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May 16, 1967 - Image 3

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1967-05-16

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TUESDAY, MAY 16, 1967

THE MICHIG~AN UAIl.V

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Chou E
Arouses
Cooper pAsks

n -Lai Interview
Senate Debate

PEKING SERVES ULTIMATUM:
Hong Kong Troops Alerted
In Wake of Chinese Threat

Restrictions
On Bombings
Premier To Call For
'Volunteers' if Asked
By North Vietnam
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-A proposal by
Sen. John Sherman Cooper (R-
Ky), to restrict the bombing of
North Vietnam set off a fresh
round of senatorial warnings yes-
terday against military actions
that might bring communist China
into the war.
The senate debate followed the
disclosure Sunday of an interview
with Communist China's Premier
"hou En-lai and four other top
Chinese Communist leaders.
Chou En-lai was quoted as say-
ing Peking is ready to send in
"volunteers" if North Vietnam
asks for them. And he said China
would oppose any "sellout peace."
Special Interview
This declaration was reported
Sunday by the Chicago Daily News
in the first of copyright series of
interviews with the Chinese lead-
ers by Simon Malley an United
Nations correspondent.
Malley's exclusive interviews,
which reveal the most detailed
picture of Communist China's
plans since the start of its tumul-
tuous cultural revolution, mark the
first time in two years a non-
Asian newsman has been able to
get inside the walls of Peking's
Forbidden City to speak to Chi-
nese leaders.
In the* series, Malley reports on
his 2Y-hour interview with Chou,
who warned that the Chinese are
"determined the Americans will
not succeed" in Vietnam.
China Ready
China is "ready tomorrow if
need be" to send volunteers into
North Vietnam if Hanoi should
request assistance, Chou said.
Malley wrote that the premier
said that China would have to
reconsider its present policy if U.S.
troops ever should land in North
Vietnam.
"Americans won't be allowed to
approach our borders," he stress-
ed. "Our security would be at
stake."
Sellout" Peace
In addition to these conditions,
Malley wrote, there is one other
contingency under which China
would enter the war-a "sellout"
peace.
In this regard, Maley wrote,
Chou scornfully lumped the Soviet
Union with the United States as
China's enemies.
Chou said that despite Soviet
aid to North Vietnam, the USSR
believes it is to her own interest
to conclude the war through a
compromise that would be "tant-
amount to defeat" for the North
Vietnamese.
Limit Bombings
Cooper's comments yesterday,
consisted of an appeal to Presi-
dent Johnson to limit bombings to
the infiltration areas around the
demilitarized zone. If this brought
any affirmative response from
Hanoi, he said the bombing o
North Vietnam should be sus-
pended.
Cooper, a Foreign Relati ons
committeeman and former ambas-
sador to India, conceded this move
involves risks. But he added, "The
danger inherent in seeking a new
initiative toward peace by a limit-
ation of the bombing in North
Vietnam is not as great as the
danger of China's intervention as
a result of the war's expansion.
Nor would this new attempt to
achieve negotiations be as danger-

ous as an increased involvement
by the Soviet Union, and the
greater peril of World War III."
Cooper's views, stated in a Sen-
ate speech, put him at variance
with the position Republican
Leader Everett M. Dirksen of Il-
linois has ascribed to a majority
of GOP senators-of standing
foursquare behind President John-
son's conduct of the war.
But his proposal won a speedy
endorsement from Democratic
Leader Mike Mansfield of Mon-
tana. He said Cooper had been
statesmanlike in pointing up the
ominous danger that war escala-
tion would make more probable
Chinese intervention in the con-
flict.
Following up this, Mansfield
called in a Senate speech for a con-
frontation within the United Na-
tions of Communist China and
North Vietnam with the Soviet
Union, the United States and

China Cites
U.S.-Soviet
Peace Plans
Labels as 'Sell-Out'
Peace Overtures
From Hanoi Leaders
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
Communist Chinese Premier
Chou En-lai's threat to oppose a
"sell-out peace" in Vietnam makes
1967 a critical year, if there is to
be any progress toward negotia-
tion of the war in Southeast Asia.
Chou's remark, as quoted by cor-
respondent Simon Malley in a
series copyright by the Chicago
Daily News, reflects the mood of
the Peking leadership.
Evidently it is against any kind
of peace at all in Vietnam. It pre-
fers to hope the United States will
be bled economically, physically
and militarily over a long period.
Peking has been cautious, how-
ever, about actual Chinese involve-
ment. The threat of pouring in
volunteers in the style of Korea
remains qualified by the repeated
assumption that Hanoi must ask
for them.
This may be the critical year be-
cause China at this time is off bal-
ance. The turmoil of its "great
praletarian cultural revolution"
has damaged the party and gov-
ernment administrative structures.
It has hurt China's economy and
caused divisions among the off i-
cer corps of China's armed forces.
It is likely to take a good deal
of time for China to regain-her
balance ,even if the cultural rev-
olution is calmed down soon.But
Peking by 1968 may succeed in
restoring sanity, and be in a bet-
ter position to throw its weight
around in Asia.
Hanoi appears to want almost
anything except a Chinese inva-
sion, which could "help" North
Vietnam to the point where it
would hardly exist atall as an
independent political entity.
Hanoi has close touch with the
Viet Cong's political arm. It could
be that both the Hanoi and Viet
Cong leaderships are thinking in
terms of salvaging whatever they
can from 20 years of war, before
massive, overpopulated and hungry
Communist China is in any posi-
tion to descend upon them

HONG KONG (P)-The British
colonial government allerted 20,000
police and troops yesterday after
Communist China formally enter-
ed a dispute between pro.-Com-
munist Chinese in Hong Kong and
the authorities of this territory
nudging the Chinese mainland.
In a formal note of protest to
London, Peking accused colonial
officals of "Fascist atrocities
against Chinese" in three days of
rioting that stemmed from a strike
of workers in factories making ar-
tificial flowers over wages and un-
employment. The note made five
demands on Britain.
Local Communist newspapers
plastered news of the Peking
charges on windows, walls and
ouildings throughout Hong Kong.
Communist Demands
The Chinese Communist sent
the demands to the British gov-
ernnment through the British
charge d'affaires in Peking. One
of them called for the release of
all Chinese arrested during last
week's turmoil in Kowloon, the
off-island part of Hong Kong, and
punishment of officials "respon-
sible for these bloody atrocities."
The government is known to
consider the demand to free all
those arrested in last week's riot-
ing the most immediately danger-
ous to the colony's peace.
Of the nearly 400 arrested, 250
are scheduled for court appear-
ances starting today, and 115 al-
ready have been sentenced to one
to, 18 months in jail on their pleas
of guilty to charges ranging from
curfew breaking to rioting.
Peking's other demands include
immediately stopping all Fascist
atrocities and racial suppression
against Chinese, and punishing the
culprits responsible for these san-
guinary atrocities. Peking also
wants a guarantee against the oc-
curence of any similar incidents.

Peking made similar demands on
Portugal after anti-Portugese riot-
ing broke out on Macao in Janu-
ary. The Portugese met the de-
mands after Communist Chinese
gunboats appeared off Macao, and
island at the mouth of the Canton
River in Communist China.
In London, British authorities
acknowledged receipt of the Pe-
king's demands but said there
would be no comment
Peking's note also accused Brit-
ain of collaborating with the Unit-
ed States in the Vietnam war and
Hong Kong officials raised the
possi'. ility that Communist China's
real interest in the dispute might
as an attempt to force Britain to
bar U.S. warships, transport and
cargo planes and servicemen from
Hong Kong.

U.S. warships made about 390
calls here last year, visits that
Britain and the United States con-
tend are only for crew rest and re-
laxation purposes. Spending by
U.S. personnel poured an esti-
mated $42 million into the Hong
Kong economy.
The fighting in a Kowloon in-
dustrial district started Thursday
but tapered off Sunday and co-
lonial officials lifted a dusk-to-
dawn curfew.
But tension remained high
among the colonoy's four million
Chinese-98 per cent of the pop-
ulation.
There were scattered incidents
last night after Communist news-
papers rushed into print with red-
inked extras reporting Peking's
intervention.

Tribunal Orders Overhaul
In Juvenile Court Cases

WASHINGTON (P)-The nation's
juvenile court procedures were or-
dered overhauled in a historic Su-
preme Court ruling yesterday that
juveniles accused of delinquency
are entiled to, essential Bill-of-
Rights guarantees.
"Neither the Bill of Rights nor
the U.S. Constitution is for adults
only," Justice Abe Fortas said in
announcing the decision to a pack-
ed courtroom. The vote was 8 to 1
but three justices had some re-
servations about what Fortas said.
Henceforth, Fortas declared in
the majority opinion, juveniles
may not be denied the right to
have a lawyer's help, the right to
face and cross-examine witnesses,
the privilege against self-incrim-
ination and the right to know in

-Associated Press
MOTHERS' PEACE PLEAS
Sen. William Fulbright (D-Ark), chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and an
outspoken critic of the Vietnam war, sat behind stacks of an estimated 10,000 to 12,000 Mother's
Day cards yesterday in his Capitol Hill office in Washington. The cards were sold by an organi-
zation called Another Mother for Peace and carried a plea for peace from mothers across the nation.
EGYPT GOES NORTH:
Report Buildup Along Border'
Of Syrian, Israeli Soldiers

'Kennedy Round' Talks
End in Trade Agreement

JERUSALEM (P)-Troops pa-
raded with light weapons through
the Israeli sector of Jerusalem
yesterday as this nation of 2.5
million people celebrated its 19th
independence day in the midst of
crisis with its Arab neighbors.
In Cairo, military units moved
north through the Egyptian cap-
ital and there were rumors of
mobilization to support Syria in
the event of an outbreak of fight-
ing with Israel. Egyptian and
Syrian generals started talks on
joint defense.
Unconfirmed reports in Demas-
cus said Israel had started a mas-
sive troop buildup along its border
with Syria and Lebanon.
A dispute over border farmland
last month touched off one of the
sharpest Israeli-Syrian battles
since Israel won its present ter-
ritory from the Arabs in 1948.
About 150,000 Israelis cheered
the display of arms in Jerusalem
yesterday, but nearly all diplo-
matic representatives stayed away.
They said their presence might
have added to the Arab-Israeli
tension.
David Ben-Gurion, 80-year-old
former prime minister and defense
minister, also boycotted the pa-
rade. He said the display should
have included all the arms at Is-
rael's disposal regardless of arm-
istice curbs.
About 1,600 troops marched in
the parade. Arms shown included
machine guns mounted on jeeps,
81mm mortars on command cars

and light anti-aircraft guns drawn'
by trucks.
Among those who stayed away
from the parade was Lt. Gen. Odd
gull of Norway, the U.N. truce
chief of staff.
The troop movements through
Cairo tied up traffic for several
hours during the middle of the
day. Egyptian forces were placed
on the alert Sunday and it was
thought the units moving through
Cairo might be headed for posi-

tions around the Suez Canal and
in Sinai.
The Egyptian army chief of
staff, Gen. Mohammed Fawzi, con-
ferred in Damascus with the Syr-
ian defense minister, Maj. Gen.
Hafez al Assad, and his army
chief of staff, Maj. Gen. Ahmed
Sweidani.
In Baghdad, Iraqi Defense Min-
ister Mohsen Hussein al Habib
urged "united Arab revolutionary
action" to oust the Israelis from
Palestine.

GENEVA (P) - The United
States and the world's major com-
mercial nations reached agreement
yesterday in the "Kennedy Round"
of talks on cutting tariffs and
promoting trade worth billions of
dollars a year.
Experts estimated that the re-
ductions in customs duties will
average 33 to 35 per cent in 80-
odd nations.
This was less than the 50 per
cent slash that had been sought,
but much more than had ever been
achieved in tariff negotiations.
Long Battle
Accords were worked out after
four hard-fought, day-and-night
sessions climaxed more than five
years of preparation.
The final decision came just be-
fore midnight.
The final package included a
variety of agreements.
Tariff reductions will be made
on some 6300 industrial and farm
items in world trade from animals,
live, to waste and scrap. The cuts
were made on a reciprocal basis,
with every country in the agree-
ment benefitting from new oppor-

tunities to export to the others.
A new, higher minimum world
grain price, $1.73 a bushel, is es-
tablished for hard red winter
wheat at the dockside in ports on
the Gulf of Mexico.
An international food aid pro-
gram of 4.5 million tons a year,
with contributions from major in-
dustrial countries as well as the
United States will be established.
An anti-dumping accord to pro-
tect businessmen from foreign
competitors trying to export goods
at less than cost will, also be
enacted.
Most of the benefits will go to
businessmen, especially importers
and exporters. Some of the sav-
ings from lowered tariffs may be
passed on to consumers.
"The essential elements in the
Kennedy Round have now been
successfully negotiated," said a
statement issued by Eric Wynd-
ham-White, director-general of
the General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade-Gatt.
He estimated that concessions
had been reached on trade valued
at $40 billion a year.

advance of the hearing the com-
plaints against them.
Additionally, the ruling said, it
would be helpful if juvenile courts
kept records of their proceedings
for possible use when a juvenile.
ordered confined, attempts to win
his freedom in federal court.
And, he said at another point
in the 56-page opinion, "Under
our Constitution, the condition of
being a boy does not justify a
kangaroo court."
The sweep of the ruling, how-
ever, was limited. It applies only
to proceedings before the juvenile
court judge, not to the time the
youngster is in police custody.
And states may continue to keep
police and juvenile court records
confidential.
Arizona Case
The court said the Supreme
Court of Arizona was wrong in
turning down the constitutional
claims raised by the American
Civil Liberties Union for- Gerald
Francis Gault.
In 1964, Gault, then 15, was or-
dered confined to reform school
until 21, unless released sooner, on
a neighbor's complaint" that he
had made lewd telephone calls.
Now he must be given a new
hearing with the constitutional
safeguards presribed in the high
court's ruling.
Justice Potter Stewart was the
only outright dissenter.
Decision Unsound.
"I believe the court's decision
is wholly unsound as a matter of
constitutional law, and sadly un-
wise as a matter of judicialpol-
icy," Stewart wrote.
Justices John M. Harlan, Hugo
L. Black and Byron R. White were
the trio who votedwith the major-
ity in reversing the Arizona court
but did not go along with every-
thing the majority opinion said.
Harlan, for instance, said only
three procedural requirements
should be imposed: timely notice
of the hearing, notice that a law-
yer may appear at such proceed-
ings in behalf of the juvenile or
his family and that a written rec-
ord or its equivalent should be
made.

Johnson Requests Debt Ceiling Increase
To Combat Deficit from Vietnam War

WASHINGTON () -President
Johnson's administration, fore-
casting continued high budget
deficits because of Vietnam, asked
Congress yesterday for a $92-bil-
lion increase in the national debt
ceiling.
This would be the biggest single
increase since World War II.
In addition to the increased
borrowing authority, Secretary of
the Treasury Henry H. Fowler told
the House Ways and Means Com-
mittee the government needs the
six per cent income tax surcharge
for which Johnson asked.
Finally, the secretary asked for
authority to sell some longterm
government securities at an in-

terest rate higher than the statu-
tory 4 per cent.
..Fowler also recommended that
Congress abandon the distinction
it has kept up since 1955 between
a "permanent" and a "temporary"
debt ceiling, and designate a pro-
posed new $365-billion permanent
ceiling.
The present permanent ceiling
is $285 billion. Unless Congress
acts by July 1, this permanent
ceiling will go back into effect-
at a time when the debt is expect-
ed to be about $327 billion.
Under questioning, Fowler kept
open the possibility of change in
Johnson's original recommenda-
tion for a six per cent surcharge
on both individual and corporate
income taxes.
Present Plan
He said he is standing on this
recommendation now and "that's
the only matter now before the
Congress." But he added, "Wheth-
er the President will have any
changes to suggest later, I can't
inform you now."
Fowler conceded there has been
delay in getting the legislative
machinery for a tax increase start-
ed, and that in the meanwhile the
economy has displayed some slug-
gishness. He said, "We would
frankly like to have Congress con-
sider it at a time when it would

have the maximum prospect of
adoption."
There has been some speculation
that, if the economy picks up, the
administration might try for a
starting date of Oct. 1 for the sur-
tax. July 1 was the original tenta-
tive target date.
Updated Estimates
Fowler and Budget Director
Charles L. Schultze laid before the
committee a series of updated es-
timates of the goverment's fiscal
position.
The deficit for the fiscal year
ending June 30, which was esti-
mated in January at $9.7 billion,
now looks like $11 billion. For the
following year, fiscal 1968, the
January deficit estimate was $8.1
billion, but officials now are mak-
ing rough guesses in the neighbor-
hood of $11dbillion, provided Viet-
nam costs do not soar and pro-
vided the tax increase passed.
Economic consultants to the
Business Council estimated last
week the 1968 deficit might reach
$18 billion, with rising Vietnam
costs and without a tax increase.
Fowler told the committee the
special cost of the Vietnam war
during 1967 will exceed $20 billion.
Without the war dislocations, in-
creased costs and increased taxes
already voted, he said, there would
be a budget surplus for the year
of $5 billion.

world News Roundup

fB
oni4

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON - The Penta-
gon announced yesterday a U.S.
Air Force jet was struck by North
Vietnamese antiaircraft fire and
indicated it may have crashed
across the Red Chinese border.
In an unsolicited statement, the
Pentagon said the Fl05 Thunder-
chief was hit during an attack
yesterday against military targets
in the vicinity of Kep, North Viet-
nam.
* * *
OTTAWA-John G. Diefenbak-
er, leader of the opposition in
Parliament, tried and failed yes-

terday to obtain emergency de-
bate in the House of Commons on
a speech by a chief adviser to
Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson
assailing U.S policy in Vietnam
and calling for withdrawal of
Canadian support.
* * *
WASHINGTON - The Senate
passed a bill yesterday authorizing
$115.7 million for the Peace Corps
in the next year after cutting it
$3 million below President John-
son's request.
The measure, cleared by voice
vote, Was sent to the House where
the Foreign Affairs Committee has
not yet conducted hearings on it.

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