SATURDAY, FEBRUARY '19, 1966
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 19, 1966 THE MICHIGAN DAHA PAGE THREU
By The Associated Press
Observers with long experience
in probing Communist affairs ap-
pear yesterday to harbor deep
suspicion that Red China is on
the verge of what they would call
"adventurist' acts" that could en-
danger the peace of Asia and the
Yugoslav commentators, who
know how to read the Soviets and
Chinese, reach the conclusion
from Peking predictions that a
storm soon will break across the
underdeveloped world a g a i n s t,
"American imperialism" and, by
implication, against the Soviet
Union as well.
They detect in Red China's
pronouncements a note of des-
peration, a conviction that there
is a plot afoot between the Ameri-
cans and Soviets to "contain" the
Apparently, a basic Peking pol-
icy aim has been to produce a
situation in which the USSR
would be forced into a clash with
the United States. By all indica-
tions, Moscow has been parrying
Peking policy has been badly
hurt over the past year by sharp
setbacks. Careful reading of its
propaganda about Viet Nam could
support an interpretation that
Peking wants no settlement there
at all-not even on Communist
North Viet Nam's terms.
There are hints of a gradual
weakening of Chinese influence in
Hanoi, another development which
could move Peking to gamble.
A split in the Lao Dong Com-
munist politburo in North Viet
Nam was illuminated in a long
article by politburo member Le
Duc Tho in the Hanoi newspaper
Nhan Dan and Hoc Tap.
comrades have developed erron-
eous thoughts and views. Concern-
ing the combat task, they have
made an incorrect assessment of
enemy and us and of enemy ruses.
the balance of power between the
Now they entertain subjectivism
and pacifism, slacken their vigi-
lance and fail to get ideologically
ready for combat. Now they see
only difficulties and do not see
opportunities; display pessimism,
perplexity and a reluctance to
protracted resistance; fail to re-
alize clearly the deceptive peace
negotiation plot of the enemy, and
This must mean that some au-
thorities in North Viet Nam are
interested in peace talks and that
some are heavily influenced by the
Soviets. "Relying on outside aid"
is a phrase Peking uses to down-
grade the value of Soviet help.
The article deplored "a num-
ber of comrades who still fear
sacrifices and hardships, shrink
from difficulties and lack an
exemplary vanguard spirit in pro-
duction and combat."
That suggests, a growing wear-
iness with the war in some quar-
ters in Hanoi. North Viet Nam's
economy never was very strong,
and despite the aid of Communist
countries, which is considerable,
the conflict interferes with indus-
trial and agricultural development.
Still echoing the Chinese line,
the article-as have others since
then in Hanoi's press-stressed
the importance of the Viet Nam
struggle to "the revolutionary
movement among world people."
If the Chinese-oriented Commun-
its cannot demonstrate in Viet
Nam that "people's war" pays off,
the revolutionary movement else-
where in the world is likely to suf-
fer, this suggests.
Le Duc Tho, a propagandist who
has headed his party's training
school and been a revolutionist
since his teen-age days, is tabbed
as pro-Chinese. At the moment,
it seems likely that the pro-
Chinese element in Hanoi's polit-
buro is in the majority. But there
are hints that the split is so close
to even that it would not take
much to tip the scales.
The prospect of such a develop-
ment conceivably could motivate
Red China to some sort of pre-
ventive action. East European
Communists, who are familiar
with the ins and outs of party
struggles, evidently detect all this
and worry about the potentialities.
Between the lines of their com-
ments there seems to be evidence
of worry that escalation of the
war could come from the Chinese
side, rather than the American.
The resulting complex and con-
fused situation could then involve
European and Soviet communism
in developments they evidently
had hoped to avoid-possibly even
the showdown, in the style of the
Cuban missile crisis-for which
Red Chinese policy appears to
have been working all along.
He wrote: "A small number of rely on outside aid."
NLF Organized in Classic
Communist Take-Over Form
WASHINGTON () - Secretary
of State Dean Rusk told a worried
Congress yesterday if there is
doubt about the U.S. position in
Viet Nam, let the House and
Senate vote-"Let us find out."
But first, he said, let every
member think long and deeply
about the 'real path to peace.
President Johnson was silent on.
the suggestion Rusk put before the
Senate Foreign Relations Commit-
tee and a radio-television audience
that spanned the nation.
For nearly six hours, Rusk
methodically outlined and defend- TV he was going to shoot the sec-
ed Johnson's policy in the Viet- retary of state.
namese war. Rusk was guarded by a heavy
police force when he left the old
"He has tried to act with the Senate Office Building, across the
.firmness necessary to organize the street from the Capitol. His auto-
peace, but. to act also with the mobile was preceded and followed
prudence which is necessary to by security cars.
prevent events from moving out "There are moments," Rusk told
of control," Rusk said. "Every the committee, "when toughness is
avenue for a peaceful settlement essential for peace."
will be explored." Limited Objective
While Rusk testified, an anony- There are 205,000 U.S. fighting
mous telephone caller told a Bal- men in South Viet Nam, but Rusk
timore television station, WMAR- said the United States is not press-
ing for a "quick military solution
regardless of cost.
"We have a most limited ob-
jective here in terms of denying
to the other side its attempt to
seize South Viet Nam by force,"
he said. "Our commitment is such
that they cannot be permitted to
take South Viet Nam by force.
"What that means no one can
surely say," the secretary said.
"We hope that it will mean that
they come to the conference table
and make peace."
Committee Chairman J. W. Ful-
bright (D-Ark) said the United
States should strive for a com-
promise settlement. He said the
Vietnamese conflict could trigger!
And he said there must be
something wrong with U.S. di-
plomacy if it cannot get the
Communists to talk about a com-,
"I would hope that before the .
votes are taken that members of
the Congress would go into a quiet
corner and think very long and
deeply about what we've been
through in the last three decades,"
Rusk said, "and on what basis
we can build a peace-and then
decide which vote is a vote for war
and which vote is a vote for
Sen. Wayne Morse (D-Ore), a
critic of the Johnson policy, has
proposed that the Senate repeal
the Aug. 10, 1964, resolution with'
which Congress authorized any
measure including armed force to
bar Communist aggression in
South Viet Nam.
Morse said he will seek a vote
on his proposal next week.
While the committee heard
Rusk's testimony, the Senate was
considering a bill that would
authorize another $4.8 billion to
pay for the Vietnamese war.
That, too, loomed as a test of
"Now we have pleadings filed on
both sides," Morse had said after
Rusk outlined the administration
case. "There must be a political
settlement in the United States."
It was hours later that Rusk
talked of a vote.
"How do we organize a peace?"
he asked the committee. "Do we
do it by saying to those who
would like to commit aggression,
no, it won't work?"
That, Rusk said, would be his
course. "If you
we don't want
Nam, that is a
tell the other side
trouble, take Viet
step toward war,"
By The Associated Press
Evidence at hand, and past ex-
perience, indicate that if the Unit-
ed States dealt with the Viet
Cong's political front (NLF), it
would be negotiating with what
amounts to a shadow government
prepared to take over in South
The Mat-Tran Dan-Toc Gaiai-
phong is organized as if it were
the government of a sovereign na-
tion with president, cabinet min-
isters, diplomatic representatives
abroad and even regular army and
Harm vs. Interests
Rusk already had said repeal of
the resolution, the step Morse
seeks, would harm U.S. interests.
He said it would bring about "a
major change in the world situa-
Viet Nam got it
about 1957. Ngo
cans - had acco
some U.S. sources
miracle by stampi
armed sects and p
try together. The
gime grew suspici
position of whatev
French expert on'
in 1962 that Diem
directly into Coi
Calm had been
South Viet Nam,1
to stage wide-sp
ize in earnest in
s biggest boost 1959 the new phase of the war in
Dinh Diem- Viet Nam began, and in 1960 the
by the Ameri- NFLSV was formed.
mplished what The Front and Hanoi insist
described as a that South Viet Nam's affairs
ng out dissident must be settled "in accordance
ulling the coun- with the program" of the Front,
n the Diem re- which claims a decisive voice as
ious of any op- the South's "only genuine repre-
er political color. sentative."
1egime That program was written at the
ppe Devillers, a time the Front was formed, prob-
Viet Nam, wrote ably in September 1960., Its exist-
's policies played ence was announced in December
mmunist hands. 1960.
established in The program calls for unity
but Diem began against the foreigner, in this case
read manhunts, "the colonial regime of American
ts, Liberals, So- imperialism." It pledges a liberal,
s of sects and democratic regime. It promises an
nists alike with independent economy, improved
tion, Devillers living standards, land reform and
reduced land rent, distribution of
began to organ- land to peasants who work it and
the villages. In displacement of all landlords.
tion." Classic Communist Form
"To our disadvantage?" asked A lawyer, Nguyen Huu Tho, 55,
Sen. Karl E. Mundt (R-SD). is chairman of the Front's Central
"To our disadvantage," said Committee Presidium, part of the
Rusk. classic form of Communist or-
Rusk said one-sided worry about ganization.
a widening conflict could lead the Tho made it clear this week
Communists to expand the Asian that the front is set up along
struggle. . lines of a government which is
"If only one side worries about prepared to take over. It has, he
escalation," Rusk told the com- reported, its own "main force
mittee, "then you can have a big army" in addition to regional
war." armed units, militia and guerrilla
Rusk said U.S. policy-guided by The front has set up "people's
the commitments of the Southeast self-administration committees"
Asia treaty has been steady and in areas held by the Viet Cong.
firm, but restrained as well. These form the basis for provin-
But he avoided saying just what cial and village-level government.
the United States would do to meet
future Communist moves.
"What is the extent of our com-
mitment in South Viet Nam,"
asked Sen. George D. Aiken (R-
Vt), "and is there any point be-
yond which we would not go in
meeting that commitment?"
Rusk: "The commitment is con-
tained in the language of the
Southeast Asian treaty."
Aiken: "That doesn't give any
Rusk: "I'm not going to say
that this country has accepted in
advance a certain point beyond
which it will not go in meeting its
He said that could lead to mis-
understandings and Communist
miscalculation of U.S. intent.
But Rusk stressed the current
boundaries of conflict. "Some peo-
ple are concerned about a great
land war in Asia," he said. "I
would like to comment that this
is not the shape of that conflict at
the present time."
Like Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor,
who testified Thursday, Rusk said
Communist recognition of U.S.
determination is a key factor in a
quest for peace in Viet Nam.
"They must not count upon di-
visions among us to give them
what they want in Viet Nam," he
The Front also claims to have dis-
tributed to peasants in those areas
about four million acres of rice-
fields and other lands.
The Front encompasses, at least
nominally, all manner of groups:
the People's Revolutionary party,
the Socialists, the "South Viet
Nam Democratic party," the na-
tional minorities, the Buddhists,
the Hoa Hoa and Cao Dai religious
sects. One member of the Central
Committee, Joseph Maria Ho Hue
Bang, is described in propaganda
as a "son of devout and patriotic
Catholics." Also represented are
"liberation associations" of wom-
en, peasants, youth and others
whose organizations are linked
with Communist-controlled fed-
The Front claims legitimacy on
grounds that it was organized in
South Viet Nam's Cochin China.
Its propaganda does not say when
or exactly where. But the evidence
points to at least inspiration from
Communist North Viet Nam.
The manner of organization re-
calls classic lines devised by Com-
munists for forces whose ultimate
purpose is to envelop a nation.
Guerrilla and underground organ-
izations have been set up else-
where the same way for years.
Authorative witnesses insist that
the Communist movement in South
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SEN. J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and Sec-
retary of State Dean Rusk pass each other prior to yesterday's committee hearings on the war in
.orld News .o. ndup
By The Associated Press
DETROIT - The United Auto
Workers Union said yesterday it
,has asked American Motors Corp.
to reduce its work force "to a real-
istic number," rather than shut
down all auto assemblies as it
plans from Monday to March 7.
American Motors, only U.S.
automaker to show a decline in
sales last year, previously shut
down for a period this year"'opera-
tions in its automtoive plants at
Milwaukee and Kenosha, Wis.
MIAMI BEACH, Fla. - Some
AFL-CIO officials, saying publicly
for the first time what many have
been thinking privately, accused
President Johnson yesterday of
ignoring his promises to organized
"If President Johnson had put
as much emphasis on the repealpof
14B as he did on his wife's beau-
tification bill, we would have got-
ten repeal," said Executive Secre-
tary Peter McGavin of the AFL-
CIO Maritime Trades Department.
McGavin and several other un-
ion officials said Johnson was to
blame for the Senate's failure to
break a Republican filibuster that
buried the repeal bill. The bill
would have wiped out laws in 19
states that forbid union shop con-
tracts under which all employes
must join the union.
* s s .
NEW YORK - United States
Steel Corp., the No. 1 producer,
boosted the price of boiler plate
$4 a ton yesterday.
A company spokesman said the
increase covers about one-tenth of
one per cent of all steel sales.
There was no immediate public
reaction from Washington. How-
ever, President Johnson's Council
of Economic Advisers was reported
to have started staff-level exam-
ination of the situation.
MIAMI BEACH, Fla. - Ameri-
can maritime unions said yester-
day they will boycott all foreign
ships dealing with North Viet Nam
unless President Johnson per-
suades U.S. allies and other non-
Communist nations to stop deal-
ing with the enemy.
PAUL BUNYAN BALL
$2.50 per couple Tickets at the Door
The University of Michigan ,
CAREERS IN WORLD
Discuss the Opportunities with Us!
MR. JOHN SIMONS, Executive Director WUS:
Non-Government Service Organizations
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PROF. GEORGE EDER, Bus. Ad.:
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MISS MILDRED WEBBER, Appts. Bureau:
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