SUNDAY, OCTOBER 2, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SUNDAY, OCTOBER ~, 1966 KItE 3IICIIIGAN 1)AILY PAC.1! TURI~F
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EDITOR'S NOTE: After its
long, hot summer, Chicago is
still an angry place, and Dr.
Martin Luther King' Jr. is still
there. "We are not anywhere
near being finished," he says,
but both Negroes and whites
are unhappy and the city may
face a long, hot winter.
By JAMES E. DWYER
CHICAGO (MP-Chicago had a
long, hot summer, and it may have
a long, hot winter, too.
What came out of Chicago's
simmering summer? Much jubli-
lation, wonder, dissent and hate,
and also an agreement between
two strong men-Dr. Martin Luth-
er King Jr. and Mayor Richard J.
Daley. Now comes the time of
testing, to see what has really
Says the Rev. Jesse Jackson, who
heads a group called Operation
Breadbasket: "If Santa Claus
don't come to the Negro this
Christmas, it's going to be a long,
hot winter, too."
What has been achieved since
King came to this city of a million
Negroes and 2.5 million whites in
Basically, an open housing
agreement and a dent in the Job
market for Negroes.
Here is what King won:
-The city's Commission on
Human Relations will increase its
staff to aid actively in seeking out
violations of Chicago's open hous-
-The Chicago Real Estate
Board backed open housing, pro-
vided it applies to owners as well
-The Chicago Housing Author-
ity will no longer build projects'
exclusively in Negro neighbor-
-The Cook County Department
of Public Aid will make efforts
to seek the best housing available
for aid recipients, regardless of
-The Department of Urban Re-
newal agreed to search for the
best available housing for families
displaced by renewal projects.,
-Mortgage bankers affirmed
that their policy is to provide equal
service without regard to race.
-The Department of Justice
promised to inquire into the ques-
tions raised regarding discrimina-
tion in federally insured loans.
-R ea1i g i o u s representatives
agreed to a program of educating
their membership on the morality
of an open community.
Winter of Testing in
-The Chicago Federation of
Labor and Industrial Union Coun-
cil, and several financial and civic
organizations, pledged to support
open housing and to educate their
members along these lines.
-The Chicago Conference on
Religion and Race will form a
night anyway. We must improve'
conditions now in the slums."
King's next project is a grass
roots movement to clean up the
slums and an assault on the school
system. He said he plans to be in
Chicago until the end of 1967,
then will move on to another ma-
separate and continuing organiza- jor city. He did not single out his
tion to set up programs necessary next city.
to achieve fair housing. The areas not touched by the
Middle Class open housing agreement are most-
King said of the open housing ly political and King feels they
agreement: "It will affect life on can be handled at the polls.
was school superintendent in Sy-
"I'm sure the new administra-
tion will be much more imagina-
tive," King said. "From what I
hear, Dr. Redmond comes to Chi-
cago with abilities to enable him
to perform in a superior manner.
However," King cautioned, "valid
changes in the school system
won't take place without the
Negro pupils in Chicago schools
outnumber whites, 259,000 to
Another area in which the
rights groups see progress is em-
threat of a buyers' strike.
Jackson said Breadbasket has
brought more than $2 million in
salaries to the Negro community
this year. Most came from dairy
King's methods are powerful, his
Cmanners impeccable. But some
supporters of the Negro cause-
whom King calls Nervous Nellies
-thn hs.methods ,vr dvshAatn
dreds of jobs to Negroes in Chicago One possible tactic is the trans-
industry. fer of the entire student body of
U n d e r Jackson's leadership, a Negro high school to a white
clergymen use labor union tactics high school under the permissive
of negotiations backed up by the transfer plan,
all levels if it is thoroughly im-
plemented. The middle class Ne-
groes will finally have the oppor-
tunity to buy houses-the ghettos
will be dispersed and Negroes in
lower income areas will be im-
mensely affected. But we can't
stop with the agreement, because
we won't have open housing over-
Balance of Power
"The Negro vote is still the bal-
ance of power," said King. "The
white blacklash is not powerful
enough." ployment. Operation Breadbasket,
Civil rights leaders are partic- sponsored by King and the Co-
ularly pleased because Chicago has ordinating Council of Community
a new superintendent of schools. Organizations, a federation of civil
He is James F. Redmond. who rights groups, has opened hun-
RELY ON A-WEAPONS:
U.S. To Consider Manpower
Cut from Forces in Europe
companies, the first industry to be his manners.
"The dairy industry," said Jack- 'Set Back 50 Years'
son, "was approached because it Dr. J. H. Jackson, a Negro and
is particularly vulnerable. Milk head of the National Baptist Con-
can't stand around. It has to be vention, said King's demonstra-
sold, or the man suffers a loss." tions have "set back the cause of
"The program has worked out civil rights 50 years." Jackson says
very well so far," said Donald the Negro should co'.centrate on
Raddatz, vice president of a firm improving himself before he at-
which agreed to hire 44 Negroes. tempts to influence others.
"The people we've hired have Rep. Roman C. Pucinski (D-Il1
been no different than the general also feels King has gone too far
run of applicants," said W. G. too fast.
Hofmann, personnel director for "The Chicago freedom move-
another company. His firm hired ment has set civil rights back. It
60 Negroes as a result of Bread- has hurt it," said Pucinski, whose
basket. district was the subject of two
The city has not been idle in open housing demonstrations this
slum clearance. Nine hundred summer.
acres of blight have been cleared But King s-id the power of
at an investment of $415 million marches was proven when Daley
to provide 32,000 apartments. A came to the negotiating table.
list of 8,400 families is waiting "Without those marching feet
construction of more low-cost there would have been no meet-
housing. ing," King said.
The eradication of the slum Perhaps the most powerful Ne-
mentality, however, can only be gro in Chicago politics, Rep. Wil-
done in the schools, say King and liam L. Dawson, a Democrat, told
his followers. his followers to beware of those
If the educational prospects "who have come to Chicago to lead
don't improve after Redmond has you astray." Dawson has held
been on the job a while, King power in his South Side district
vows massive action. for more than 20 years.
World News Roundup
By JOHN M. HIGHTOWER
WASHINGTON (P) - President
Johnson now appears to be moving
decisively toward some reduction
of U.S. military forces in Europe,
probably beginning next year.
A study of allied defense stra-
tegy, to be made by the United
States, Germany and Britain, is
expected to provide a new basis
for troop strength decisions.
The study was announced last
week by Johnson and West Ger-
man Chancellor Ludwig Erhard.
The United States hopes to get the
work under way in three weeks
and have it completed by the end
of the year.
Informed U.S. officials already
believe, however, that one result,
due especially to the recent French
withdrawal of troops from the
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion, will be a finding for greater
reliance on nuclear weapons in the
defense of Europe and therefore
a decline in manpower needs.
Greater dependence on nuclear
defenses would mean simply that
the time between an attack on
West Germany and the use of
nuclear weapons to punish the at-
tackers would be shorter by several
weeks than it now is.
The French break with NATO,
which became effective July 1, has
left West Germany as a frontline
country without backup territory.
All NATO bases are being moved
out and French forces separated
from NATO forces in West Ger-
Since NATO planners can no
longer count on automatic French
French support in the event of
war, this change requires a re- just its forces in Germany-that
appraisal of strategic plans, U.S. is, cut back to save money.
officials say. Soviet Danger Down
The United States, Britain and The danger of a Soviet attack
Germany are all suffering eco- in Europe is considered by all
nomic pressures for reduction of allied leaders to have declined
costs. Erhard made clear to John- sharply in the last few years, but
son last week that he wants to they differ on how to react.
trim military p u r c h a s e s. He Europeans resist American argu-
pledged to offset U.S. troop costs ments that they should put more
in Geimany. men under arms but insist equally
Erhard had already refused to that U.S. reductions could endan-
increase such offset payments to ger Europe by weakening its de-
Britain and Britain intends to ad- fenses.
Belgium Move Prompts
Call for Military Review
WASHINGTON (P)- Sen. Mike
Mansfield (D-Mont) said yester-
day Belgium's decision to reduce
its military obligations to NATO
accents a need for a reassessment
of U.S.-European defense commit-
Although he faces stiff admin-
istration opposition to the move,
Mansfield, the Democratic leader,
said he will call up before mid-
month a resolution which would
put the Senate on record as favor-
ing a "substantial reduction" in
U.S. European ground forces.
But he conceded that if critics
can rally the votes to force com-
mittee hearings on the proposal,
the Senate itself is not likely to
come to grips with the issue un-
til next year.
And Senate Republican Leader
Everett M. Dirksen of Illinois said
in a separate interview that he for
one will insist upon such hearings.
Lin Piao Prominent in China
Anniversary of Mao Victory
He agreed with Mansfield, how-
ever, that the action of the Belgian
Cabinet in voting recently to re-
quest a cut in that nation's yet
unfulfilled commitment of ground
forces to NATO is likely to
strengthen the hand of those who
advocate U.S. troop withdrawals.
Brussels sources said the Bel-
gians want to reduce their obliga-
tions to the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization from six down to
Mansfield noted that this deci-
sion was taken at a time when
NATO is getting ready to move its
headquarters to Belgium from
France, which is withdrawing its
troops from control of the defense
"This is another good reason
for the United States to take an-
other look-see at the European
defense posture and consider most
seriously a reduction in our com-
mitments there," he said.
"I would not be surprised but
what the Belgian action represents
a widespread feeling among our
allies that some cutback in forces
is desirable. It certainly de-em-
phasizes the criticism of the 'sense
of the Senate' resolution on the
grounds that it calls for the kind
of unilateral action the Belgian
Mansfield said he hopes a study
of allied defenses by representa-
tives of the United States, Bri-
tain and West Germany may
bring some proposals for troop
reductions. It will get under way
late this month with John J. Mc-
Cloy, former high commissioner to
Germany, as top U.S. representa-
Dirksen suggested that perhaps
the Belgians were responding to
pressure brought by French Presi-.
dent Charles de Gaulle in seeking
to scale down their NATO com-
WHILE YOUNGSTERS around the world have their toy guns with which to play, this Vietnamese
child in a village in Bong Son province near the coast suspiciously eyes an M-16 automatic rifle to-
ted by a U.S. paratrooper.
Ky Logsi Measure Snarled
In Bottlenecked Saigon Port
By The Associated Press
AT LA N TA, Ga. - Stokely!
Carmichael, a civil rights leader
and "black power" advocate, ad-
mitted in federal court yesterday
night he urged a Negro demon-
stration in Atlanta three weeks
ago but said he did not spark the
violence which resulted.
"You have to shake black people
out of their fear," said Carmich-
ael, who denied urging Negroes to
"burn, baby, burn" or engage in
rock throwing or other violence
during riotous disorders that left
15 persons injured Sept. 6.
Carmichael, 25, chairman of
the Student Nonviolent Coordina-
ting Committee, said he meant Ne-
groes shohld demonstrate to "tear
up their fear." He was called to
the witness stand in a hearing
onSNCC's petition to halt prose-
cution of riot charges against some
members of the organization.
Three federal judges took un-
der advisement the request for an
injunction against prosecution by
city and county authorities, and
a move to strike down state laws
on riot and insurrection.
* * *
JAKARTA, Indonesia - More
TOKYO (AP) - Lin Piao's pre-
eminence in Communist China's
new power structure stood out
more than ever yesterday as Pe-
king marked the 17th anniversary
of the Communist takeover.
It was the biggest weekend cele-
bration of the year for Communist
China, and Defense Minister Lin,
Mao Tse-tung's "close comrade in
arms," was the biggest figure of
the festivities. He took the spot-
light from Mao, 72. Lin is 59.
Sharing the rostrum on the high
red walls of Peking's Heavenly
Peace Square with Mao, heir ap-
parent Lin was the key speaker.
While Mao beamedand remain-
ed silent despite Red Guard re-
quests in the past that he speak,
j,in spoke on his behalf.
"Al our achievements and suc-
cesses," Lin declared, "have been
scored under the wise leadership
of Chairman Mao and represent
the victory of Mao Tse-tung's
Mao responded to the cheers,
from the crowd of an estimated
2;/2 million to .3 million, with a
smile and a wave of the hand.
About 500,000 Red G u a r d s
cheered, raising high their right
hands which held red vinyl cov-
ered books on "Quotations From
"Our great motherland," Lin de-
clared, "has never been so pros-
perous and so full of vigor. Our
national defense has never been
The 17 years that have elapsed
since the founding of Communist
China, Lin continued, "have been
no ordinary years. They were years
which have witnessed earthshak-
ing changes in China . . . earth-
shaking changes in the world as
Among the participants were
1,600 foreign guests from 70 coun-
tries and regions, some of whom
were given the privilege to address
the gathering. So did representa-
tives from workers, students,
peasants, the army and minority
nationalities. All supported Mao's
Lin openly accused the Soviet
Communist party leadership of
"colluding and actively plotting
peace talk swindles" on Viet Nam
with the United States. The pur-
pose, he said, is to stamp out the
"ranging flames of the Vietnamese
people's national revolutionary
struggles against U.S. aggression."
Lin's remarks against the Soviet
Union at Oct. 1 festivities were the
first by Chinese leaders on such
an important occasion.
SAIGON, South Viet Nam (OP))
-Some of the drastic measures in-
stituted by Premier Nguyen Cao
Kys' government last June to prop
up South Viet Nam's fragile eco-
nomy have boomeranged against
the port of Saigon. The handling
of nonmilitary cargoes lags.
Bottlenecks which' previously
had delayed shipments through
the sprawling port seemed to be
easing recently. But stiff economic
reforms are now held largely res-
ponsible by experts here for jam-
med warehouses and snarled im-
The government acted for the
first time last week under a decree
which gives it the power to con-
fiscate imported goods not claim-
ed from riverfront storage within
Among the goods seized were
Nonmedical supplies shipped here
under U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development sponsor-
Clogged warehouses are respon-
sible for shipping delays which
have held up Saigon-bound freigh-
ters in Hong Kong and Manila
and slowed the turn-around time
for some vessels here up to 12
Most of the delays affect com-
mercial needs. Military shipments
than 10,000 Indonesian youths,
yelling "Go to hell!" converged
Saturday on President Sukarno's
palace and demanded that he be
brought to trial on charges of
leading the Communist coup at-
tempt which erupted just a year
ago and was crushed.
They surged against a double
line of nearly 1,000 troops holding
them back but they did not enter
the palace grounds. Sukarno was
not inside. He already had flown
to his mountain palace at Bogor
for the weekend, as he usually
The situation remained under
control but at times appeared ex-
plosive as students pressed against
the troops, who held automatic
weapons at the ready.
* * *
MIAMI, Fla. - Hurricarle Inez,
crippled but still dangerous after
raking Cuba for 48 hours, readied
for a final run at the United
States as deaths mounted in her
Behind the killer storm, in the
picturesque islands of the Carib-
bean, hundreds were feared
dead. Thousands were injured and
receive priority, and such bulk
cargoes as cement and coal are
Other South Vietnamese ports!
have expanded, taking some of the
pressure off Saigon. Official fig-
ures from the U.S. Logistical Com-
mand show unloadings climbed to
more than 150,000 tons in July.
But they dipped in August to
133,307 tons. An informe dsource
estimated the figure for Septem-
ber may be under 125,000 tons.
One person concerned with Sai-
gon'secommercial shipping said:
"We are told the tonnage of
commercial goods unloaded on a
specific day. But what about the
tonnage that is not unloaded be-
cause there are no berths avail-
The fresh difficulties are attri-
buted by experts here to the same
measures which put the brakes on
this nation's skyrocketing infla-
tion and stabilized prices in the
Ky's military regime devalued
the Vietnamese piaster 50 percent
June 20. One U.S. dollar now buys
118 piasters at the official rate,
compared to 73 before the deval-
The government also imposed
steep new taxes on luxury goods.
The tax on items such as new
automobiles was doubled.
Pilferage is widespread at the
port. Lamage by rats, rain and in-
ept stevedores is extensive.
U.S. aid authorities recently do-
nated 14 patrol boats to Viet Nam's
customs service, and ta proposal
to floodlight now dark areas of
the port is under consideration.
Saigon has 13 dockside berths
and 23 buoy unloading sites. Ships
at the bouys discharge their car-
goes into lighters.
There are more than 400 light-
ers in the port area, But the lo-
cation and contents of many *are
a mystery at any given time due
to lax record keeping. And cargo
handling equipment is scarce.
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