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January 25, 1966 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1966-01-25

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Seventy" Sixth Year
EDITE AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVrRSiTY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF ST LDFNT PUBLICATIONS

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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, JANUARY 25, 1966 NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT CARNEY

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THE RELEASE last week of a Ford
Foundation report on the trimester
operations of the University of Pitts-
burgh requires close study by Univer-
sity officials here-particularly the fi-
nancial problems which are becoming
increasingly serious as large universities
convert to year-round operation and
place increasing emphasis on graduate
education.
Pittsburgh officials revealed a $19.5
million deficit last year, thus indicating
the severe financial crisis which had been
brought about by a number of factors.
The introduction of the trimester sys-
tem was the predominant factor caus-
ing the deficit, according to the report.
The majority of the Pittsburgh faculty
--almost three-quarters-had been ap-
pointed on a 12-month basis. However,
only 25 per cent of the university's full-
time undergraduate students were at-
tending the spring-summer trimester.
More graduate students attended during
the summer term, but still only about 40
per cent o'f the total student enrollment
took part in the third trimester. Thus,
there was a vast gap in the bill for fac-
ulty salaries and the tuition from student
enrollment. However, the causes for the
financial crisis also derives from admin-
istrative mismanagement-a reserve fund
should have been set up to cover the
changeover from the traditional semes-
ter operation to the trimester system.
Such a major revision in a university
operation often requires up to five years
before its success or failure can be ade-
quately measured. Here at the University,
for example, it is hoped and expected
that there will be a steady increase in
summer enrollment as the number of in-
termediate and advanced courses offered
for undergraduates increases.
The build-up of Pittsburgh's graduate
program was undertaken without ade-
quate financial backing. While the num-
ber of graduate students increased by
40 per cent between 1960 and 1965, the
total undergraduate enrollment declined
slightly. The administration evidently
failed to take account of the increased
costs of educating a graduate as com-
pared to an undergraduate student.

PITTSBURGH DEVELOPED an adminis-
trative system which was top-heavy
with manpower and therefore extremtely
costly. Chancellor Edward Litchfield
headed a group of eight vice-chancellors
(analagous to the University's vice-presi-
dents for academic affairs, student af-
fairs, business and finance, etc.), who
in turn headed an even larger group of
deans in charge of various schools and
colleges. Thus, Pittsburgh was overload-
ing its top echelons of administrators at
an unnecessary cost, since an overly large
supply of bureaucratic administration at
the top can create waste through duplica-
tion and loss of morale combined with
unmanageable tons of superfluous paper-
work.
The University operates a similar ad-
ministrative system, although it is clear
that we are making better use of their
specialized knowledge and talents. Never-
theless, there is too often duplication and
hazy lines of demarcation between the
functions of the Office of Academic Af-
fairs, the Office of Student Affairs and,
in some cases, the Office of Business
and Finance.
Pittsburgh's problems should be close-
ly evaluated by University administra-
tors, for that institution (with a total
enrollment of 17,000) is one of the few
universities of major size which have con-
verted to a trimester operation almost
identical to ours. Last summer's low stu-
dent enrollment (partly due to the lack
of high-level courses and faculty mem-
bers to teach ther) should be carefully
evaluated for possible danger signals
along the lines of the problems encount-
ered by Pittsburgh.
F URTHERMORE, the unfortunate ef.-
fects of the trimester system are not
only financial ones. Decline in student
participation which has afflicted many
formerly popular activities and organiza-
tions (many of which offer a valuable
educational experience in themselves) in
addition to the now traditional end-of-
the-trimester academic crush should
prompt the University to undertake an-
other systematic review of the trimester
system, taking into account the views of
both students and faculty.
-CLARENCE FANTO

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4

Negro Education-Little Opportunity

By RITA DERSHOWITZ
Collegiate Press Service
(Second of Two Parts)
DESEGREGATION of higher
education began in theSouth
long before the 1954 Supreme
Court decision, although it re-
ceived its major impetus at that
time. As of the 1964-65 school
year, however, only about 17 per
cent of Negro college students in
the 11 southern states were going
to school in previously all-white
colleges and universities, Negro
colleges continue to provide the
only opportunity for higher edu-
cation for the great majority of
Negro students.
Negroes are not entering de-
segregated white colleges for sev-
eral reasons, but one of the major
reasons lies in the Negro college
itself. Maintaining a tenuous bal-
ance between the predominately
white world of state-supported
higher education and the Negro
community they serve, Negro col-
lege administrators have been pri-
marily a conservative force within
the civil rights movement.
Last April Alabama State Col-
lege, an all-Negro school in Mont-

gomery, had 11 students arrested
for sitting in at the office of the
president. The students were at-
tempting topresent President Levi
Watkins with a list of grievances,
which included the charge that
students were being disciplined
for their participation in civil
rights activities.nIt was reported
that nine students had been sus-
pended by a faculty-administra-
tion disciplinary board for "willfull
disobedience" and "insubordina-
tion" in connection with civil
rights activities.
JUST RECENTLY, about 250
students at Southern University
in Baton Rouge, La., which with
6,700 students is the second largest
Negro University in the country,
kept up a week of sitins, rallies
and demonstrations on the cam-
pus. The president of Southern,
Felton Clark, dismissed the dem-
onstrators as malcontents.
"We couldn't understand what
they wanted," Clark said, "They
had a vague set of unrealistic de-
mands, ranging from keeping the
library open all night to lowering
the student fees."
Clark attempted to discredit the

motives of the demonstrators.
"One of the leaders was from the
Berkeley's crowd-you know, they
spend summers in Berkeley and
get indoctrinated." The student
Clark apparently referred to was
Herman Carter, who had acted' as
the campus host during a visit by
a representative of Berkeley's Free
Speech Movement last year. Per-
haps philosophically close to the
aims of the FSM, Carter had never
been actually connected to "the
Berkeley crowd."
In fact, the demonstrators at
Southern had a very long and spe-
cefic set of grievances and de-
mands, the first of which was that
"President Clark take a stand on
segregation." The other demands
ranged from academic reforms-
"the personal views of professors
should have no bearing on the
maintenance of his position at the
University"-to disciplinary pro-
cedures-"decisions in this area
should not be left to the sole
discretion of the deans."
AT ARKANSAS A, M, & N, with
2,200 students, President Lawrence"
Davis maintains a strong hand
over his students. Called familiar-

What's New At Tree U'

ly. and to his face, as "Prexy,"
Davis seems to be universally re-
spected as well as submitted to.
"There might be some hot heads
on campus, but once Prexy talks
to them, they do what he wants,"
one student said affectionately of
the president.
At various times in the past
Arkansas A, M, & N has been
urged to protest by civil rights
leaders from outside the college.
Two years ago, Dick Gregory and
some Student Nonviolent Coordi-
nating Committee workers came to
Pine Bluff and called students to
march on a local restaurant where
Negroes had been beaten for try-
ing to enter. President Davis called
a meeting of the entire student
body, warning them of the pos-
sible "consequences" if any of
them did march on the town.
"He told us, 'We don't need that
sort of thing, we don't need the
legislature on us," said Kenneth
Johnson, a senior pre-med stu-
dent whose parents both teach at
the college.
Davis also reportedly told the
students that if all of them were
to march it might mean some-
thing, but since it would be only
a small group it would accomplish
nothing. In the end, only a small
handful of students marched.
THE THREAT from state legis-
lature seems to be a real one. At
one point in Arkansas A, M, & N's
history the legislature did cut the
school's appropriations, allegedly
for the activist speakers on cam-
pus, though no one agrees on just
how much was cut.
In at least' one state, Louisiana,
the legislature is taking an active
role for expansion of the state's
Negro colleges. As a result of state
appropriations,yboth Louisiana
State University and Southern
University are planning to open
branch campuses in the same
cities.
Asked if this would not perpetu-
ate the dual and unequal education
of the past, Southern's President
Clark answered that the state
legislature is simply responding to
the communities it represents. "I
want to see the Negroes get as
good an education as he can, and
if he can get it only in a segre-
gated school, then yes, I support
expansion of this. school in the
same cities as LSU," he said.
Clark insists that failure to die-
mand integration of higher edu-
cation rather than a parallel
Negro system does not mean that
in the future higher education in
Louisiana will remain segregated.
He foresees a time when the Negro

institution will be so good that it
will compete with white universi-
ties for white students, thereby in-
tegrating from that direction.
Citing Howard University as an
example of a school that "becomes.
so good it puts itself out of buhi-
ness as a Negro college," Clark
predicted the same role for South-
ern University. Southern now has
three white students.
BOTH CLARK and Davis seem
to see the function of the Negro
college as a kind of rescue opera-
tion - performing the remedial
work that will correct the defi-
ciencies of the Negro high school
and perhaps prepare the student
for a real, that is, an essentially
white, higher education.
"The Negro student comes from
a disadvantaged background,"
President Davis said, "and the
college has to introduce him to
the cultural milieu of Western so-
ciety to allow him to communicate
with people from that society. Cer-
tainly we want to develop a criti-
cal mind, and the ability to evalu-
ate established society, but he
needs to be able to spell, to be
able to read a book first,"
Not only do the Negro colleges
start with academically deficient
students, but their facilities and
faculty are also generally of lower
quality than comparable white
schools. President Davis estimated
that Negro colleges were about
25 years behind other colleges
throughout the country, but "we
call it a college whatever its qual-
ity."
NEW AREAS of career oppor-
tunities have opened for Negroes,
and the "role of the predominately
Negro college is to give students.
the ambition to enter these new
areas, and to stimulate them to
further their education on a high-
er level," Davis said. In President
Clark's words, "the problem is to
raise the expectancy potential; to
tell the Negro kid what is avail-
able and to inspire him to reach
for it."
Opportunities for the Negro
student are hardly unlimited, how-
ever, and Davis recognized the
tokenism that still prevails. "We
have now to find the very special
person to fill an ordinary position.
Until the time comes when the
average Negro can get a job for
an average person, there will not
be economic opportunity."
NOR IS THERE now education-
al opportunity, for it takes a
superior Negro student even to
enter, but especially to remain in
a previously all-white school.

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New Draft Criteria Needed

IN THE SEARCH for increased military
manpower to meet the demands of
the Viet Nam war, the Selective Service
System is threatening to re-evaluate stu-
dent deferments on the basis of academic
performance.
During the Korean War, draft boards
used the twin criteria of class standing
and scores on a standardized test in
granting II-S draft status. Selective
Service Director Gen. Lewis Hershey has
proposed a return to these methods, as
draft quotas continue to rise. There are
a number of reasons why these criteria
are totally inadequate for a fair deter-
mination of who shall be allowed to re-
main in school and who shall be drafted.
The first of these standards of selec-
tion makes the as'sumption that a uni-
versity is a university is a university-an
assumption which is completely untrue.
Prospective soldiers would be culled from
student ranks on the basis of a fixed per-
centage from the bottom of the class. A
student who ranks toward the bottom of
. ..
t I Ati i( i Dal
Editorial Staff
ROBERT JOHNSTON, Editor
LAT'RENCE KIRSHBAUM ROBERT HTPPT ER
Managing Editor Editorial Director
JUDITH FIELD$ ........... Personnel Director
'AUREN BAHR......Associate Managing Editor
JUDITH WARREN._.....Assistant' Managing Editor
==AIL BLUMBERG................. Magazine Editor
TOM WEINBERG.........Sports Editor
LLOYD GRAFF ........T.'. Associate Sports Editor
PETER SARASOHN ............ Contributing Editor
SHELDON DAVIS ... ........ Photo Editor
NIGHT EDITORS: Robert Carney, Clarence Fanto,
Mark ihlingswnrth, John Meredith, Leonard Pratt,
Harvey Wasserman, Bruce Wasserstein, Charlotte
Wolter,
DAY EDITOR.S: B~abette Cohn, Merle Jacob. Carole
Kaplan, Robert Moore, Roger Rapoport, Dick Wing-
field.
Business Staff

his class at the University might easily
rank near the top at a less competitive
school.
Admissions philosophy should also have
a bearing on the granting of deferments.
When a student is accepted by the Uni-
versity it is on the assumption that he
will graduate with a degree, The school
has a traditionally low failure rate.
Many institutions, either by choice or by
statute, accept an oversize freshman class
each year with the knowledge that a
large percentage will wash out before ob-
taining a degree. Thus, a low-ranking un-
derclassman at the University has an ex-
cellent chance of graduating, while a
student in the same position at another
school will likely as not succeed.
PARTICIPATION in extra-curricular ac-
tivities may also have a strong bear-
ing .on a student's "academic progress."
A student who devotes himself to inde-
pendent study, or a tutorial project, or
who writes a novel for the Hopwood com-
petition may see his efforts reflected in
lower grades. However, at the same time
he may be doing a greater service to
himself and the community than the stu-
dent who spends all his time studying
and gets a four point.
The standardized examination is de-
signed to compensate for these variables.
It doesn't.
All the criticisms leveled against tests
such as the College Boards apply to the
proposed Selective Service exam. Too
much depends on the student's state of
mind and health on the day the test is
administered. So-called comprehensive
tests never quite are what they're meant
to be, tending to favor students with spe-
cific kinds of knowledge. Furthermore,
such examinations give great rewards to
information recall and almost no credit
to creativity.

J

By MARK R. KILLINGSWORTH
THE FREE UNIVERSITY of
Ann Arbor is starting registra-
tion for courses this week. The
university offers an ambitious pro-
gram, from "Historical Theory" to
"Power. Policy and Elites," from
Cage to Coleman. According to
the university's catalogue, the uni-
versity "is the sum of a number
of concrete individual efforts to
overcome the boundaries, to tran-
scend the limits, and to destroy
the irrelevancies of the 'knowledge
factory' university that we all live
in now."
... Which is to say the interest-
ing courses the Free University
offers aren't in the University's
catalogue. Agreed, and we wish
them well. But the following pro-
jection for the Free University's
first year suggests that both uni-
versities may have a good deal
in common.
FEB. 1-FUAA President Frith-
jof Bergmann installs the new
Regents, Staughton Lynd, Saul
Alinsky, Eugene Genovese, Thomas
Hayden and Regent-emeritus Paul
Goodman.
FEB. 13 - Vice-President for
Business and Finance Stephen
Zweig, noting that FUAA's $5 en-
trance fee isn't covering expenses,
asks the Regents to raise it. They
refuse. Instead President Berg-
mann announces a $55,000 fund-
raising campaign.
MARCH 2-Irate students, ir-

ritated by a grant from the RAND
Corporation to FUAA for Its
"Power, Policy and Elites" course,
appear at a Regents' meeting ask-
ing that it be turned down. When
their demand is refused, they
urge that the Regents resign, de-
claring that they are too involved
with other activities to find out
about FUAA's problems and are
capable only of taking their seats
at teach ins.
MARCH! 3 -- Professors, still
angry over the refusal to raise
fees so their salaries can be in-
creased, threaten to call a "cash
in' and appear in class but do not
teach. President Bergmann and
FUAA Dean Alan Haber finally
succeed in persuading the dis-
sidents to march on Lansing in-
stead.
MARCH 4-While in Lansing,
Stephen D. Berkowitz, an associate
professor of political science, tells
a rally, "I do not fear the im-
pending United States victory in
Viet Nam. I welcome it." It ,is
also learned that Carl Oglesby, a
professor of free thought, has
undertaken a secret mission to
Washington via Toronto to dis-
cuss the Viet Nam conflict with
U.S. officials..
MARCH 7-Oglesby is quoted
by the Voice of America in Wash-
ington as having told a group of
senators, "Hanoi has lied about
the number of its troops in the
South." Hayden calls for Oglesby's
resignation, and Bergmann says
Oglesby has "done a serious dis-
service to dissent."

MARCH 8-Richard Horevitz, a
"peace candidate," announces he
will run for Congress and demands
that Berkowitz." be ousted from
FUAA for his controversial state-
ment on a U.S. victory in Viet
Nam, adding he will base much
of his campaign on the issue.
MARCH 28-A story in The
FUAA Occasionally discloses that
Regent-emeritus Goodman, who
has a publishing contract with
Vintage paperbacks, has been
caught in a possible conflict-of-
interest with Vice-President Zweig.
The story, by Occasionally re-
porter Anatol Rapoport, charges
Zweig and Goodman have been
requiring Vintage books to be
used exclusively in FUAA courses
and seminars.
APRIL 7-A strike of mimeo-
graph machine operators, organ-
ized by Barry Bluestone in pro-
test against Vice-President Zweig's
"inhumane" pay scales, disrupts
the entire University. Senator
Wayne L. Morse announces an in-
vestigation of the strike, which
President Bergmann calls "a ser-
ious threat to our autonomy."
APRIL 9-Informed sources re-
veal that, in a surprise moye, the
Student Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee will slash FUAA's ap-
propriation by $6,300 in a "power
play" by more radical SNCC
board members attempting to
force their opponents' hand on
Viet Nam.
APRIL 9-Informed sources re-
veal that, in a surprise move, the
Student Non-Violent Coordinating
Committee will slash FUAA's ap-
propriation by . .6,300 in a "power
play" by more radical SNCC board
members attempting to force their
opponents' hand on Viet Nam.
APRIL 11-Morse's committee
discloses that Bluestone's strike
is legal because FUAA claims it
can't be covered by civil service
strike laws and must thus be a
private corporation. Horevitz.
claiming he's "drawn blood" after
Berkowitz' early morning resigna-
tion. withdraws from his race for
Congress.
APRIL 12-Zweig and Goodman
are arraigned in Federal Court in

4

it

Schutze: BlsExit

The Ark'-Divine
Inspiration Lacking

By JOYCE WINSLOW
A SACRED OBJECT? A place
to come in out of the rain?
No. The Ark, a new coffeehouse is
only another two-bit enterprise
bound to be beached.
The Ark is financed by several
church groups in town, but un-
fortunately was not divinely in-
spired. Bare wooden tables and
nonmatching chairs have been in-
terspersed among three rooms in
a rambling grey house on Hill

last than that in an Ark, and
what is a coffeehouse without at
least a cappucino?
NOAH'S ARK had two horses,
two camels, two snakes. This place
has too little, and will bomb out.
It's a shame. Ann Arbor needs
an all-night coffeehouse. But the
University clientele deserves and
demands a more sophisticated at-
mosphere, and please, no 50 cents
cover charge unless one gets his

"WHY PUT more money into
scholarships if that money
only goes to pay for higher prices
for books and rent," asked Barry
Bluestone of the University of
Michigan Student Employes Union,
"With lowered costs, grant money
becomes greater in real terms, in
ternis of what it can buy," he
said.
But Mr. Bluestone overlooked
several additional factors pertinent
to the actual worth of money and
contributing to eventual student
doom. In the first place, inflated
domestic currency resulting from
an overall rise in prices due par-
tially to accelerated heavy defense
production and continued unfavor-
able international payments com-
plicated by labor shortage, brain
drain, and pessimistic managerial
outlook encouraged by the proba-
bility of devalued future flows of
earning on investment and de-
creasina faith in the ability of gov-

fraternity boys, and practicing all
the varieties of moral and eco-
nomic license which Sir Bluestone-
hood had so sternly prevented
them from enjoying during his
undergraduate tenure here.
The student body might as well
resign itself to the unavoidable
financial hell- ahead. In a year or
so, when we're prematurely grey,
and the blossom in our cheek has
turned to coal, we'll come home
and know Bluestone's gone away
with the last unmarried daughter
of Gus Schoole.
WE'LL ALL BE selling apples
in the street and Harlan Hatcher's
dining room will be converted to
a soup kitchen for indigent under-
graduates. Every single day of the
week will be black, and the heart
of our rolling campus lawn -will
be blighted with a thicket of tar-
paper hovels, to be named, of
course. Cutlertown...

f

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