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January 22, 1966 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1966-01-22

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President Johnson's administra-
tion continues casting about for
a way to bring Hanoi into Viet
Nam peace negotiations, its mili-
tary branch must have aready
alternative plans for use if the
effort fails.
' It is standard procedure for any
government in any war.,
At the end of World War II,
the United States had plans com-
pleted and huge land-sea-air force
poised for invasion of Japan if
Tokyo did not surrender. The plan,
"Operation Cornet," never was
needed but it was ready.
This is not to say there is any
plan for the =invasion of North
Viet Nam. It is to show only that
alternate plans always are made,
patterned to fit shifting military
situations or changes in broad na-
tional policy.

The options prepared by the
strategy makers for application in
Viet Nam obviously would range
from modest to maximum.
As the weeks of lull in the
bombing and peace efforts have
worn on, speculation on what
President Johnson might elect to
do has ranged widely.
. Some thought a clue was to be
found in the testimony given by
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara to senators on his re-
quest for another $12.7 billion.
Attention was caught by two
points in McNamara's statement,
as released to newsmen. These
were a request for money to pro-
cure huge tonnages of ammuni-
tion for a "massive application of
firepower" in Viet Nam; for funds
to continue extension of the sys-

tem of harbors, warehouses, bar-
racks and other troop support and
Each points toward a much
bigger war within Viet Nam.
McNamara made no public ref-
erence to where, when or how
attacks on targets in North Viet
Nam might be resumed.
While the McNamara statement
may have been grounds for be-
lieving that heavier ground action,
with accompanying heavier air
operations to support the action,
might be the course Johnson
would choose, there was nothing
substantive to rule out the pos-
sibility of sending the bombers
back over North Viet Nam.
What Johnson has in mind
about the future course of the war
is one of the best kept secrets in
this capital.
There are reasons to believe

that no more than half a dozen
men in the whole Pentagon have
been given any clue-and that
these do not include operational
commanders who draft alternate
The machinery for resumption
of bombing, and for heavier bomb-
ing if ordered, remains assembled
and ready for use.
Air Force bombers, currently
concentrating on Viet Cong tar-
gets in South Viet Nam, can fly
North again on almost a moment's
In his State of the Union ad-
dress to Congress on Jan. 12,
Johnson said he couldn't give the
lawmakers a blueprint for the
course of conflict because "we
cannot know what the future may
But he assured Congress that
American fighting men must have

"every gun, every dollar and every
decision-whatever the cost and
whatever the challenge."
In early December, before the
diplomatic drive for peace nego-
tiations was started, Johnson had
talked about "other hard steps"
which would be needed if the
Communists continued to reject
proposals for unconditional peace
Even without any major escala-
tion by either side, the proportions
of the war promise to expand
steadily and inexorably. Man-
power and supplies continue to
come into South Viet Nam from
the North.
The U.S. currently has more
than 191,000 men in Viet Nam and
may have more than 400,000 in
another six months.
These, however, are not new
"hard steps" or going ahead with

plans "whatever the challenge."
There are, of course, proposals
to bomb North Viet Nam more
intensively, particularly the capi-
tal, Hanoi, and port areas of
The U.S. has said it does not
want to overthrow the govern-
ment of North Viet Nam, but
merely to stop it from imposing
its system on South Viet Nam.
Intensified bombing, in addition
to somewhat symbolic strikes at
the capital itself, would be design-
ed to destroy the war-making
economy of North Viet Nam. More
electric power plants would be
bombed to cripple munitions fac-
Haiphong harbor could be a tar-
get and the approaches to the
harbor closed off by mines or
actual blockade by ships and air-
craft. But that might lead to

attacks, intentional or uninten-
tional, on Soviet ships bringing
supplies and equipment to the
Hanoi government. If there is any
hope that the Soviet Union might
have influence in coaxing Hanoi
toward suspension of hostilities,
bombs on Soviet ships might blast
this hope as well as the ships.
An even more delicate decision'
would have to be made if direct
attacks on Viet Cong sanctuaries
and supply lines in Laos and Cam-,
bodia were to be made.
Over the so-called Ho Chi Minh
trail, actually a number of some-;
what parallel routes, flow sub-
stantial supplies and reinforce-
ments and replacements for Com-
munist units in South Viet- Nam.
The trail loops out of west North
Viet Nam, winds southward to
Laos and enters Red-held areas1
of South Viet Nam.

Canbodia is an even more per-
plexing problem. Despite official
disclaimers by the Cambodian
government, it is being used by
the Reds as a sanctuary.
This was demonstrated dra-
matically last week.
U.S. troops had moved into the
area west of Pleiku in heavy force.
The 1st Cavalry, Airmobile, Di-
vision aimed at surrounding and
capturing or destroying some of
the thousands of guerrillas who
had held the region for years.
The division drove forward, de-
stroying the Viet Cong camps and
other installations. But there were
no Viet Cong, only signs that they
had left hurriedly across the bor-
der into Cambodia.
Forward elements of the division
drove to within one hundred feet
of the river boundary - and
stopped there.


Viet Nam


Attack America

Peace Drive
Spurned by
Rusk Sees Intensified
Viet Cong Fighting
In Coming Week
1k WASHINGTON A') - Secretary
of State Dean Rusk reported yes-
terday that the Communists have
spurned the month-old United
States peace offensive so far. He
predicted the Viet Cong would
step up their fighting in Viet Nam
-next week.
"I regret that I cannot report
to you any positive and encourag-
ing response to the hopes of man-
kind," Rusk told his first news
conference since the U4. diplo-
matic campaign and halt in the
bombing of North Viet Nam began
29 days ago.
"There is every sign that the
other side is going to intensify
its activity after the Tet period,"
he said. The Tet is the lunar new
year holiday in Viet Nam, sup-
posed to be observed by acease-
fire which ends Sunday.
Door Still Open
Rusk sidestepped questions
about when President Johnson
might renew air strikes on the
North, and he reaffirmed John-
son's statement that "the door of
space must be kept wide open."
But in striking his most pes-
simistic note since the launching
of the U.S. peace effort, the sec-
retary of state seemed to:
-Warn Hanoi that the string
is running out on Washington's
current peace drive, and the
bombing of the North could be
resumed soon if Hanoi refuses to
make a peaceful response.
--Serve notice to those who ad-
vocated a bombing lull-allies,
neutrals and Communists-that
North Viet Nam's rejection of U.S.
peace overtures means Washing-
ton is getting Teady to make new,
probably tough, decisions.
-Indicate that within the circle
of top U.S. strategists, Rusk favors
a hard-lines reactipn to Hanoi's re-
buff of peace bids.
What To Do Next
Johnson's advisers are known
to be divided over -what to do
next. Johnson is said not to have
made a decision yet about resum-
ing the bombing, and to have set
no deadlines.
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara said yesterday the
bombing pause which began Dec.
24 has given the Communist North
a chance to rebuild bombed-out
bridges, roads and communication
SBut this is a "small cost to pay"
for the advantage of showing
Hanoi and others "our desire for
peace and desire for negotiations,"
McNamara told newsmen during
an intermission in his second day
of testimony to Senate commit-
tees in behalf of another $12.7
billion for Viet Nam war funds
this year.
Response to Peace Missions
Rusk recounted the peace-
mission travels to foreign capitals
by roving Ambassador W. Averell
Harriman, himself and others
since Christmas.
"There has been an overwhelm-
ingly favorable response to these
efforts-except from those who
could in fact sit down and make
peace," he said.


Pakistan's Army commander Gen. Mohammed Musa
with his Indian counterpart Gen. J. N. Chaudhauri
Delhi airport. Musa arrived yesterday to work out d
peace pact signed at Tashkent early last week.
Soviets Refuse
Press Viet Tall

a Troo ps
Accused of A
49 Violations t
North VietnameseC
Use Halt in Fightingf
For Repair Worka
' 3 SAIGON (/)-Bursts of gunfireo
yesterday chipped at the fragile
lunar new year truce and swelledt
combat casualties on both sides in
a war that threatens to burst witht
renewed fury after the truce endst
The United States military com-t
vand accused the Communists off
49 violations through the first half
of the Tet holiday cease-fire.
U.S. Defense Secretary RobertI
S. McNamara said suspension ofI
the bombing has given North Viets
Nam a chance to rebuild bombed-
out bridges, roads and communi-
ssocIated Press cation lines.
[ Viet Cong snipers killed two U.S.
Marine sergeants in brushes withi
a Leatherneck platoon of 45 ment
left, meets on security patrol seven milesi
at the New south of Da Nang, a strategic
etails of the airbase 380 miles northeast of Sai-i
gon. The Marines captured a
wounded guerrilla.
South Korean marines stemmed
the biggest Communist operation.,
They turned back a band of aboutc
400 that closed in menacingly on
a platoon posted to guard rice-
T o lands below Tuy Hoa, on the cen-
tral coast 240 miles northeast of
Hand-to-Hand Combat
A Korean military spokesman
said the platoon and the rein-
forcements it summoned beat off
, in fact, like the attack and killed 46 of the
ni Viet Nam' guerrillas in a two-hour fight, at
pe? times hand to hand. He reported
in denouncing Korean casualties moderate.
viewed by the The spokesman implied the Ko-
n of this So- reans shot first in this cse. He
said the platoon withheld its fire
n by Gromyko until the Viet Cong came within
plea for peace 30 yards, then opened up to pro-
uoted by Tass, tect its position.
no mention of Guerrilla Fire
e Soviet Union A patrol of the U.S. 101st Air-
borneDivision had drawn guerrilla
g to the Soviet fire Thursday night three miles
government of northwest of Tuy Hoa. Armed heli-
iat the conflict copters sped to the aid of the
s counter not patrol. A spokesman said the para-
s of the coun- troopers claimed they killed three
also the cause Viet Cong. No American casualties
a whole and were reported.
for the coun- Briefing officers told of Viet
he conflict-to Cong attacks involving elements of
s soon as pos- all the allies - Australian, New
to a peaceful Zealand, Korean, American and
South Vietnamese.

Spain Bars
Based Planes
Dispute with Britain
Threatens Future
Of NATO Base
MADRID ()-Spain projected
its dispute with Britain over pos-
session of Gibraltar into the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization yes-
The Foreign Ministry notified
the envoys of all NATO nations
that because of "the risks and
consequences to Spain of using
Gibraltar as a NATO base" their
planes will no longer be able to
fly over Spanish soil to or from
The Rock on Spain's southern
doorstep. Spain is not a member
of NATO.
In London, British officials said
this was another move to get
Spanish sovereignty over Gibral-
tar. They said it is no more likely
to persuade Britain to negotiate
than previous restrictions imposed
by the Spanish on travel to Spain
from Gibraltar.
Foreign Minister Fernando Ma-
ria Castiella told Parliament: "Gi-
braltar cannot be regarded as a
base of NATO, and let that be
said with all the 'consequences this
declaration implies."
Said a responsible Spanish
source: "The fact is that Spain is
not disposed to tolerate any longer
the risks or consequences of a base
included in an international mili-
tary organization to which Spain
itself does not belong."
He insisted the move was not
intended to force Spain's admis-
sion into NATO, adding: "Our
country has never solicited admis-
sion nor do we desire it. We so
stated with all clarity and in an
official form during a recent visit
to Madrid of the U.S. secretary of
state, Dean Rusk."
Another official source contrast-
ed Britain's use of Gibraltar as a
NATO base with Spain's defense
pact with the U.S.
"As an example, a U.S. bomber
with nuclear armaments aboard
fell on Spanish soil near Almeria
earlier this week. This is a risk
which Spain accepted freely in
return for various benefits when
it signed a bilateraldefense pact
with the U.S. But in case of Gi-
braltar we have all the risks an
none of the benefits," he said.
"This decision was not directec
against any of the member nation
of NATO, and they have been ad-
vised that Spain desires that th
most friendly bilateral relation
be maintained with them; no]
against the NATO'organization it
self, which is considered by Spair
a most valuable 'contribution t
Western defense.
"This measure was imposed b
the necessity that Spain faced o
defending itself against the risk
and consequences resulting fron
the confrontation of two militar
organizations - NATO and th
Warsaw Pact-to which it does no

put the world's first global opera-
tional satellite system into service
next month were disclosed yes-
Two Tiros Operational Satel-
lites-TOS-twin spacecraft with
unprecedented weather-reporting
capabilities, will be launched from
Cape Kennedy, Fla., three weeks
One will provide local stations
around the world with daily cloud
cover pictures of their particular
areas, and the other will perform
daily global cloud picture cover-
Together they will provide a
complete pattern of storm de-
velopment, cloud masses, ice flows,
snow cover and other vital weather
data on a scale pointed out by, but
never possible for, the 10 Tiros
experimental and developmental
satellites launched to date.
Abraham Schnapf, Tiros-TOS
project manager for Radio Corp.
of America Astros-Electronics Di-
vision, Princeton, N. J., told a
reporter the launchings will be a
major milestone in United States
space accomplishments and will
satisfy a U.S. commitment to the
United Nations world meteorologi-
cal organization.
The National Aeronautics and
Space Administration confirmed
that the first Tiros operational
system, TOS 1, is to be launched
from Cape Kennedy Feb. 2.
The NASA spokesman who con-
firmed these dates said that as of

World Wide Satellite System
To Begin Service Next Month

Jan. 1, the agency has removed
the security classification on
launch dates on all satellites of
its space sciences and applications
office except for the Voyager and
Lunar Orbiter spacecraft.
It was learned also that after
TOS 1 and TOS 2 get into orbit
they probably, will be known as
ESSA 1 and ESSA 2. This identi-
fies them with the Commerce De-
partment's Evironmental Science
Services Administration.
The satellites are designed for
an operating lifetime of six

World News Roundup

By The Associated Press
MOSCOW-The Soviet govern-
ment reported Newcomb Mott, an
American serving a Soviet prison
sentence, committed suicide by
cutting his throat, the United
States Embassy said early this
Mott was convicted in Novem-
ber of illegally crossing the bor-
der from Norway into the Soviet
Union while travelling as a tour-
ist last September.
ROME-Premier Aldo Moro re-
signed yesterday, barely 12 hours
after snipers in his own Christian
Democrat party defeated him in
* *a
BONN-A young West German

scientist, blackmailed into spying
for the Communists, blew the
whistle on a Soviet espionage ring,
a government spokesman said yes-
Disclosure that the ring, made
up of five Russians, had been
broken up was made Thursday.
But the government will not pro-
ceed against the Russians because
they stole no state secrets. What
few secrets they, apparently got
were from private industry.
* * *
ALMERIA, Spain-Spanish phy-
sicians doing physical checkups
on persons engaged in recover-
ing wreckage of a U.S. nuclear
bomber said yesterday they had
found slight traces of radioactivity
among several Spanish Civil
Guards policemen.

months each, but the Tiros space-
craft have done much better than
that and have achieved opera-
tional lifetimes averaging more
than' a year each. Four Tiros
satellites-Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10-
are still providing weather pic-
Lures regularly.
The Tiros-ESSA programs are
to be followed by more advanced
satellites that use a variety of
sensing equipment to gain much
more complete weather informa-
tion than mere pictures can pro-

MOSCOW (A)-The Soviet Un-
ion refused yesterday to try to
bring North Viet Nam to a nego-
tiating table with the United
The foreign minister of Japan,
Etsusaburo Shiina, asked Soviet
Premier Alexei N. Kosygin to use
his influence in. Hanoi to get ne-
gotiations started.
But the reply was that "the So-
viet Union is not directly involv-
ed and therefore is not going to
be a mediator," Shiina told a news
No Agreement
"We could not reach any com-
mon opinion, Shiina . said of his
talks with Kosygin and Soviet For-
eign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko.
The Soviet refusal to become
publicly involved in Viet Nam
peacemaking efforts has continued
for many months. The last sim-
ilar effort to break through the
refusal; by British Foreign Min-
ister Michael Stewart on a visit
here in early December, met with
a similarly stony response.
Diplomatic observers here have
seen two probable reasons for this
Soviet attitude.
One is that Moscow might sim-
ply lack enough influence in Ha-
noi to get results.
The second probabletSoviet rea-
son is vulnerability to Chinese
propaganda attacks.
Peking has accused Moscow of
trying to arrange a peace in Viet
Nam which would sell out the
Communist cause there to the U.S.
as part of a deal for Soviet-
American control of the world.
Some diplomatic observers be-
lieve the harsh Soviet denuncia-
tions of U.S. policy in Viet Nain
are at least partly designed to
offset such attacks and that the

Soviet Union would
to see a settlement it
Peace Ho
Soviet reticence
the bombing lull is
diplomats as a sig
viet desire for peace
At a dinner giver
Shiina made a last
in Viet Nam. As qi
however, he made
a direct role for th
in negotiations.
He said, accordin
news agency: "The
Japan recognizes th
in Viet Nam run,
only to the interest
tries concerned, but
of world peace as
finds it necessary
tries-parties to t]
start negotiations a
sible with a view

rr I
I, 4.
Mai the Darn bOpReforeI
Enclosed find $6.00 (Check or Money Order payable to the
SMichigcinension) for one 1966 MICHIGANENSIAN. We cannot
Sbill you later. A receipt wil be sent when your order comes m.,
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