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April 06, 1966 - Image 3

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1966-04-06

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WEDNESDAY, APRIL.6,1966

TNF MICAit: d N nA ii V

W EA R66IL "

PAGE THREV

I'

Lack of

Access

to China

Hampers

U.S.

Scholars

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (J) - For
American scholars, the task of
studying Communist China is a
little like watching a baseball
game through a knothole - they
can keep track of the score but
miss some of the atmosphere and
details.
Barred from mainland China,
the Americans rely on what Prof.
" John K. Fairbank calls "minimum
contact but maximum reading
matter."
Fairbank, a history professor and
director of the East Asian Re-
search Center at Harvard Univer-

sity, recently was a principal wit-
ness at the Senate Foreign Rela-
tions Committee hearings on Chi-

maintain that the lack of access
to Communist China is less of a
handicap to forming an accurate

just don't have contact with peo-
ple."
T he center reeiv es li th nint_

LIIUULI~ dev e an Le pi
na. picture of life in that nation than ed
Chin Exprtsis oten ssued. d matter available out of Con-
China Experts # is often assumed. munist China.- "more than we
Many of the witnesses were de- One researcher, Dr. Ezra Vogel, can absorb," one staffer said.
scribed as "China experts," a a sociologist, said that given a Another source of news about
phrase Fairbank rejects. choice he would rather go to events in mainland China are per-
"I prefer the term China spe- Hong Kong than mainland China. sons who have just returned from
cialist, rather than expert, Fair- Closed Society the country-tourists, business-
bank said in an interview. The Vogel explained that even if men, diplomats and scholars from
term expert, he said, would imply China permitted American schol- other nations.
the ability to draw definite con- ars within her borders "it's still Many people who return from
clusions. a closed society. The people are China express frustration at their
Fairbank and his colleagues afraid to tell you too much. You failure to get people to say any-f

thing beyond the official govern- "We don't get the other side," The old China hand often was a
ment line, Vogel said. Fairbank said. "but we know what journalist, diplomat or missionary
In their testimony at the Sen- the leaders think." who spent a lot of time in China
ate hearings, China specialists One problem of lack of access and accumulated a large store of
often stated with apparent confi- to the mainland, is that the Chi- information about the country.
dence that Chinese Communist nese Communists can limit the Highly Trained
leaders "believe" this or that. flow of printed matter and also Today's China specialists usu-
ally are highly trained in a spe-
Rigid Beliefs could cut off some of the best out- cific field aside from China.
Fairbank and Vogel said there side listening posts whenever they Among the researchers working at
is no problem for a researcher to wish, the East Asian Center are sociol-
discover what the Chinese gov- Even without access to the ogists, economists, historians and"
ernment leaders believe. Their be- mainland, the modern China spe- legal experts.
liefs are rigidly reflected in every cialist is better qualified than the The center, set up with finan-
paper and periodical published in old China hand, Fairbank claim- cial help from the Ford Founda-
China. ed. tion and Carnegie Corporation,

occupies a floor in an apartment
building near the Harvard Yard.
In the same building are the
centers for Soviet studies and Mid-
dle East studies.
In the lunchroom of the- build-
ing, the China, Soviet and Middle
East specialists get a chance to
compare notes.
Fairbank wishes he had as easy
liaison with China specialists of
other countries.
"We should have more contact
with the Russians," he said. "They
have a China problem and so do
we."

Ky

Settles

Da

Nang

SCIENTISTS INCLUDED:
Issue; Wilson Appoints New English

Planes HitN or th Rail Lin k
Compromise .......'... 11b*
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LONDON (R) - Prime Minister
Harold Wilson brought young sci-
entists and technologists into Brit-
ain's Labor government in a post-
election reshuffle that sent some!
of the old party warhorses out
to pasture.
Promotions also went to some
women. The number of women in

and the new woman In the gov-
ernment.
Meanwhile, Exchequer Chancel-
lor Callaghan is already preparing
an annual budget. Expected to be
one of Britain's harshest since
the end of the last world war, the
new budget will most likely include
higher taxes and various industrial
galvanization measures.
Wilson, who was returned to his
post last Friday in a sweeping
victory over Conservative leader

Edwtrd Heath, will now have an
approximately 100 seat majority
with which to work for the next
five years. In the past, the Wilson
government has been hampered by
the narrow majority it held in
Commons, the margin at times as
low as one seat. One Laborite
phrased the situation quite frankly
when he said, "Due to the slim
majority in Parliament, .we had
to hold our punches on important
issues like Viet Nam last time."

heads Offi
New, Conflict
Remove Troops as
Tensions Ease; Curb
New Demonstrations
SAIGON (M)-Tension ebbed at
Da Nang after overnight troop
movements had raised the spec-
ter of an armed confrontation
there between loyal and dissident
forces.
A compromise arranged at Da

i

A.# . the government rose by one to a
total of seven. Mrs. Eirene White
became the first woman minister

Since Fall

of state at the Foreign Office. T
The first team remains about
the same despite a total of 25
changes. Economics M i n i s t e r

Nang between Premier Nguyen
Cao Ky and his northern oppon-
ents appeared to have lifted the
threat of a civil war, within the
Vietnamese armed forces.
Ky had day-long talks at the
airbase with Maj. Gen. Nguyen
Van Chuan, successor to the dis-
missed Lt. Gen. Nguyen Chanh
Thi as commander of the 1st
Corps area. The premier appealed
by radio for the people to be
calm and for soldiers and civil
servants who had been demon-
strating to return to their homes.
Political Affair
As he flew back to Saigon,
Chuan told newsmen: "We are to-
gether against Communism. I see
the problems now as political and
we will solve them by politics, not
force. This is a political thing. We
must try to solve the problem the
political way."
He minimized Ky's charge Sun-
day of a Communist conspiracy
in Da Nang, saying the premier's
remarks had been misunderstood.
He said there had been no men-
tion in their discussion of Ky's
declaration that he would have
the mayor, Dr. Nguyen Van Nam,
shot as the center of the conspir-
acy.
As Chuan exulained it, both sides
made concessions:
-The 4000 Marines Ky dis-
patched -via U.S. air transports to
the Da Nang air base will remain'
on the base. They will not try to3
enter the city, a community' of
160,000 rolled by strikes, rallies
and demonstrations since the pop-
uar Thi was dismissed March 10
as the commander of the 1st]
Corps area-South Viet Nam's five
northern provinces.
Rangers Removed
-Chuan ordered elements of the
11th Ranger Battalion, which he
had summoned to oppose the Ma-
rines, to return to their station
at Hoi An south o3(Da Nang.
-Chuan has tried to use his1
influence to curb anti-Americant
expressions within the corps area.
He said there had been no anti-
American broadcasts for two days
from Hue, a former capital that isC
a Buddhist center 40 miles north
of Da Nang.
In Saigon, paratroopers and riot
police battled stone-throwing dem-
onstrators with clubs, rifle butts
and tear gas here yesterday. ;
Crisis Boiling
A Buddhist deniand for creation
of a national assembly within
three months-half a year or more
ahead of the military govern-f
ment's schedule-kept the crisist
boiling.C
Hundreds violated the 9 p.m.-5i
a.m. curfew imposed by Ky's re-'
gime in an effort to check the
anti-government, anti-American
marches that erupted into violencet
here Saturday.t

. tn .tl Wt'rnV nn1u' "I 1i a
Bombs Drop Bridge, George Brown continues as No. 2
Break Main Railroad man in the government. Chancel-
lor of the Exchequer James Cal-
Supply Route to Chmia laghan, Foreign Secretary Michael
Stewart, Arthur Bottomley, com-
SAIGON (4) - Flying high monwealth relations secretary and
through hazy weather, U.S. Air Housing Minister Richard Cross-
Force fighter-bombers have struck man remain in the inner circle.
for the first time since last No- The size of the cabinet is still
vember at North Viet Nam's main 23 members. Wilson kept up the
rail link with Communist China, a political balancing act that held
spokesman disclosed yesterday. his left wing in check during. the
Top targets in the raid Monday last Parliament. by tying down
on the Peking Hanoi railroad were some leftist leaders in government
the Phu Lang Thon bridge, only jobs.
25 miles northeast of the North Out of the government went
Vietnamese capital; and a.section Welsh Secretary James Griffiths,
of the line 27 miles farther north-; 75; Works Minister Charles Pan-
east. nell, 64, and Sir Frank Soskice,
Cloud cover prevented an accur- 64, lord privy seal and former
ate measurement of the damage, a home secretary.l
spokesman said, but bombs crater- Fred Lee, 59, the former power1
ed a switching yard in a related minister and a veteran union lead-
attack. er, was shifted to the diminishing
Yard Knocked Out job of colonial secretary.
He said the yard, where cars Lee was replaced by Richard
mak- Marsh, 38, a fire-eating Socialist
are shunted and realigned in m Ik debater whose major job will be
ing up trains, was knocked out. pdobthe mljornonize
Ground action was desultory in pilting the bill to nationalize
South Viet Nam, with only light Britain's steel industry through
and sporadic contact in a variety the House of Commons.
of operations. An Army authority? An -conomistengineer and un-

E)
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1
.
1
a
i

LANSING (P') - The Michigan
Supreme Court upheld by default
yesterday one man-one vote ap-
portionment for county boards of
supervisors.
The high court failed to reach
a five-vote majority, thus its lack
of positive action served to up-
hold the population-only ruling of
Kent County Circuit Judge Fred
Searl.
In his 42-page opinion, Justice
Theodore Souris upheld equal pop-
ulation districting for county
boards, but added, "We believe
that it is the wise exercise of
judgment to defer to the Legisla-
ture until the end of the 1967
session for corrective legislative
or constitutional amendatory ac-
tion.
The Legislature now has under
consideration a bill to apportion
supervisor boards on a population
basis. The measure has passed
the House and was sent to the
Senate, where it awaited high
court action.

Souris was joined by Chief Jus-
tice Thomas Kavanagh, Justices
Otis Smith and Paul. Adams. The
other justices wrote individual and
differing opinions.
Justice Eugene Black, however,
argued that the court should re-
tain jurisdiction in the case and
voted "against affirmance or re-
versal at this time."
Justice Harry Kelly voted to re-
verse Searl and remand the mat-
ter for a new trial, since "the
Kent County Board of Supervisors
is not apportioned in violation of
the 14th Amendment of the U.S.
Constitution."
Justice Michael O'Hara, joined
by John Dethmers, reached "the
contrary conclusion -from that
reached in Souris' opinion, be-
cause I proceed from a different
premise.
"That premise is that we have
no right, much less duty, to strike
down a constitutional provision
adopted by the citizens of a sov-
ereign state by analogous appli-
cation of a judicial construction
of the equality clause. of the 14th
Amendment to the Constitution of
the United States."
He referred to a provision 'of
the Michigan constitution that
every organized township- be rep-
resented on a county board f su-
pervisors.
In its landmark one man-one
vote decision of 1964, the U.S. Su-
preme Court "expressly limited its
mandate to state legislatures. As
of this date . at least there is re-
served to the states the right to
consider other factors in the elec-
tion of representative bodies of
local government," O'Hara added.

State Court Rules on
Vote, Apportionmenlt,.

THE GREEK TANKER, JOANNA V, shown above, defied the British warship, Plymouth, and en-
tered the Mazanbique port of Beira with 12,000 tons of oil that the British say is headed for South-
ern Rhodesia. The United Nations has banned all oil shipments to the white supremist country.
Oil Shipment to Rhodesia May
Cause UN Forces To Intervene

J
{
i
a
:
I

LONDON {P-Britain warned
Portugal yesterday that if it
breaches an international oil ban
on Rhodesia the United Nations
may use force against the Rho-
desian white minority regime. Por-
tugal indicated it would ignore
the warning.
The move by Prime Minister
Harold Wilson's government fol-
lowed the arrival of the 12,920-
ton Greek tanker Joanna V at
Beira. That port in Portuguese
Mozambique is the oil terminal
for land-locked Rhodesia.
By sundown, conflicting ac-
eounts came from Beira about the
movement of the tanker chartered
by the South African firm of A.
G. Morrison in Cape Town.
Unloading Oil
A news dispatch from Beira
quoted witnesses who said they saw
Joanna V unloading her 12,000-

ton load of crude oil into dock-
side tanks.
But in London, a Foreign Office
statement quoted British Consul
John Taylor as reporting from
Beira that the tanker still is
anchored outside the port.
Taylor added that the Beira
port captain "has stated categor-
ically the Joanna V will stay an-
chored in the stream until she
sails."
InsLisbon and London, the Brit-
ish demanded firmly that Portu-
gal act to insure that Jonna V's
oil is not pumped through the 189-
mile pipeline linking Beira with
the Umtali refinery in Rhodesia.
The pipeline, Portuguese control-
led, has decided on principle to
pump any oil to Rhodesia that
arrives in Beira.
Use of Force
To do so, the Portuguese were
told, could touch off a sequence

of events leading eventually to the
use of force by the United Na-
tions against the white regime of
Rhodesia, the Portuguese territor-
les of Mozambique and Angola and
even against the white-suprema-
cist government of Premier Hen-
drik F. Voerwoerd in South Af-
rica.
The most that Foreign Minister
Franco Nogueira of Portugal seem-;
ed ready to do was to continue]
the dialog with Britain.
Britain's Royal Navy, which is
hunting for embargo runners in
the Mozambique Channel, report-
ed a second Greek tanker seems tof
be heading toward Beira. She was
identified as the Manuela, carry-
ing a load of Persian Gulf oil
which the British suspect is des-
tined for Rhodesia.
For the Wilson government the
stakes are high in this cat-and-
mouse game at sea and on the
African shore. Wilson is deeply
committed to the peaceful over-
throw of Smith's regime.
The UN Security Council Nov.
20 backed the British embargopol-
icy with a call on all member
states to impose sanctions, includ-
ing an oil ban, on the Rhodesians.
If these sanctions fail, British
officials fear there may be ir-
resistible African-Asian pressure
for direct action by the United
Nations to settle the crisis forci-
bly in favor of the African ma-
jority in Rhodesia, who outnum-
ber whites 14 to one.

said the civil unrest which grip-;
ped urban areas had not interfer-
red at all with the military oper-
ations.
"Patrols are going out as usual:
even in the 1st Corps," he said.
The 1st Corps area, made up of
South Viet Nam's five northern'
provinces has been a focal point
of agitation against Premier Ky's
military government.
Hit Supply Lines
B-52 bombers from Guam, which
have centered considerable atten-
tion lately on Communist supply
and assembly points and the bor-
der in that area, slammed at an-
other 25 miles fest on the Whue
beach.
The Peking-Hanoi railroad had
been left unmolested since the end
of the 37-day bombing morator-
ium last Jan. 31, though there
were attacks a month ago on a
secondary line that wanders from
Kumming southeastward down the
Red River Valley to Hanoi.
The Kumming-Hanoi line was
hit again at Phu Tho, 46 miles
northwest of Hanoi, and the raid-
ers reported: "Bridge ' down and
rails cut."
Those were among 65 missions'
flown by Ai' Force and Navy
squadrons. The spokesman indi-
cated, however, there had been no
new realignment of targets in the
North.

LORMAN, Miss. (P) - A campus
security police officer fired teat
gas grenades yesterday at a band
of laughing, taunting high school
pupils who roamed the campus of
all-Negro Alcorn A & M College
demonstrating against the school's
president.
The Negro youngsters were driv-
en from the vicinity of President
J. D. Boyd's home by the tear
gas and pursuing state highway
patrolmen.
One boy was arrested, raising
the total number taken into cus-
tody in two days to 36.
Boyd was not available for com-
ment.
Campus Policies
Alcorn students, cheering the
high school youths on, emphasiz-
ed that their quarrel with Boyd

ion negotiator, Marsnf ormerly was
a junior minister at the Ministry
of Labor. Marsh's old job went to
Shirley Williams, 35, a journalist

Student Demonstration.
Met by- Tear Gas, Police

was over campus policies, not civil
rights.
Negro leader Charles Evers said
the goal was to oust Boyd.
"This is a fight between Ne-
groes," he said in a midday pep
talk to his followers just outside
the college gate. "And you white
folks ought to stay out of it,"
Evers added.
"J. D. Boyd has got to go," Evers
said. "We're going to get him
sooner or later. He's only con-
cerned with pleasing the white
folks."
Incompetent
"This is my alma mater," Evers
said. "I went to school here four
years, and right now I couldn't
pass a sixth grade examination."
In talking to newsmen, college
students complained about the

Read and
Use Daly,
Classified

Ads.

food, the infirmary, the
system and the teachers.

grading

I

WOrld News Roundup

By The Associated Press
LAKELAND-Officials yesterday
pinned a $29.4-million price tag on
tornadoes that killed 10 persons,
of dwellings in their cross-Florida
injured 300 and tore up hundreds
path.
CAPE KENNEDY-The fifth at-
tempt to launch an Orbiting As-
tronomical Observatory was failed
at the last moment yesterday
when an automatic system sensed
trouble and ordered the engines of
the booster rocket to shut down
after they ignited.
The satellite carries 10 tele-
scopes designed to give man his
first clear look at the stars from
above the atmosphere.
* * *
KALAMAZOO .- Gov. George

Romney questioned Monday night
whether the United States has a
valid reason to fight in Viet Nam.
"The only reason the United
States should be fighting the war
there is if the Vietnamese people
want it," Romney told a group of
Kalamazoo Young Republicans.
"And there is some reason to
believe they don't," he said.
Romney did not expand on his
statement, but he touched on la-
bor unions and the nation's econ-
omy:
*

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(AMP
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;1 HOLY WEEK
NOON DISCUSSION
APRIL 4-7
WED: The Meaning of RESURRECTION
DR. WALLACE TEED, Practicing Physician
-... ., . . ..-... ., . *

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