Russia's
doinination, politically and economically,
of the Baltic states is imperialism. China's
aggression in Tibet and India is im-
perialism.
WHAT ARE THE REASONS for this im-
perialism and its continued domin-
ance of international politics? They are
many-sided and involve many popularly
supported delusions.
TOMORROW:,The delusions be-
hind the balance of power, sugges-
tions for removing the need for it-
and why those suggestions are not
implemented.
-MICHAEL BADAMO

By LUTHER H. EVANS
Saturday Review
TJHE DEPARTMENT of State
thinks it knows all it needs to
know about Communist China in
order to decide our foreign policy
in regard to that regime. I am not
in a position to say that this is not
so. Indeed, I suspect that it is
quite true.
What I believe, and wish to
argue, is that such a desirable ob-
jective has not been reached by
public opinion in the U.S., or even
by the more enlightened portion of
it, and that this situation jeopar-
dizes the dialogue between the
government and the people in the
democratic process of this coun-
try's foreign-policy formation.
I wish to argue also that no
more time should be allowed to
pass before we take significant
measures to improve this situa-
tion.
THE STATE Department ac-
knowledges that a few years ago
the Chinese, in the Warsaw con-
versations, wanted information
exchanges with us, including the
exchange of reporters, and that it
was Mr. Dulles and his colleagues
who refused such exchanges. Now
the situation is the reverse, and
the Department reports that the
Chinese are adamant in blocking
such a program.
I believe the Department's re-
port, but I do not fully share its
apparent conclusion that the situ-
ation is, therefore, hopeless. I be-
lieve, on the contrary, that there
are concrete measures we can take
in an effort to exchange informa-
tion with the Communist Chinese,
and I believe that such measures
might possibly result in due time
in a reversal of the Chinese at-
THERE NEEDS to be, first of
all, a dedication of U.S. policy
that corresponds with the present
undeclared policy-one might al-
most call it a secret policy-of vig-
orously opening up the channels
for a mutual exchange of informa-
tion.
The President ought, as I see it,
to declare that he deems it a
duty of all our citizens to learn
more about the Mainland regime,
including facts that are favorable
to it, and that the government, in
all its activities, including those
of the Customs Bureau and the
Post Office, will encourage such
an objective.
He should unequivocally declare
that ignorance in this matter, as
in all others, is dangerous.
THE PRESS and the other mass
media should be called upon to

present a more adequate flow of
information to the people, even if
it is necessary and desirable to
call attention to the fact that the
source in some cases obviously
means that the material is "Com-
munist political propaganda.'
Even propaganda is helpful in
understanding a country's motives,
accomplishments, problems, and
objectives.
It should also be pointed out
that our media have within their
,reach not only important sources
of data but also a large and grow-
ing group of scholars who are
available to comment on such pre-
sentations as the media might
wish to make, giving correctives
to much of what might be deemed
misinformation.
THIS IS TRUE also of moun-
tains of factual and not so fac-
tual material. We have large ef-
forts going on constantly to trans-
late Chinese material into English,
and much of this is available or
could easily be made available to
the press and other media.
Besides having policy clarified
where government use of such ma-
terial is concerned, there is need
for special-interest groups to de-
mand its prompt presentation to
the people.
When it does not seem to the
media that there is a general de-
mand for this kind of material, at
least some of it might be prepared
in a form useful for more limited
circulation, as in magazines with
circulation among opinion leaders
and other highly select clienteles.
THE TRANSLATION work how
being carried forward, though ex-
tensive, particularly in the news
field, needs to be extended con-
siderably.
We ought to have many more,
perhaps dozens, of current Main-
land scientific, technical, and so-
cial science periodicals translated
cover to cover and distributed
widely to libraries on a current
basis, as is regularly being done
today with Russian periodicals.
We need to know what Chinese
scholars ae sayingto one another
fully as much as we need to know
what 'scholars in the USSR are
saying to their colleagues.
IN THE CASE of motion pic-
tures, the college circuit could be
used when a large general clien-
tele is not present to justify or-
dinary moviehouse presentation.
Educational TV could also use
much material whose interest
might not appear to justify reg-
ular network presentation.
Fortunately, many Canadians
are visiting the Mainland these

A PEKING CROWD (above) lines a street to greet Field Marshal Ayub Khan (wearing hat In oar),
leader of Pakistan, during a recent official visit. U.S. public must get more information on main-
land China if relations between the two countries are ever to approach normalcy.

days, and much good could be ac-
complished by having them tour
widely in the U.S. to report their
observations.
Magazines and TV could also
report what they have to say.
This is almost as good as having
U.S. citizens go to China and re-
port to the public.
MOREOVER, if we were to take
the information problem seriously,
we could print in our press more
of what is reported from Peking
by Canadian and British corre-
spondents. The New York Times
is already reprinting some of these
stories.
The practice should become
much more general.
A great deal would be gained if
newspapers were to view this as a
responsibility.
THERE IS another important
source of news about Mainland
China that could be exploited
much more than at present. .
A considerable number of uni-
versities and research centers in
the U.S. have mounted significant
research efforts dealing with
China and other parts of Asia.
Their libraries contain an ever-
increasing flow of material orig-
inating in Red China, of the kind
relied on by the State Department
and other government agencies in
their study of China.
Experts in the universities and
research establishments read this
material, interpret it, write about
it, discuss it with their colleagues.

BUT THE DIALOGUE they hold
among themselves is not fully
known to even the leaders of
opinion in this country.
Something should be done to
get wider dissemination of their
findings and even of their cur-
rent reactions to the flow of in-
formation that passes under their
vision.
What happened when they were
mobilized to comment on the sig-
nificance of the detonation last
October of a nuclear device should
be repeated every week about some
Chinese development-how farm-
ing is going forward or backward,
what is happening in the schools,
developments in health or the
productivity of labor, what kind
of poetry is being written, what
kind of people are getting ready to
take over from the oldest genera-
tion of Red leaders, and other
such matters.
IS THERE anything we can do
to increase Red China's knowledge
of us? As long as the present rigid
position is maintained, on their
side, this will be difficult, andmay
not pay off.
But I think we should try. There
is already a significant exchange
of books and other materials in
progress, and our government
could help- this process. The
Chinese are requesting much more
than the libraries with which they
have exchange relations here can
supply from their collections of
unwanted material.
The government should help our

research libraries buy U.S. and
perhaps other books for this ex-
change purpose. The State De-
partment gives moral encourage-
ment to this exchange, but finan-
cial encouragement is also requir-
ed for our maximum gain.
IT NEEDS to be considered
whether we should translate U.S.
books and other publications into
Chinese for sale onthe Hong Kong
market, and for distribution to
Chinese libraries on exchange.
Perhaps the Red Chinese lead-
ers would like to have many of our
books in Chinese, books they are
vigorously trying to procure in
English.
If they can be convinced that
such translations are true trans-
lations-it would be easy for them
to verify this-it would seem ob-
vious that more people on their
side would read them than can
read English.
I RECOMMEND that we make a
try in this area of communication
also.
Perhaps Franklin Book Pro-
grams, which has done such a
magnificent job in other areas
and languages, could be pressed
into service to manage such a
Chinese program.
If we dq not do something
imaginative and constructive in
the exchange of information with
Red Chia, the people of this
country and the people of China
may well pay dearly for our fail-
ure Capn we act in time?

A

Automobiles AREA Cause of Pollution

K
Plak
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EDITOR'S NOTE: The fol-
lowing aricle first appeared as
an editorial in the publication
of the Federation of American
Scientists.
T HE NATION'S automobile man-
ufacturers oppose any Federal
legislation controlling car exhaust
fumes pending "further research."
The views of these firms were
summarized recently by Harry A.
Williams, managing director of the
Automobile Manufacturers Asso-
ciation in testimony before a Sen-
ate subcommittee- held in Detroit.
Williams told the Public Works
subcommittee that proposed legis-
lation requiring exhaust control
systems on all new cars could be
complied with after reasonable
time, but "we believe the combined
efforts of government and industry
pose questions which should be
answered before new legislation is
considered."
PROBLEMS which he said de-
served consideration include the
extent and nature of the smog
problem on a national basis,
whether, control of vehicle exhaust
will significantly reduce air pol-
lution, where funds could best be
spent for such reduction, and dis-
parities in present data on the
smog problem.
Most government officials in-
volved in the question believe the
automobile is a growing pollution
menace whose emissions must be
strictly controlled if the major
metropolitan areas, such as Los
Angeles, are not eventually to
choke on their own exhaust.
The administration's attitude
was reflected in President John-
son's conservation message to Con-
gress in February in which he
spoke of the need to substantially
reduce or eliminate automotive air
pollution.
THE NATION'S automobile mak-
ers are equally convinced that
there is insufficient evidence that
cars are a national pollution prob-
lem to warrant controls.
They argue that the taxpayer
would get more for his pollution
dollar by spending it to expand
controls on pollution from indus-
trial plants and homes instead.
But both sides in this argument

James V. Fitzpatrick, director of
Chicago's Department of Air Pol-
lution, calculates from fuel sta-
tistics that half the organic gases
in the atmosphere there come
from vehicles.
Nationwide controls on auto
emissions would primarily benefit
dwellers in metropolitan areas and
might impose an unnecessary bur-
den on the millions who reside in
pollution-free rural areas; how-
ever, two-thirds of the population
of the nation already lives in met-
ropolitan areas having only nine
per cent of the land area.
GASOLINE-POWERED vehicles
discharge an- estimated total of
92 million tons of carbon monoxide

4

into the air annually, besides mil-
lions of tons of the smog-forming
hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides
that California has been striving
to control.
The daily output of carbon
monoxide from vehicles, if con-
fined over one area, would pollute
the air to a concentration of 30
parts of carbon monoxide per mil-
lion of air to a height of 400 feet
over 20,000 square miles-the area
of Massachusetts, Connecticut and
New Jersey combined.
DR. DIETRICH HOFFMAN, a
biochemist and air-pollution ex-
pert at the Sloan-Kettering In-
stitute for Cancer Research in New
York, has found that auto exhaust

contains particles that, when ap-
plied to the skin of mice, have
caused cancer.
This does not prove that auto
exhaust willcausedcancer in hu-
mans, he explained, but "nobody
claims man will benefit from air
pollutants."
Surgeon General Luther L. Terry
made the following comments on
air pollution control in December
of 1962: "Much of the speculation
and controversy about whether or
not air pollution causes disease is
irrelevant to the significance of air
pollution as a public health hazard.
"NEW CRITERIA must be em-
ployed in assessing the damage

of air pollution-criteria which in-
clude statistical evidence that a
disease condition exists in a popu-
lation, epidemiological evidence of
the association between the disease
and the environmental factor of
air pollution, reinforced by lab-
oratory demonstration that the air
pollutants can produce similar dis-
eases in experimental subjects.
"There are still great deficien-
cies in our knowledge. We need to
learn more about the pollutants
which affect health-and in what
amounts and under which condi-
tions. But the qualitative evidence
at hand conveys a clear message.
There is no longer any doubt that
air pollution is a hazard to
health."

,

01

Philippe Entremont, above, showed excellence at the piano
En tremont Maintains Excellent Reputation

At Rackhain Auditorium
ALTHOUGH WEARY from an intensive concert tour, French pian-
ist Philippe Entremont gave brilliant interpretations of five pro-
grammed works and four encores last night at Rackham Auditorium.
This third presentation in the Summer Concert Series came before
a standing room audience.
fl---,nnf-'c n.fnr- r nnrfnll nxxunA ISb,, rn a a ,x,-n1 P(-. ,gj -

music, instilled great warmth and vibrancy in Debussy's "Suite: Pour
le piano" and Prokoafieff's "Sonata No. 2 in D minor." Throughout,
he held mastery over technique in these sophisticated selections.
Entremont's skill was evident to the audience in his controlled
flowing hand and finger attacks. He executed extremely rapid pass-
ages in the Profofieff Sonata with deftness and finesse.

*I

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