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September 22, 1965 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1965-09-22

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De Gaulle's Cool NATO Stand Challenges A


Associated Press Special Correspondent
WASHINGTON (P)-Leaders of
the United States, Britain, West
Germany and other allied powers
in Europe are coming face to face
with a stark question: Can NATO,
already seriously ailing, survive
without France?
The question probably will have
to be answered, decisively next
year. Allied officials have already
begun studying the problems that
must be dealt with if the crisis
Since the NATO alliance was
i formed in 1949. France has been
the heartland of the western de-
fense system. It is the base of
supply lines feeding the allied
front in Germany. It is home for
NATO's political and military

Should France, under President
de Gaulle, pull out, an enormous
psychological readjustment and
physical relocation would be ne-
cessary. Headquarters and supply
bases would have to be moved
back to England or forward into
the Low Countries and Germany.
The loss of French troops would
not mean much; they have been
progressively reduced in number
to two understrength divisions and
some air squadrons in West Ger-
many. But the shock of an am-
putation would be great, and no
one knows what the emotional
impact would be.
-It is also true that no one knows
for sure what de Gaulle will ac-
tually do. Though he has often
been critical of the NATO system
of integrated commands and
forces, he has not spelled out his

intentions for the immediate fu-
ture, beyond talking generally
about reorganization.
Pending French .national elec-
tions in December, de Gaulle is
not expected to show his plan. He
may not have made final deci-
sions yet. He is expected to win
the election and he has given
enough hints of his future course
to set alarm bells ringing from
Washington to Ottowa to Ankara.
To the White House and State
Department, de Gaulle's most
significant move was to block the
building of a new center for Su-
preme Headquarters, Allied Powers
in Europe.
For years the NATO military
command has been housed in a
temporary structure at Rocquen-
court, 15 miles from Paris. Several
years ago the NATO staff began

working for a new and permanent
But this spring, according to
an account given to Washington
officials, de Gaulle chanced to
see a newspaper drawing of the
proposed structure. Shortly after-
ward French officials told NATO
authorities they had better forget
the whole thing-if the building
were pushed to a final decision
France would veto it.
This warning has led other al-
lies, including the United States,
to decide that de Gaulle does not
see a long future for NATO in
The view is reinforced by pri-
vate information from French of-
ficials' arguments that NATO is
no longer essential, and that if the
Western alliance withers away
the corresponding Communist

"Warsaw Pact" in Eastern Europe
will also wither, thus contributing
to European peace.
U.S. officials don't buy the ar-
gument but they see its logic for
de Gaulle's policies.
There have been other recent
maneuvers by the de Gaulle gov-
ernment. Last May Secretary of
Defense Robert S. McNamara pro-
posed formation of a NATO com-
mittee of four or five countries-
essentially the United States, Brit-
ain, France, West Germany-to
study problems of nuclear weapons
strategy. There was hopeful talk
that de Gaulle, who opposes the
NATO nuclear force, might agree
to this more relaxed committee
De Gaulle turned it down. He is
concentrating on building a
French nuclear force and rejectsI

international efforts in this field.
In 1969 the Atlantic treaty will
be 20 years old and at that time
any member, by giving one year's
notice, may legally, withdraw from
the pact itself as distinguished
from the NATO military and com-
mand system. Some U.S. officials
think that de Gaulle contemplates
taking that final step.
In speeches and news confer-
ences he has stressed his. deter-
mination to make France inde-
pendent of what he considers out-
side domination, particularly by
the United States, though he
speaks of retaining American
In a speech in April, de Gaulle
said "this independence which
we are once more practicing in
all areas has not failed to sur-
prise, and even to scandalize var-

ious circles for which France's
vassalage was the habit and the
He did not mention the United
States, but U.S. officials develop
angry frustration in trying to
cope with implications that the
United States has treated France
as a satellite. For their part,
American leaders have tried to
avoid direct clashes with de
Gaulle. They do occasionally at-
tack his policies put not jy name.
That was what President John-
son did in a speech May 7, when
he deplored "narrow nationalism"
and said:
"The kind of nationalism which
would blight- the hopes and de-
stroy the dream of European unity
and Atlantic partnership is in
the true interest of no free nation
on earth. It is the way back to-

ward the anguish from which we
By almost any measure NATO
is seriously ailing alliance, and
the state of its health is of great
importance not only to North
America and Western Europe but
also to the rest of the world. NATO
is the .keystone of the alliance
network which the United States
built up against expanding Com-
munist power after World War II.
Today this country has 42 allies
in various defense arrangements
circling the globe.
On paper it, is a formidable
system. In practice it is a rickety
structure, strong at some points,
weak at others and loaded with
problems arising out of the con-
flicting interests of member na-
tions. The NATO-French clashes
are simply the most sensational.


Rome Vote
Asks Liberty
Of Worship T
Approve Declaration
By 9-1 Margin Over
Bitter Latin Dissent
can Ecumenical Council voted
overwhelming approval yesterday
of an historic declaration commit-
ting the Roman Catholic Church
to religious liberty for all men.
Never before in the history of
the Roman -Catholic Church have
its leaders taken such a step to-
ward bettering its relations with
all men everywhere-with other
Christians, with non-Christians
and even with non-believers.
The vote in St. Peter's gave ini-
tial approval-by a 9-1 margin-
to a religious liberty document
that had encountered bitter op-
position from conservative circles
in the Church.
Progressive Victory
The council action was hailed
as a major victory of progressive
prelates and was greeted by non-
Catholic observers at the council
as a major step forward in the
Christian unity movement.
Almost 100 observers from prot-
estant, Anglican and Orthodox
churches who attend the daily,
council meetings applauded along
with most of the Catholic bishops
when the vote result was announc-
"This is perhaps the greatest
day in the Ecumenical Council so
far," said the Rev. Dr. Dana Mci-
Lean Geeley of Boston, Mass.,
president of the Unitarian Univer-
salist Association of North Amer-
"It is a credit to the Roman Al
Catholic Church that it promotes
this idea of religious liberty while
/still claiming itself as the only
true church," he said.
Opposition Defeated
A last-ditch effort by opposing
cardinals and bishops from Italy,
Spain and some Latin-American
nations to block the document
went down in defeat. The council
voted 1,997 to 224 to accept the SAI
text "as the basis for a definitie Five
declaration." rescue
A final vote, with approval tak- men
n for granted now, will come after Nam,
textual revisions suggested by report
council fathers. By council rules, Ha
however, nothing substantive in were
the text can be changed. Con
Voices Rights ners s
In essence, the declaration de- drove
clares that every man has the craft
right to believe what his con- a Fl
science dictates and practice his down
religion without outside interfer- .south
ence from other individuals or the b
state authority. It calls on states Th
to protect this right. . and U
Experts, who put the declara- ts
tion together said they thought it troop
would take them two to three
weeks to get arevised text, based
on comments voiced in the coun-
cil or in writing, back to the full

council for votes of total accept-
ance in its final form.
Movement Overruled
Fears of new steps by conserva-
tives to block the initial vote had WA
grown Monday when a vote was to P
not then forthcoming. Reliable far-re
sources said that, at -a meeting federa







t .. T hhjr S,,1cat -: L t

Cites Arms,
Asian Issues
To Deleoates,
Vote Deadlock Over,
Fanfani Elected as
Assembly President
tary-General U Thant raised the
thorny question yesterday of Com-
munist Chinese representation as
the General Assembly launched its
20th session. He linked the issue
with military conflicts in Asia
and the deadlock in disarmament.
Delegates to the 114-nation
General Assembly prepared to re-
turn to normal voting procedures
after a year's paralysis with elec-
tion by secret ballot of a new pres-
Amintore Fanfani, Italian for-
eign minister, was unopposed for
the post.
Annual Report
Thant said the war in Viet Nam
had cruelly set back the trend
toward East-West cooperation and
revived the cold war. He said it
threatens world peace and the
fate of all mankind and added:
"It must be stopped."
He said the international sit-
uation has again been deeply dis-
turbed by the Indian-Pakistani
conflict. He noted that the Se-
curity Council was trying to bring
about a cease-fire, and he pledg-
ed to continue his efforts to re-
store peace.
Need Universality
Thant raised the Chinese rep-
resentation issue by declaring that
the Viet Nam situation and the
stalemate on disarmament "point
once again to the imperative need
for the United Nations to achieve
universality of membership as soon
as possible."
He said the trend of events in
the past 10 months led him to
renew his suggestion that coun-
tries not now represented at the
United Nations "should be enabled
to maintain contact with the world
body and listen to its delibera-
tions, and thus be more directly
exposed to the views of the rest
of mankind."
He declared that the true inter-
ests of peace would be better serv-
ed if non-member states were en-
couraged to maintain observers at
UN headquarters "so that they
may be in a better position to
sense the currents and cross -cur-
rents of world opinion" voiced at
/the United Nations.
North Viet Nam, North Korea,
and East Germany do not main-
tain observer missions at the Unit-
ed Nations, as do South Korea,
South Viet Nam and West Ger-
Red China Seat
Coinciding with Thant's report
was the issuance of a memoran-
dum by 10 countries urging ad-
mission of Communist China and
the expulsion of the Chinese Na-
Thant expressed gratification
that a solution had been reached
on the voting rights of debtor na-
tions, an issue that had paralyzed
the 19th session. The United
States backed down on its insist-
ence that no-vote penalties be
applied to the Soviet Union,
France and 10 other nations in
arrears on peacekeeping assess-
ments, thus paving the way for

Strikers Set
To Prolong
NEW YORK UP)-Hopes of set-
tling the six-day-old strike shut-
down of seven majbr newspapers
here plummeted yesterday.
The striking American Newspa,
per Guild rejected a mediator's
offer to recommend a settlement,
and a second union, the Mailers,
threatened to prolong the dispute.
Saying the strike might be a
long one, Elmer Brown, national
president of'the International Ty-
pographical Union, said the print-
ers were prepared to finance their
share. He indicated the union was
willing to equal the $4 million in
benefits it paid out during the last
newspaper strike here.
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, presi-
dent and publisher of the New
York Times, reported that in the
first five days of the Guild's strike
the newspaper had lost more than
$3 million in advertising revenue.
The dispute cancelled what was
to have been the largest paper in
the Times' history, a seven-pound,
780-page Sunday edition.
Of the city's metropolitan dail-
ies, only the afternoon New York
Post remained in publication -
with its press run doubled to 750,-
000 copts.
Two strike-born papers made
their appearance and a third an-
nounced plans for publication this
Special mediator Theodore W.
Kheel had recessed the Times-
Guild talks in order to give the
parties time to restudy the situa-
tion and to attempt to prevent
them from becoming "too firm
and frozen" on Issues.

Petition Now For
September 20-26,
Sign up on Cinema Guild
Office Door-2547 S.A.B.


Mexican Handicraft

Woolen Goods
Sara pes


If you are concerned about university problems in
the areas of academic reform, student economic

"I'd like to report a fire

. . .*

Five U.'S.A ircraft Reported
Downed in North Viet Nam

IGON, South Vipt Nam (IP)-
U.S. aircraft-including a
e helicopter with four crew-
-are lost over North Viet
a U.S. military spokesman
ted yesterday.
noi says nine U.S. aircraft
mmunist antiaircraft gun-
hot doin the helicopter and
off another Monday as the
tried to rescue the pilot of
05 Thunderchief knocked
by ground fire on a mission
of Vinh, 100 .miles north of
order, the spokesman said.
four helicopter crewmen,
he downed pilot were listed
nissing. North Vietnamese
s were seen heading for the

F105 pilot after he ejected, the
spokesman said. Another pilot was
presumed dead after his F105
crashed into a ridge as it pulled
away from its target 50 miles
southeast of Dien Bien Phu.
Charge Gas Warfare
In other developments:
-Communist broadcasts from
Hanoi and Peking renewed charges
that the United States was using
"toxic gas" in South Viet Nam.
Hanoi radio said U.S. and South
Vietnamese troops killed 35 per-
sons with "toxic gas" in a raid
Sept. 5 on Phuoc . Son village in
Binh Dinh Province.
A U.S. spokesman also reported
yesterday U.S. and Vietnamese
planes flew over more than 200

sorties against targets in South
Viet Nam for the second day.
In the ground war only sporadic
skirmishes were reported but the
Viet Cong, for the second straight
day, ambushed a government com-
pany and inflicted heavy losses.
The ambush was in the central'
Vietnamese village of Dai Loc.
The Vietnamese company of
about 200 men was reported badly
Communist guerrillas Monday
caught a Vietnamese company at
Da Hoa An, about 20 miles south
of the big U.S. air base at Da
Nang, 380 miles north of Saigon,
and killed or wounded half the

World News Roundup

By The Associated Press
SHINGTON-Congress sent
resident Johnson yesterday
aching legislation giving the
al government a strong say

In the third day of debate on
the House-approved measure at-
tempts to stop the bill were un-
leashed by Sens. John L. Mc-
Clellan (D-Alk and James 0.
Eagst'land (Dl-Miss). Butbaers

closer than 660 feet to interstate
and primary roads, except in com'
mercial areas, and require junk-
yards within 1,000 feet of the
roadway to be either screened or

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