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September 01, 1966 - Image 26

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-09-01

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PAGE EIGHT

TUE MICHIGAN DAILY

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 1966

PAGE EIGHT THE MIChIGAN DAIL~ THURSDAY. SEPTEMBER 1,1966

Psychologist Notes Harm To Test Subjects

The use of deception by psy- to their subjects-exposing them The present conditions under
chologists in social research can to lies and tricks, deliberately which experimentation is conduct-

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on occasion prove harmful to the misleading them, and making
subjects involved, says a Univer- promises or giving assurances that
sity of Michigan psychologist, they intend to disregard. They
Herbert C. Kelman, professor of would view such behavior as a
psychology and chairman of the violation of the respect to which
doctoral program in social re- all humans are entitled.
search at the University, main- "Yet they seem to forget that
tains that although the use of de- the experimenter-subject relation-
ception in experimentation with ship whatever else it is-is a real
human subjects is often necessary human relationship, in which thes
in order to assure the subjects experimenter has a responsibility
reactions will be natural, it nev- towards the subject as another
ertheless poses serious ethical human being whose dignity he
questions, must respect."
One experiment, for example, There are several factors that
took a "smiling and confident" have made Dr. Kelman doubtful
volunteer and "within 20 minutes, as to the effectiveness of decep-
he was reduced to a twitching stut- tion asa method for social re-
tering wreck, who was rapidly search. Deception has been used.
approaching the state of nervous he says, generally because know-
collapse" when he was led to be- ing what the experimenter might
lieve that he was administering be trying to accomplish in a giv-
severe shocks to another subject, en experiment might affect the
The other subject was an accom- behavior of the subject. As a re-
plice of the experimenter who re- sult, however, there has been a

ed are self-defeating, the profes-
sor says, because they may under-
mine the future relations between
subjects and experimenters upon
which successful research depends.
Remedy for Situation
The University psychologist sug-
s~cefhf fh ciffifn mihf b

In overcoming the negative ef-
fects of deception, says Dr. Kel-
man,
1I Subjects must be selected in
a way that will exclude individ-
uals who are especially vulner-
able;
2) Potentially harmful manip-
ulation (such as the induction of

gesis L L Lne si~u0.b1U11 11Un1 e oestress) must be kept at a moder-
remedied by exploring ways of
counteracting and minimizing the
negative effects of deception and 3) The experimenter must be
giving careful attention to the de- sensitive to danger signals in the:
velopment of new experimental reactions of his subjects and be
techniques that can dispense with prepared to deal with any crises
the use of deception altogether. if it arises;

4) At the conclusion of the ses-
sion. the experimenter must take
time, not only to reassure the sub-
ject, but also to help him work
through his feelings about the ex-
perience to whatever degree may
be required.
Dr. Kelman's suggestions for
deception-free experiments in-
volve mobilizing the subject's co-
operation. "In short," he says, "the
kind of techniques I have in mind
would be designed to involve the
subject as an active participant
in a joint effort with the experi-
menter."

I'

FIRST SINCE FROST:
Students Near Decision o n'U'
Writer-in-Residence Program

Problem Areas
Dr. Kelman points tot
problem areas in the use of d
tion:
1) The ethical implications;
2) The real effectiveness o
ception;
3) The implications for th
ture of psyclio-social researc
our society.
"In other inter-human rela
ships," says Dr. Kelman,
psychologists would nevert
of doing the things that the

growing feeling that "psycholog-
ists always lie." Furthermore, if a
three subject does not believe what an
ecep- experimenter tells him, he may
try to figure out the purpose of
the experiment and act accord-
f de- ingly.
The subject, therefore, "is oper-
e fu- ating in terms of his own con-
,h in ception of the nature of the situ-
ation, rather than in terms of the
tion- conception that the experimenter
most is trying to induce. Thus it is dif-
think ,ficult to know just what the sub-
ey do ject is responding to."

By MARCIA WICK

During the summer months a
committee of eight students has
been busily at work selecting a
writer-in-residence for the Uni-
versity for the coming winter se-
mester.
The Residence Committee will
make their final decision on Sat-
urday, with an announcement
forthcoming to the public by the
middle of next week.

--- E

The Residence Committee, head-
ed by Sam Chafetz, '67, after ex-,
ploring the views of approxi-
mately thirty potential candi-
dates through their writings and
through private correspondence,
has now narrowed its choices to
two influential and outspoken
personalities, one of whom will be
selected as the University's writer-
in-residence for 1967.
The committee ihas attempted
to select a writer who, says Chaf-
etz, "will act as a catalyst for cre-
ative thinking, with the people
around him affording material
for a reaction."
In planning the three-week vis-
it, the Residence Program Com-
mittee intends to encourage dis-
cussion on a very personal basis,
allowing the writer-in-residence
and his ideas to come into direct
contact with both students, facul-
ty, and interested members of the
Ann Arbor community. Not only

will major lectures be scheduled,
but also smaller informal discus-
sion groups, teas, luncheons and
personal consultations.
This year's program will mark
the first time that the University
will have had a guest resident
writer since the years 1921-1923,
when President LeRoy Burton's
administration brought poet Rob-
ert Frost to the campus. In con-
trast to Frost's stay, the present
Residence Program has been ini-
tiated and financed completely by
student organizations, faculty de-
partments and private contribu-
tions.
The Residence Program, initi-
ated in 1964 with the aid of the
Office of Religious Affairs, had
scheduled Louis Lomax, author of
The Negro Revolt, as guest writer-
in-residence for January, 1966.
However, due to unforeseen com-
plications on the west coast; Lo-
max was forced to cancel his en-
gagement.

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REFLECTION, ACTION,
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MONDAY & FRIDAY NOON LUNCHES
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-hear excellent speakers
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A coffee house, variety
Seminars, Studies, Retreats
Open 8-1:00A.M.-Phone: 2-5189

'U' Authority Predicts Rise
;In, Residential Construction

"V

GUILD HOUSE

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UNITED CAMPUS MINISTRY
Staff:
J. Edgar Edwards, Hildegard Cummings, Ronald Tipton

While residential construction is
down this year, it will increase to
meet rising demand and exceed'
any levels previously reached, a
University of Michigan authority
predicts.
Russel A. Pointer, supervisor of
the statewide Certificate Program
in Real Estate offered by the Uni-
versity, says the forthcoming
building boom is one of at least
eight factors which support an
optimistic view of the future.
Increasing Volume
Despite the temporary effects of
the tight-money situation, he says
the real estate business will see
an ever-increasing volume of busi-
ness in the foreseeable future for
reasons which include:
1) The continuation of the
highway program on both national
and state levels will bring com-,
munities even-closer together. 1
2) Recent changes in the fed-
eral agricultural program will re-
sult in larger farms with more
land devoted to agriculture.
3) The effect of the World War
II baby boom will result in a
sharp increase in new family for-
mations and demands for hous-
ing.

4) While new residential con-
struction is down now, it will ex-
pand beyond any levels previous-
ly reached.
5) The increase in leisure time
will see a change in living habits
with a second home in resort
areas becoming "more of a neces-
sity than a luxury."
Improving Standards i
6) The typical purchaser will
continue to improve his living
standards with new and larger
homes.
7) Industry will continue to ex-
pand its plant facilities and relo-
cations will continue for some
time.
8) More and more people will
be, investing in properties as a
hedge against further inflation.
"To handle the increased busi-
ness volume, it will be necessary
to have more well-trained people
in the real estate business," he
adds.
"However, the standards for new
people in real estate will likewise
be rising in most areas. To take
advantage of the opportunities the
field offers, the person interested
in real estate as a career should
have a sound educational back-
ground."

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