THE MICHIGAN DAILY
U.S., Allies BREAKDOWN RESOLVED:
Hit French Accord Set in U.S.-Soviet
on NATO Cultural Exchange Pact
Put 20 Divisions into Asia
For Gen. Thi
For Premier Ky
DA NANG (M)--Lt. Gen. Nguyen
Chanh Thi grinned broadly at a
Da Nang rally yesterday while his
supporters denounced the Saigon
government that stripped him of
It was an enigmatic grin, for
the' deposed, leader has been call-
ing publicly for harmony through-
out a tour of his old command,
South Viet Nam's 1st Corps area.
Expressing appreciation for the
display of love for him, the French
trained general said: "I promise
the people and I promise the sol-
diers that I will always be at your
side to continue the revolution.
Don't let yourselves be exploited
by the Communists."
More than 5000 persons jammed
a small downtown park of Da
Nang to hear Thi speak from a
table top. Shops closed and work
-slackened for this latest in a se-
ries of demonstrations reflecting a
discontent that plagues the coun-
Thi raised both arms in sa-
lute to the crowd as speakers de-
manded his reinstatement. He has
proclaimed undiminished friend-
ship for Premier Ky, however, and
gave no indication in his speech
that he was prepared to buck the
Among the spectators were hun-
dreds of soldiers Thi led until he
was ousted March 10 as the corps
commander and as a member of
Premier Nguyen Cao Ky's mili-
tary government. They marched
in with banners and placards at-
Special targets of the crowd
were Lt. Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu,
the chief of state, and Lt. Gen.
Nguyen Huu Co, defense minister
and deputy premier.
A middle-aged lieutenant told
the gathering that Saigon generals
are corrupt and that the people
have lost confidence in Ky's re-
gime. He declared a civilian gov-
ernment should replace the junta.
Protest parades, strikes and ral-
lies have flared at various points
in the corps area since Thi's dis-
* missal. Thi called on the people
to be calm, to think of the nation
rather than of individuals.
Pact's Importance, WASHINGTON (M)--The United
Alliance's Continuity States informed the Soviet Union
last night that it 'is ready to sign
WASHINGTON (P) - France's a U.S.-Soviet cultural exchange
14 Atlantic allies publicly and agreement-a signing d e 1 a y e d
unanimously took issue yesterday since Wednesday without official
with President Charles de Gaulle's explanation.
move to dismantle the North At- A State Department spokesman
lantic Treaty Organization. said last night, "We are prepared
"The North Atlantic Treaty and, to sign whenever and wherever it
the organization established under is mutually convenient."
it are both essential to the secur- .Announcements from the White
iyof our gantris," the 14 said. Anucmnsfo h ht
"ty House and State Department fail-
"Weare convinced that this or-ed yesterday to clear up the mys-
ganization is essential and will dyseaytclruphem-
continue." ,tery of what happened to a new
U.S.-Soviet cultural e x c h a n g e
It was reported wrapped up and
ready for signing last Wednesday
and then was left unsigned.
According to information among
diplomats, the arrangements to
sign the document first ran into
difficulty Wednesday morning
from the Soviet side on " a point
It was reported that the Rus-
sians raised some question about
r the fact that Romanovsky, who
CIVILIAN TRAGEDY, an integral part of the Viet Nam war is
demonstrated by a Vietnamese boy comforting his mother after
an air raid on her South Viet Nam village.
of Mississippi Rit
Bla -med on Barnett
WASHINGTON (R) - United The manifesto was issued simul-
States experts believe that Red taneously at the White House and
China could put some 20 divisions, at the other 13 capitals as a re-
totaling about 400,000 men, into affirmation of faith in the present
Southeast Asia on a wide front setup in the face of de Gaulle's
from the Vietnamese coast to challenge.
Burma. . Nowhere did the statement men-
If the Chinese should choose tion de Gaulle or France by name.
such a course, U.S. authorities But it was clearly directed against
would be confronted immediately1 the French position and; allied of-
with a decision on whether to use ficials openly hoped to muster pub-
nuclear weapons against them. lic support.
!Joining the United States were
Indications are that the use of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Wesi
nuclear weapons would be held Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy.
back at least until the enemy's Luxembourg, The Netherlands.
objectives and intentions were Norway, Portugal, Turkey 'and
diagnosed. Great Britain.
Atomic Weapons Infringed Sovereignty
Enemy troops would be a suit- While not objecting to the alli-
able target for nuclear weapons ance, formed in 1949 under the
only if they appeared in mass, threat of possible Soviet aggres-
which would not necessarily be sion against Europe, de Gaulle
the case. says the integrated NATO military
There is a widely held belief defense system formed under the
that atomic weapons would be the treaty is no longer needed. He says
only answer to dealing with hordes it infringes on national sovereign-
of Chinese troops. ty, and France will have no part
IBut top military authorities do of it.
not go all the way with this view, The French chief has sent no-
believing that heavy U.S. airpower tice to the other allies that France'
using conventional explosives will pull her forces out of NATO
would be an effective defense-and and wants NATO military head-
a much lessrisky one from the quarters, now in the Paris area.'
political standpoint. and, NATO bases removed from
her soil or placed under French
OXFORD, Miss. (41) - Sen. Rob-
ert F. Kennedy told University of
Mississippi students yesterday that
former Gov. Ross Barnett must
take full responsibility for the 1962
university desegregation riot.
In a question-and-answer ses-
sion after his speech, Kennedy dis-
cussed in detail the uproar of
1962 after a federal court ordered
the University to admit a Negro
student, James H. Meredith.
The riot;in which two men were
killed and hundreds injured, erupt-
ed on a Sunday at dusk, right after,
the late President John F. Kenne-
dy made a talk to the nation on
the university situation.
"It was the governor who sug-
gested that we bring Meredith to
the campus on Sunday," said Ken-
nedy, who was U.S. attorney gen-
eral at the time.
"That decision was not made by
the President or me, but by Gov.
Ross Barnett. He wanted 300 or
400 marshals for a show of force
but said -he would be responsible
for law and order."
Asked what the Department of
Justice might have done to head
Suliarto Names Anti
off violence, Kennedy said: "We
might have sent in troops earlier
but we had taken Gov. Barnett
at his word that he would keep law
and order. I was reluctant to send
in troops. The President was re-
luctant and Qov. Barnett said it
"The basic question was wheth-
er the orders of the courts of the
United States were going to be
obeyed," Kennedy added. "I don't
believe that there is anyone here
who would do other than what we
Over 20,000 troops were poured
into Oxford after the riot to en-
force the court's order. Meredith
went on to become the school's
first Negro graduate. There are 14
Negroes enrolled now.
The senator said that, prior to
Meredith's arrival, he had 25 long-
distance telephone conversations
with Barnett and the President
spoke with Barnett two or three
The New York Democrat, re-
garded as a political demon by
some militant segregationist orga-
nizations in Mississippi, was greet-
ed by a standing ovation when he
entered the Campus Coliseum.
In his speech, Kennedy told the
students: "Racial injustice and
poverty, ignorance and hope for
world peace are to be found in the
streets of New York and Chicago
and Los Angeles as well as in the
towns and farm lands of Missis-
"You have no problems that the
nation does not have," he added.
"You share no hope that is not
shared by your fellow 'students
and young people across the coun-
try. You carry no burden that
they, too, do not.
SINGAPORE (R)-Lt. Gen. Su-
harto appointed the nucleus of a
strong anti-Communist Indonesian
cabinet yesterday in a move that
seemed to leave President Sukarno
shorn of power.
Suharto, the army chief and
Indonesian strong man, earlier in
the day had detained Deputy Pre-
mier Subandrio and 14 other pro-
Communist cabinet ministers, all
favorites of Sukarno
Informants in Singapore said
Sukarno had objected to the com-
position of Suharto's new cabinet
and insisted on keeping Suban-
drio and Saleh. Earlier this week,
Sukarno went on the radio to com-
plain he was being pressured on
cabinet appointments. He said he
had the sole right to make them
under the constitution.
Suharto named one of Indone-
sia's most respected men, Hamen-
gku Buwono, sultan of Jogjakarta,
as first deputy premier. In place
of Subandrio, Sukarno's trusted
pro-Peking lieutenant, Jakarta ra-
A leader in the fight for inde-
pendence from the Dutch, Buwo-
no thus appears to be the most
powerful civilian in the Indonesian
hierarchy. Sukarno fired Buwono
as defense minister in 1955.
Suharto named another anti-
Communist, former Trade Minis-
ter Adam Malik, as second deputy
premier. Malik was given Suban-
drio's second position of foreign
Ruslan Abdul Gani, a leader in
the fight against the Dutch who
formerly was minister coordina-
tor, replaced Chaerul Saleh as
third deputy premier. Saleh was
another on whom Sukarno relied
before he was whisked off to de-
The official government radio
said Suharto appointed 17 new
cabinet ministers in all. The cab-
inet has 102 members.
Jakarta radio said all appoint-
ments were temporary' and the ac-
tion was taken on orders of Su-
karno. But it said Sukarno was
not at a meeting of the generals
at his Jakarta palace. The radio
said Sukarno had ordered military
detention of Subandrio and the
others, but the order was consid-
ered in Singapore to be Suharto's.
Singapore sources reported Sub-
andrio and the other 14 are being
held in the Jakarta garrison's
.guardhouse. They said Subandrio
had not been dismissed from the
cabinet but this was only a mat-
ter of time.
Diplomatic quarters in Singa-
pore said Sukarno, 64, had lost
the last round of his struggle for
power with the military. He had
resisted army demands that he fire
Subandrio and the others. .
One source even went so far as
to say "Sukarno is finished" but
the general belief was that the
president still will be used as a
would sign for them, has the
status of a minister while the U.S.
signer, Asst. Secretary of State
John M. Leedy, has a slightly
lower -rank, in the Soviet view.
But acording to this version, the
matter was being cleared up when
word reportedly reached the U.S.
negotiating team that the Presi-
dent felt further negotiation would
Johnson was represented as be-
ing dissatisfied with the lack of a
provision to guarantee fulfillment
of the agreement.
The U.S.-Soviet cultural ex-
change began eight years ago.
Each agreement has run for two
years and the one now under ne-
gotiation is foK: 1966 and 1967.
Like the others, it provides for a
wide range of student, teacher,
technical and artistic exchanges
on a one-for-one equation.
Under the latest agreement,
which expired Dec. 31, the United
States in the artistic and enter-
tainment category accepted five
presentations offered by Moscow
whereas the Soviet Union accepted
only four offered by Washington.
Last November, the U.S. Em-
bassy delivered a note to the So-
viet Foreign Ministry deploring
Soviet rejection of the musical and
accusing the Soviet Union of
jeopardizing further exchange
Information circulating among
diplomats indicates that President
Johnson does not want a repetition
of Soviet rejections of U.S. cul-
tural projects to be carried out in
the Soviet Union under the agree-
So far as could be determined,
this is the most serious sticking
point in the unfinished negotia-
The new agreement will have to
include an understanding that if
one party to the pact fails to
maintain the one-for-one ratio of
exchanges, the other party would
be free to curtail its own accept-
ance of offerings.
r actior in 1Lng
A major factor in U.S. military
thinking on how, to deal with any
mass invasion by Communist
Chinese and North Vietnamese
divisions is the ability of the
enemy to supply those forces for
Unlike U.S. forces, the Chinese
divisions are mostly foot infantry
without much mechanization or
heavy artillery and tanks.
There is a view that Chinese
ground forces, while huge, are so
poorly supplied with transport and
other support that they could not
operate very far from their bor-
ders for very long.
Four or Five Divisions
Communist China and North
Viet Nam together could send four
or five divisions into South Viet
Nam and sustain them in combat.
This is the current intelligence
estimate accepted by the Joint
Chiefs of Staff.
So far, there is no evidence of
any intention by Red China or
North Viet Nam to change the
character of the Viet Nam war
in this fashion. But U.S. military
chiefs take such a possibility into
account in their planning.
A force of four to five divisions
would total about 80,000 to 100,000
men, including supporting ele-
De Gaulle could set adeadline
at any time for withdrawal of
NATO forces from France but he
has not done so. If he wishes to
withdraw entirely from the alli-
ance he can serve notice in Au-
gust 1968, and make his with-
drawal effective a year later onl
the treaty's 20th anniversary.
The 14 nations have sent re-
plies through diplomatic channels
and are consulting about what to
do next, including potentially car-
rying on the integrated NATOI
machinery through facilities out-
The U.S. view i's that a fur-
ther communication should be
awaited from Paris, since de Gaulle
so far has stated only intent rath-
er than detail on how he expects
the NATO facilities to be removed.
President Johnson is expected to
send a further message to de
Gaulle next week. Over the past
two days Johnson has met with
top advisoi's on the NATO issue.
including the U.S. ambassador to
France, Charles E. Bohlen.
Bohlen plans to return to Paris
this weekend. Johnson's reply to
de Gaulle would be sent through
diplomatic channels later rather
han being carried personally by
Bohlen on his reurn trip, it was
MALE psychological subjects
Call Dr. Norman's office
764-6337 or come to
7629 Haven Hall
World News Roundup
By The Associated Press night to help scientists determine
VATICAN CITY-Pope Paul VI why their Gemini 8 space flight
eased yesterday some of the an- was forced to end prematurely.
cient Vatican restrictions on mar- TeGmii8darsen h
riages between Roman Catholics dain isolation on the eighth floor
and persons of other faiths. of Trippler Army Hospital near
He wiped out a rule that had Honolulu, sleeping and undergo-
obliged the non-Catholic partner ing debriefing and physical check-
in an interfaith marriage to make ups.
*. *i *
a signed promise that children of PALOMARES BEACH, Spain -
the union would be raised as Cath- One source connected with the re-
He also lifted excommunication covery of the wayward American
of Catholics who have meucor H-bomb said yesterday the device
wil arotsideohe Curh orwas located just as officials were
and provided for common prayem ryntodcehwtoelte
and the presence of non-Catholic world it might never be found.
clergy at mixed marriages per- "The find couldn't have come
formed in Catholic churches. at a better time," this official
* ** source commented. "We were try-
HONOLULU-Astronauts Neil A ing to decide just how to tell the
Armstrong and David R. Scott, world the H-bomb was still miss-
fresh after rest in Hawaii, fly to ing and possibly would stay that
Cape Kennedy, Fla., on Friday way."
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