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November 06, 1966 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-11-06

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A Pacification







SAIGON, South Viet Nam (P) -
Because liberated areas do not stay
liberated-Because good intentions
often are defeated by the system
Because of politics, graft, cor-
ruption, suspicion and insecurity-
BRtam of m vthimm the nrn

It is commonplace t ohear that
the United States cannot possibly
be defeated militarily in Viet Nam.
But how does it win?
U.S. officials see the answer in
the pacication program, which
most see as a long and difficult

ture of South
its peasantry,

Viet Nam rests in'
four-fifths of the


iecause or manytui ngs, We - Sci
gram which goes by the name of Security Needed
pacification is hardly off the The big trouble is that nowhere
ground. can pacification work until there is
The United States is putting $d.relative security. The program
Thenitdy Sthats sputting$2cannot outrun the military. Before
million a day into what appears it can begin, an area must first
Viet Nam's future aoassive pro- be cleared of Communists.
Security is a relative term. Even
gram to pacify, unify and recon- in' cleared areas there is opportu-
struct this nation. nity for terror.
U.S. Aid Pacification Program
U.S. economic aid alone is at On paper, pacification is sup-
the rate of $600 million yearly - posed to bring about progress in
about $40 for each man, woman the fields of the economy, the so-
and child in the nation. This is cial and political structures, securl
apart from the cost of the war, ity and national unity. It is based
over $15 billion a year. on the assumption that the fu-

The program is called nation-
building. The plan is to organize
40,000 trained workers into "revo-
lutionary development" teams of
59 members each, to work from
area to area as they are cleared of
About 25;000 have been gradu-
ated from a fairly brief but in-
tensive training program at Vung
Tau, 40 miles southeast of Saigon.
There are 461 teams in being.
Obstacles to Success
But obstacles make the pr-gram's
successes painfully few.
South Viet Nam has 2,885 vil-.
lages divided into 13,211 hamlets.
Pacification must start at the
hamlet level. Only a relative hand-
ful of hamlets can be called suffi-
ciently pacified for the program to

begin. There are all sorts of frus-!
trating contradictions.
Pacification involves clearing an
area but also screening its inhabi-
tants to find out which are sus-
pects. These sometimes run into
the thousands in one operation.
The rear guard-the South IVet-
namese army in some cases and
the South Koreans in some areas
-often take over the screening.
The screening can be rough.
Whole villages sometimes are mov-
ed away. Vietnamese peasants are
deeply devoted to their own areas.
They are sensitive to ethnic, reli-
gious and sectional differences, and
resent being thrown into unsegre-
gated life with others. Often the
program builds new resentments.
Americans try to sugar-coat the
pill by making the process of de-
taining a village something like a
county fair, with gifts and goodies
and inoculations against diseases.

The difficulty is that nobody can
be sure just who is and who is
not a Viet Cong. Most of the de-
tained peasants are allowed to re-
turn to their villages. Any Viet
Cong among them are free again
to resume their activities.
Often an area remains cleared
only until the Americans pull out.
The Communists regroup and
eventually return, and the job
must be done over again. Only the
"inkblot" concept seems to have a
real chance - gradually fanning
out government authority from se-
cured areas. That takes a long
Da Nang in the north long has
been secured by U.S. Marines who
landed there 18 months ago. Five
miles away the territory in inse-
cure. One village so persistently
resisted pacification that finally it
was destroyed.

The U.S. military says that in
some areas the situation is good
enough to permit more attention
to support of revolutionary devel-
opment by the Americans. They
say this is true of a large area of
Binh Dinh Province, where a wide
sector has been cleared by Korean
The Americans hope to chal-
lenge the infrastructure of the Viet
Cong, but to challenge it they
must get at it. The Communists
do not commit their most impor-
tant officer cadres to battle. The
hard-core leaders survive to do
more recruiting, training and lead-
ing. Il
Another difficulty: areas are
cleared but there are not enough
forces for occupation. In the opin-
ion of many here, there probably
never will be enough, no matter
how many Americans come in.

iVetnamese forces called civil ir-
regular defense groups and coun-
ter-terror groups, civilians, are
supposed to cooperate with the
program, building militia forces,
scaring away Communists, protect-
ing villages. Too often such forces
engage in loot, rape and pillage,
leaving a well of hatred.
Province and district chiefs of-
ten are unwilling to understand
and support the program, though
there has been an effort to indoc-
trinate them at Vung Tau semi-
nars. Many provinces still don't
have teams. District chiefs have
been known to use the teams for
their own purposes.
There is trouble recruiting gooda
people. With the influx of U.S.
affluence into the cities, young
men and women can make more in
a day at legal and illegal pursuits
than they can make in months

toiling in villages in mortal dan-
ger of Communist retaliation.
Progress Made
The picture is not all dark. There
are some good, dedicated district
chiefs, some good and dedicated
revolutionary development team
members already at work building
what are called "new life" ham-
Some areas in tne central plains
have been cleared and develop-
ment teams have scored major
successes helping peasants to build
a better life while the army pro-
tects them so they can grow crops.
The American hope is that what
begins as "search and destroy" ef-
fort against the Communists can
more and more frequently wind up
as "pacification and building."
The Americans say South Viet
Nam needs a sense of nationhood
and that pacification will help to
create it.

Soviets, French



Shift Soviet NIXON TO REPLY:

"Payments on Debt



Authoritative sources predicted
yesterday that the Soviet Union
and France would make voluntary
contributions by the end of this
month to help pay off the U N.
peacekeeping deficit that they
helped pile up.
The prediction came the day
after the General Assembly un-
animously approved recommenda-
tions for holding down U.N. spend-
ing that came from a special coin-
mittee of 14 financial experts set

up last year on a proposal from
Nothing was said about how
much the two countries would
give. But unconfirmed speculation
was that the French contribution
would be around $17 million and
the Soviet contribution even
higher. The deficit is estimated at
between $30 million and $50 mil-
Contribute at Proper Time
The authoritative sources asked
not to be identified. But Soviet

Ambassador Nikolai T. Fedorenko'
indicated that Moscow would con-
tribute at the "proper time." And
another diplomat in a position to
know said he expected some word
from Paris on the subject before
November was over.
Fedorenko heads the Soviet
delegation, one of 71 that sponsor-
ed a French-drafted resolution by
which the assembly's budgetary
Committee and then the assembly
itself endorsed the expert com-
mittee's recommendations.

dItalian Floods Take Death Tol;
Damage Priceless Art Treasure

He was asked after the assembly
vote how soon he now expected
some more voluntary contrbu-
tions to remove the U.N.'s finan-
cial difficulties. He replied, "In
proper time."
"From everybody," was bis an-
swer, "because everybody has
taken the obligations. We did.'
The obligations date back to the
assembly's paralyzed 19th :essicn,
strung out from Dec. 1, 1964, to
Sept, 1, 1965.
Two Years Behind
When that session began, the
Soviet Union and France were
among a dozen countries that were
counted two years behind in total
U.N. dues because they refused to
pay General Assembly peacekeep-
ing assessments.
They contended the assessments
were illegal on grounds that only
the Security Council was author-
ized to start and finance peace-
keeping operations.
But the United States upheld
the assessments and insisted that
whenever the assembly voted, the
delinquents should be penalized
under U.N. Charter Article 19,
which says any member two years
behind in its dues "shall have no
Accordingly, the assembly avoid-
ed voting till the United States
finally dropped its campaign in
August 1965 for want of support.
On the day the session ended,
the assembly agreed that it would
resume voting, that nobody's vote
would be challenged and that
U.N. members generally would
make voluntary contributions to
solve the organization's financial
Since then, 24 of the 121 mem-

Troops To
Far East{
Russia Moves Army
Units to Reinforce
Uneasy China Border.
LONDON - Russia has shifted
several more .army divisions to the
Far East to reinforce its uneasy
border with onetime ally Com-
munist China, diplomatic reports
said yesterday.
The Soviet Union already has 17
divisions in the area and new re-
inforcements were expected to
bring the total to an estimated
well-armed 250,000 men.
Sparked by Increased Tension
The Soviet moves were appar-
ently sparked by an increase in
tension along the 6,000-mile Sino-,
Soviet border in the wake of the
bitter ideological feud between the
two Communist giants. China has
claimed large portions of the
Soviet Far East.
Meanwhile, more than 200 Red
Guardnzealots were killed or in-
jured in a clash with a regiment
of government troops in South
China recently, travelers from
China said in Hong Kong yester-
Hong Kong Paper
A Hong Kong newspaper, the
Sing Tao Daily, said the fight be-
tween the Red Guards and army
units erupted in Kwang-Tung
Province last August when the
youthful demonstrators went on a
rampage of destruction, ransack-
ing homes and setting up kanga-
roo courts in the streets to try
"black elements" (enemies of
China's current internal purge).
Regiment Intervenes
An army regiment-believed to

FLORENCE, Italy (A") - Italy's
most ruinous floods since the{
Middle Ages eased yesterday after
levying a high toll in life and
property and damaging some great
art treasures. But streams were
rising again under lowering clouds
in the northeast.
-Florence and Venice, two of the
great museum cities of the world,
were scenes of desolation and
Experts said the floods had
caused more damage to Florence
and its priceless art works than
the combat of World War II.

Johnson's Press Conference
Boosts Democratic Candidates

World New

By The Associated Press
ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia-Em-
peror Haile Selassie announced
yesterday Ghana had released 19
Guinean diplomats and students
taken off a plane in Accura last
week and detained.
The emperor said the diplomats
-including Guinea's foreign min-
ister and three other officials-
would be on their way to Addis
Ababa today to attend the summit
conference of the Organization of
African Unity which opened here
earlier in the day, without
Guinea's chief.
* * *
PITTSBURGH, Pa. -- David L.
Lawrence, long-time power in
Democratic national politics and
former governor of Pennsylvania,
lay near death yesterday aftera
heart seizure.
Lawrence's physician, Dr. Camp-

Venice lay stunned and slime cov-
ered by the worst flood tide to hit
the canal city in a thousand years.
More than 100 persons were
feared'dead in the Italian phase
of fall storms kicking up across
Europe from the Meditterranean
to Scandinavia. More than 40 dead
have been counted.
Thousands were injured and
tens of thousands made homeless.
Threat of Further Trouble
The threat of further trouble
centered in the Alpine region of
Trneto, where floods and land-
slides already had cost the lives
?s Roundup
bell Moses, told newsmen he was
totally unresponsive to treatment
and there was no hope of recovery.
Lawrence, 77, whose behind-the-
scene political moves earned him
the sobriquet, "maker of presi-
dents," collapsed Friday night
while speaking at a party rally.
* * *
MOSCOW - The Soviet Union
today accused Communist China
and the United States of hushing
up alleged largescale trade with
one another.
Izvestia, the newspaper of the
government said the trade is car-
ried on through Hong Kong and
Macao and exceeds U.S. trade with
this country and East Europe.
It said American trade with
Hong Kong last year amounted to
$534 million. It put American trade
with the East bloc at only $278

of at least six persons. Trento, a
city of 70,000 was isolated. The
Weather Bureau said the clouds
could unleash new waves of dis-
astrous rains.
All through the central and
most northern sections, struck
Friday by the full fury of rain-
swollen, tempest-boiled rivers and
streams, the floods were retreat-
Fierce winds lashed the Yugo-
slavian coast and raked southern
Poland. At least five persons were
dead or missing in Yugoslavia.
Trees and electric lines in Poland's
Tatra Mountains fell before winds
reported to have reached 135
miles an hour.
In Italy, Venice was left awash
in stinking, salty slime deposited
by the Adriatic Sea that had pour-
ed water up to six feet above
normal levels.
Venice waslittered with smash-
e i and sunken gondolas and
broken boats hurled into canal
banks. Scores of the lovely foot
bridges that lace the city to-
gether were broken. Homes, shops
and offices were clogged with
Conditions in Florence were
even worse. The first relief unit
to the city, part of a 50,000-man
emergency rescue operation for
the stricken zones, was able to
get in only Saturday morning.
Chaos gripped the city of 450,
000. There was no water, no light,
no communications. Nearly 100
convicts broke out of a flood-
weakened jail and roamed the
city. Police reported an outbreak
of looting but were too busy in
rescue work to combat it.

though forced to forego barns-
torming in, their behalf, Presi-
dent Johnson has handed Demo-
cratic candidates a bag of politi-
cal goodies which many are.
likely to display in their cam-
paign windups.
Chief of these is the Presi-
dent's intimation that the prob-
lem of inflation and higher liv-
ing costs - about which the Re-
publicans have been trumpeting
for months - is in the process
of being resolved.
No less intriguing to the politi-
cians is Johnson's hint that he
may be able to hold down non-
military spending and collect
sufficient revenues to avoid a
tax increase. This is just what
many Republicans have been
While the President was talk-
ing about the wage increases he
said had been gained by low-
income workers, the Labor De-
partment came through with the
word that October unemploy-
ment was the lowest in eight
For Hawks and Doves
For the party's hawks' John-
son had the assurance that what
needs to be done in Viet Nam
will be done. For the doves, he
said that he though the Soviet
Unionhwas just as interested in
getting the war stopped as Was
the United States.
All this was by way of being a
from Johnson in a Friday news
conference which ntight - or
might not - be his final public
appearance before election day.
He said he did not plan any
further sppeeches before the
Tuesday voting. But he left the
door open to change his mind.
Attacks Nixon
The one discordant note in
this symphony for all Demo-
crats was Johnson's attack on
Richard M. Nixon in which he
suggested that the former vice
president was unpatriotically
fuzzing up American intentions
in Viet Nam for politican pur-
The returns on this won't
begin to come in until after Nix-
on has had a chance to make a

Sunday, November 6

7:00 P.M.

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Nixon Reaction
However, Johnson apparently
assured Nixon of 'a viewing au-
dience much larger than the
1960 GOP presidential nominee
has been able to attract in all of
his campaigning for Republican
cahdidates this year.
How Nixon handles himself
will do much to determine the
public's assessment of John-
son's excursion into personal-
ities in what the former vice
president immediately de-
scribed as a "shocking display

full reply on television and




,----- '----- - -dam --- r _ ..._ nnn

of temper."
In his immediate reaction,
Nixon returned the soft answer.
He praised Johnson as "proba-
bly the hardest working presi-
dent of this century." But he
managed to make it clear that
he diddnot think Johnson had
answered any of a series of
questions Nixon had posed
about Viet Nam.
Those questions now seem
likely to get more public atten-
tion in the final campaign hours
than if the President had just
passed the matter off with some
brief comment that omitted ref-
erence to Nixon by name.


bers have paid or pledgedt23 consist of nore than 1,000 men-
338,324 in such contributions. intervened and battled the Red
France and the Soviet Union Guards, the newspaper said. More

have been waiting for the finan-
cial committee to report and the
assembly to approve the report.
The United States has been wait-
ing till they come through.
U.N. books show the Soviet
Union, 10 other Communist coun-
tries and France owing more than
$100 milllion in disputed peace-
keeping assessments. France is
charged with more than $17 mil-
lion and the Soviet Union with
more than $62 million
France has never helped pay for
the now defunct U.N. force in the
Congo. The Soviet Union has
never helped pay for either that
or the continuing U.N. force in
the Middle East.

'than 200 teenagers were killed or
wounded in the fight while the
army unit suffered seven injured,
the paper said.
Chinese Communist leaders have
ordered Red Guard organizations
removed from industries to pre-
vent production slowdowns, Jap-
anese correspondents r e p o r t e d
from Peking yesterday.
Red Guard Units
One correspondent said Red
Guard units have been formed in
factories to forestall attacks by
student Red Guards, but now
workers have been ordered to
strengthen factory militia groups
instead of the Red Guards.


in color
With Albert Finney and Susannah York
Friday, Saturday, and Sunday
7 & 9:15 P. M.
Aud. A, Angell Hall
Many Seats Still Available

8:00 A.M.-6:00 P.M.

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