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October 28, 1965 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1965-10-28

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See Editorial Page


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Seventy-Five Years of Editorial Freedom
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VOL. LXXVI, No. 52



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Objection: New

Meaning Evolves

In the wake of anti-draft, anti-
U.S. foreign policy and, more spe-
cifically, anti-war uprisings, the
modern conception of conscien-
tious objection assumes a new im-
Conscientious objection is an
ambiguous term. It carries with it
legal, moral, philosophical, and
religious ramifications.
Before recent Supreme Court
judgments, classification as a con-
scientious objector was based on
the belief in God. Making religious
objections the only justifiable
ones, however, was claimed by
some to be clearly discriminatory

against those outside of organized
In the Seeger case, the Supreme
Court abandoned religion as the
basis for conscientious objection.
The resultant elasticity of this
classification allowed a greater
outlet from service for the grow-
ing peace movement.
And the importance of that out-
let has increased still further by
the oppostion to the war in Viet
The mythical image of the C:O.
as a sign-carrying, sack-clothed
disciple of Jehovah and prophet
of millenialism has been replaced.
The new definitions of this revo-
lutionary phenomenon are more

rational and, as a result, more
complex and diversified.
The Quakers are the group most
often associated with the modern
concept of conscientious objec-
tion. Although the Quaker religion
is considered a "peace church,"
according to Prof. Kenneth Bould-
ing of the economics department
and an active member in the
Friends Society, conscientious ob-
jection is not a doctrinal asser-
tion, for the Friends are wary of
doctrine of any sort. The decision
to declare oneself a C.O. is totally
up to the individual, he added.
Boulding outlined the three
prevailing types of conscientious
objectors. The absolutist will ren-
der positively no cooperation with

the government whatsoever. A
second group objects to military
service but is willing to serve the
government in a civilian capacity.
During World War II, Friends
served in the Public Service Corps.
The third and most liberal group
denies the violence of war but has
no objection to serving the mili-
tary in a non-combatant position.
Such people are most likely to
serve in the Medical Corps, Bould-
ing said.
The Society of Friends espouses
a "peace testimony," an assertion
of their common desire for peace.
The peace testimony is considered
axiomatic within the framework of
the Christian life. There are a

great many classical statements
of this, according to Boulding, the
most revered of which is that of
George Fox, founder of Quaker-
ism, in 1648 when he refused to
serve in the Cromwellian wars.
Boulding remarked that George
Fox found the Christian life and
violence of any sort inconsistent
and unreconcilable. Following this
example, Friends of today can see
no place in the Christian life for
war among men.
The Students for Democratic
Society organization, headed by
national chairman, Carl Oglesby,
assumes an attitude toward the
definition of conscientious objec-
tion. Oglesby distinguishes be-
tween the legal and the moral def-

initions of the term. According to
law, a C.0. must object to all
war in any form. There can be
no degrees to this objection, for,
as Oglesby pointed out, law does
not consider a person's aversion to
the war's purpose or possible re-
sults as grounds for refusing to
further its escalation. He con-
cludes that the legal concept of
war does not include a moral di-
It is with this point ac-
cording to Oglesby, that the SDS
must take exception. Members of
the SDS consider objection to the
aims of a war as sufficient
grounds for refusing to fight. The
opinion of the SDS, reflected in
Oglesby's remarks, is that con-

scientious objection must be de-
fined in its broadest, most ele-
mental sense. The C.O. must be
motivated by his conscience alone.
Thus, the SDS's definition of the
conscientious objector is any per-
son whose conscience leads him to
object to any war for any reason.
The liberality of the court, both
effecting and being affected by the
growth of the peace movement,
manifests the gradual assimilation
of the lagal concept of a C.O. into
the moral and religious ramifi-
cations of the term. And with this
assimilation, the military is con-
fronted with an increasing dearth
of militants eager to fight what
Oglesby terms "an inscrutable war
in the inscrutable Orient."

What's New
At '764-1817

State Board ,I
Avoids MSU Predicts

Hot Line
Thomas Clark, selective service counselor, said yesterday
that, to the best of his knowledge, no University students have
been drafted. His statement- followed reports that several
students at eastern universities had been inducted into the Army.
He added, however, that several students had been ordered to
take pre-induction physicals and that two students had been
clasified 1A, the first draft priority.
Student deferments are granted at the discretion of local
selective service boards, and on1e of the student's deferment was
lifted because the board felt he had taken too long to obtain his
1 degree.
At tonight's SGC meeting, a motion to include a referendum
vote on whether the student body is in basic agreement with
the government policy in Viet Nam on the next 'Student Govern-
ment ballot will be considered.
* ~ * *
Inter-Quadrangle Council President Lee Hornberger, '66, will
ask 1he administration this week to explain what it is doing to
alleviate the shortage of help in the residence hall food service.
He will bring the issue before Eugene Haun, director of residence
halls, and Vice-President for Student Affairs Richard Cutler.
The action is a response to numerous complaints received by
the IQC.
* * * *
Total expenditures for University operations during 1964-65
were $155,089,757, an increase of 13.5 per cent from the previous
year's total of $136,638,326. According to the Financial Report
for 1964-65, accepted by the Regents at their meeting Friday
(Oct. 22), $47,262,139 for this total came from state appropria-
tions. The largest item of expenditure, accounting for 68 per cent
of all University expenditures, was for salaries, wages and em-
ploye benefits.
Lee Hornberger, '67, Mark R. Killingsworth, '67, .Stanley_
Nadel, '66, and Richard Shortt, '66, will appear at 4 p.m. Friday
in the Multipurpose Room of the UGLI with the five Vietnamese
students touring this country-among whom are two Marxists,
a Buddhist, and the president of student government at Saigon
University-for a question and answer panel discussion. Discus-
sion moderator will be Prof. Charles Moskos of the sociology
* *' * * '
]Fifty law school alumni will meet in Ann Arbor today to
review law school operation. Surveys of classes, seminars, faculty
conferences, special activities and reports are planned for the
three-day study.
- *
The University's out-of-state student ratio for this year may
be released some time next week, administration sources said
yesterday. The potentially controversial figures were originally
slated for release early in September, but have been delayed by
the lack of more complete totals for each of the University's
GROUP (Governmental Reform of University Policy) will
place four candidates in the Student Government election, it
was announced last night. Don Resnick, '68, will seek reelection.
Ed Robinson, '67, Ruth Baumann, '68, and Darryl Alexander, '69,
will also seek SGC seats.
The University honored three of its distinguished alumnae,
Saturday, Oct. 23, with Outstanding Achievement Awards, pre-
sented at the 50th anniversary banquet of the Martha Cook
Building women's residence. Those honored were Thelma G.
James; professor of English at Wayne State University; Mrs.
Estefania J. Aldaba Lim, director of the Institute for Human
Relations at Philippine Women's University; and Katayun
Hormusji Cama, research consultant to the Bernard van Leer
Foundation in The Netherlands.
On Oct. 8 The Daily published a page 1 article based in
part on an interview with Prof. Robert J. Harris of the Law
School which sought to sift the possibilities that certain recent
arrests of University students on charges of 'illegal possession
of liquor had violated the rights of the students arrested.
Through a misunderstanding by Harris of the purpose
of the interview, and a misunderstanding by the reporter of the
import of Harris' remarks, the. article made it appear that
Harris was commenting upon the particular incident, when he
had intended only to discuss with the reporter in general terms
the power of a police officer to make an arrest without a

Med Issue
IVote Gives No Stand
On Question; Will
Consider Budgeting
The State Board of Education
yesterday unexpectedly sidestepped
the controversial issue of. estab-
lishing a two-year medical pro-
gram at Michigan State Univer-
In a 4-3 vote, the board voted
not to take a position on the
question because the program has.
already been approved by the state
Legislature. Board P r e s i d e n t
Thomas Brennan indicated, how
ever, that the board plans to con-
sider budgeting the new program.
The 'vote was taken after board
members had listened to MSU of-
ficials testify for four hours at
a public hearing yesterday after-
Board member Donald M. D.
Thurber expressed surprise at the
,decision, saying that he had fully
expected the hearing to be a step
in gathering information for a
later ruling on the issue. Although
it has been common knowledge
that the Legislature had given its
approval to the two-year program,
Thurber said the sentiment
against taking a position on the
issue apparently didn't arise until'
yesterday's hearing was in prog-
"The board undoubtedly will
make a recommendation on state
appropriations for the program
and will consider it in the context
of examining its implications for
long-range expansion of medical
education in Michigan," he said.
"But discussion will begin with a
two-year program at MSU an ac-
cepted fact."
Thurber, one of the three dis-
senters in yesterday's vote, said he
had hoped to keep the matter open
and to discuss it with representa-
tives from the University and
Wayne State University, the loca-
tions of Michigan's other two med-
ical schools.
Other board members, however,1
indicated support for the MSU
Board Vice-President Leon Fill
joined member Carmen Delli-
quadri in praising the program
outlined by MSU officials. Fill,
chairman of a committee which
has been gathering information on
medical education in Michigan,
said he found arguments against
MSU's plans "thin."
At present, MSU is committed
to opening its program-called the
College of Human Medicine-net
fall. Officials expect the unit to
begin operation with a class of 20
students who will then transfer to
regular medical schools to com-
plete their professional training.
In the talking stages for several
years, MSU's plans increasingly
came under attack from educators
as they neared completion. Study
reports in 1962-63 which backed
an 18-month medical program at
MSU but shied away from a two-
year course offering as a commit-
ment for future establishment of
a full medical school were followed
in 1964 by an angry exchange
between MSU President John
Hannah and University President
Harlan Hatcher; taking a cue
from the earlier reports, Hatcher
charged MSU with trying to get
a head start in the race-to become
the site of a third medical school
in Michigan.
Last spring, Gov. George Rom-
ney's "blue ribbon" Citizens Com-
mittee on Higher Education joined








MSU Withdraws

The Representatives Associated
Students of Michigan State Uni-
versity voted 8-5 in favor of with-
drawing from the National Stu-
dent Association Tuesday night.
Jim Sink, vice-president of Men's
Halls Association, said last night,
"We withdrew }nainly because the
services -and programs of NSA do
not directly or indirectly affect
students or their government."
The students felt that the NSA
did not give services which were

of value to the student body and
that the political views maintain-
ed by NSA were not representative
of the university, Sink said.
Sink said that many of the
services offered by NSA are al-
ready offered by the university.
"We have our own travel pro-
grams and our own insurance pro-
grams and we couldn't see any
new services that NSA offers," he
A referendum oh the issue of
withdrawal was going to be call-

ed if the motion1
NSA was passed
haps if NSA 'rev
in the future, we
James A. Joh
fairs vice-presid
pressed disapp
MSU's withdraw
is unfortunate,
government cuts
contact with oth
mentioned thec
MSU has made t
"The developme
dent governmen

Author Discusses 'Herak

Daily Interview
Archibald MacLeish has a list
of credits longer and more in-
pressive than a Stanley J. Kramer
production. He has been a speech-
writer for Franklin Roosevelt, a
librarianrofrCongress, Assistant
Secretary of State, Assistant Edi-
tor of "Fortune," and a Harvard
Boyleston Professor of Rhetoric
and Oratory, the oldest and most
honored post in the profession.
He won the Bollinger Prize, The
National Book Award and the
Pulitzer Prize twice for his poetry,
and copped unanimous critical
acclaim for his play, "J.B."
MacLeish, 73, wears his prestige
well. Tall and vigorous, he not
only looks like a robust 55, but
acts it. He is an early riser and
easily lops off- tasks that would
leave younger men puffing. Prior
to our 10 a.m. interview, he had
already changed two tires on 'his
car. Only a self-bandaged thumb
attested to the strain.
During the interview, MacLeishI
expounded on "Herakles," which
premiered here last night. He
praised Dickinson, Faulkner, pan-
ned T.V.'s mediocrity, and told
why he preferred writing for stage
than for any other medium.
"To talk about Herakles is sort
of hard," began MacLeish. "A play
does its own talking. I can say
that this is a contemporary play--
the time is now. But at the same
time, the play is based on the
oldest myth of Herakles, the
Greek myth. I chose the Greek
name, 'Herakles' over the Roman
name 'Hercules' because the
Greek conception of the hero dif-
fers from the Roman. The Greeks
tell of a great human hero who
confronts the universe, destroys
the horror and terror of the
world, and then returns to
Thebes, his home town. The great
paradox is that he then kills his9
own sons."
"The scene of the play," Mac-
Leish continued, "is a ruined tem-
ple on a mountain top. I hadn't

1'o Boards Will
rromNSABe Notified.4
to reaffiliate with enced by ideas that their dele-
. Sink said, "Per- gates brought home from NSA Official Sees
erses its structure conferences."
will reaffiliate." 'Last week the motion to raf- Possible Change
hns, national af- filiate with NSA passed MSU's Fo S toe A
lent of NSA, ex- student board 7-6. Johns said, "I rom 2S to IA
ointment o v e r was very surprised and disappoint-
Nal. He said, "It ed in the reversal of opinion. This By ROGER RAPOPORT
when a student is dfinitely not the recent trend." The Director of the Michigan
s itself off from Since the beginnin of the year, te Sie Syste picted
er schools." Johns six schools have affiliated with Selective Service System predicted
contributions that NSA and two have droppd out. yesterday that some of the 31
o NSA and stated, University students and teaching
o S U' sted, YAF - fellows a r&ted in an Ann Arbor
nt of MSU's stu- Warren Van Egmond, chairman Selective Service Board sit In will
t has been influ- of Young Americans for Free- have, their draft status changed
dom at the University, believes from 2-8 to 1-A.
'that MSU has begun an "excel- Col. Arthur Holmes who is re-
lent trend." He stated, "moves such viewing the Oct. 15 Viet Nam pro-
as this are forcing NSA to reor- test incident contends that the
ganize in order to make it more sit in disrupted Selective Service
ales (representative of the student office procedures. He will submit
body." Van Egmond said that YAF his evaluation of the incident to
would support a reorganization of the student's local draft boards
NSA. next week.
He said that NSA should con- Holmes' action is in apparent
cern itself more with university is- contradiction to the outlook of Lt.
sues instead of national policies. Gen Loui Hershe nationak headt
Charles Wells, editor of MSU of Selective Service, Hershey said
News, claimed that YAF did not in an interview Monday that he
have a strong part in rescinding is concerned that some local
the motion to reaffliate. He said boards may react to all this agi-
ethat a-, new organization, Stu tation by cancelling student de-
dents to Oppose Participation in ferments. "I hope that won't hap-
the NSA (STOP-NSA) was the pen, said Hershey.
main force behind the move. rIt While emphasizing that the
x as atmore individualistic force," final decision on a change in draft
- he stated.
univer- status is up to the individual
In Nvmder 96, te draft boards, Col. Holmes predicts,
sity decided 3,667-3,483 to continue "Some of the local boards will
USNSA membership. Dissenters chne the dra status ths
charged that the organization "has change the draft status of these
subverted its original purpose and students."
does nothing for the University. Examination
ToOn the basis of his examination
BetterfOedB an organizaton, of the three-hour sit in Holmes
close vote, they stated, showed says, "Idon't thrk where is any
that it was a technical victory. doubt that there was a drastic
inability of the Ann Arbor office
Controversial to function during the protest.
The students felt that NSA was "We are calling to -the atten-
entering into very controversial is- tion of the local boards that Sec-
sues "especially political issues." titn 12 of the Universal Military
W. They felt that NSA should concern Training and Service Act could be
itself more with university issues considered as having been violat-
men have thought than national issues. ed."
turies 'if we only The students claimed that US- The section stipulates that any
ss we will live like NSA was formed as a confedera- person who interferes with the
erakles returns in tion of student governments. They administration of the Selective
a god. Only a god called for a return to the policy Service system can be considered
s much as he has of National Student Congresses delinquent, have his status chang-
a god could have dealing only with student and ed' to 1-A and be ordered .for im-
d-without need. campus concerns. Steven Stock- mediate induction.
natural to Mac- meyer, SGC president .and sup- Unprecedented
chose to write porter of BOO, stated, "NSA is Holmes conceeds that applica-
rse. used as a mechanism for further- tion of the statute in a mass civil
itself," MacLeish ing political ends." 'disobediance incident is unprece-
rview, "becomes a Political Issues 'dented. Normally, he explains, the
sion of the play. NSA began concerning itself statute is invoked when individ-
ime and space and with political affairs in 1959 when uals fail to show up for pre-
well when handl- it passed a resolution clarifying induction physicals, or fail to re-
es. A problem for the rationale for the motion on port a change in address.
writing verse is atomic testing. ,The resolution The Veteran Selective Service
nce in which we stated that the association "rec- Officer explains his role as "Call-
alk in-blank verse. ognizes the great value of stu- ing in the files, reducing the in-
he U.S., in short dent involvement in programs of formation received and presenting
he accent forward. political and social action and the the facts to the local boards who,
toward the four- integral connection -of these pro- with all other available informa-
an have any num- grams with the educational proc- tion will make the individual de-
nted syllables as ess. While recognizing that a stu- cisions."
e four beats to the dent must devote primary atten- Explaining his action Holmes
tion to his academic program, US- commented, "We are not saying
dence NSA urges the student participa- whether or not the students should
tion in legislative social and po- demonstrate, (but) when they

Archibald Macleish during his interview

believe in anything - a tragic
"The second woman is a gover-
ness to the little girl. She is ob-
viously British, obviously an in-
tellectual, obviously romantic, and
a spinster. The little girl has
grown up in hotels. She is 11 or
12 but mentally childlike.
"If you've ever visited Greece,
you know that there are guides
working at the ruins. They depend
upon tips from tourists, but would
tell the stories of the ruins with-
out payment because they have
pride in their particular ruins.
There is a guide in the play who
tells the story of Herakles' last
task to the two women and the
little girl.,
"Herakles' last task was to
wrench Cerbes from Hell. Cerbes
is the canine guardian of the
Gates of'Hell, and to see him one
must be dead. Herakles, in con-
quering Cerbes, actually freed
himself from death. The myth
says he silenced Cerbes, yet the


the world. But 1
through the- cen
clean up this me
gods.' And so H
triumph. He isa
could disrupt as
disrupted. Only
killed as he kille
It seems only
Leish that he
"Herakles" in ve
"The verse
said at our inte
rhythmic dimen
It pushes back ti
works especially
ing tragic them
a contemporary
to find a cade
talk. We don't t
We speak, in t
sentences with t
I am working1
beat line. You ca
ber of unacce
long as there ar'

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