TUESDAY, AUGUST 8, 1967
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TUEDAY AGUS 8 ,96TUI MIHrain fasTJV
Arab MerchantStrike HOUSE PROTEST ERUPTS:
- -- - - - . - ._ -- I
Fdears Viet Buildu Might Staged in Jerusalem
WASHINGTON P-The Sen-
ate preparedness subcommittee is
seriously concerned that the con-
tinuing Vietnam buildup has cut
into the nation's military capa-
bility for meeting other world-
wide commitments, reliable
sources said yesterday.
This concern will be expressed
in a forthcoming report and, may
have a direct bearing on how the
Pentagon goes about fulfilling
President Johnson's new 45,000-
troop authorization for Vietnam.
Defense Department and Army
officials are examining a number
of ways to come up with the new'
troops, but it already has been
officially acknowledged that most
additional forces will be existing
units of the strategic. reserve.
An unanswered question is
whether the Pentagon will replace
units pulled from this active-duty
force, which consists of roughly
six divisions kept at home to meet
military challenges which might
flare up abroad.
A second question is whether
the Pentagon can persuade Con-
gress that the nation can safely
draw upon the continental-based
strategic reserve at all.
Sources say Sen. John Stennis
(D-Miss.), chairman of the Sen-
ate subcommittee, will insist that
any reduction in the strategic re-
serve force be linked to immed-
lated accompanying steps to re-
place the units in such a way
that it would not leave a gap.
Stennis's preparedness subcom-
mittee soon will issue a report
questioning the U.S. capability for
meeting existing international
commitments. The paper will in-
clude closed-door testimony given
last spring by Secretary of State
Dean Rusk and the Joint Chiefs
Stennis and several other rank-
ing congressional leaders last year
voiced alarm at the way they felt
the strategic reserve "was kept
below peak readiness in order to,
turn out men for Vietnam.
The Strategic Reserve divisions
and brigades were giving up ex-
perienced officers to provide the
backbone for new Vietnam-bound
units or were assigned to train
large numbers of recruits as re-
At one point in 1966, for exam-
ple, the 101st Airborne Division
which already has one brigade
serving in Vietnam got an influx
of 2,400 recruits. At the same
time, the First and Second Ar-
mored Divisions in Texas were,
as Gen. Harold K. Johnson, Army
Chief of Staff, said, "filled up
with untrained people."
The Pentagon is expected to
defend its new manpower plans
on two grounds:
-The Strategic Reserve exists
to be used;
-President Johnson wants mil-
itary costs held at a minimum.
Congressional sources say there
is another side ot the coin-that
National Guard and Army Re-
serve units also exist to be used.
There may be pressure for the
Pentagon to undertake at least
a selective callup of certain spe-
cialty-type reserve units.
The Pentagon's official position
at the moment is that no reserve
mobilization is planned.
The strategic reserve - not to
be confused with the Army Re-
serve organization - consists of'
the two remaining brigades of the
101st Airborne Division in Ken-
tucky, the 82nd Airborne Division
in North Carolina, the two ar-
mored divisions in Texas - the
mechanized 5th Infantry Division
in Colorado, the 6th Armored
Cavalry Regiment in Maryland,
the 11th Infantry Brigade in
Hawaii and the 198th Brigade inj
Texas. The 198th will be in Viet-
nam by the end of the year.
By The Associated Press
Nearby all Arab merchants in
Jerusalem closed their shops yes-
terday in a one-day strike to pro-
test Israel's unification of the
city. Israelis blamed fear of re-
.prisals by militant Arabs for the
extent of the shutdown.
No violence was reported, but
Israeli police said three Arab
youths were arrested for threat-
ening shopkeepers who failed to
close their businesses.
On the uneasy River Jordan
truce line, Israeli and Jordanian
troops exchanged shots for a time.
Israel blamed Jordan for the
break in the cease-fire, one of:
several within a week.
Amman Radio said three Israeli
vehicles with mounted machine
guns opened fire about five miles
north of the Allenby Bridge,
crossing point for Arab refugees
on the River Jordan. It said Jor-
danian troops on the east bank
returned the fire. Neither side re-
ported any casualties.
The strike, called by the "De-
fense Committee of Arab Jeru-
salem," resulted in the closing of
more than 2,000 shops in the Old
City of Jerusalem and elsewhere
in the former Jordanian sector
of the city, taken over by Israeli
forces in the Arab-Israeli war in
An anti-Israel demonstration
called for the Damascus Gate in-
to the Old City failed to material-
ize. Newsmen, tourists and a few
policemen outnumbered the few
dozen Arabs at the gate at the
In another development, the
Jordanian Red Crescent Society,
Jordan's Red Cross, said thou-
sands of Arab refugees will start
returning to their homes in the
Israeli-occupied sector of Jordan
west of the Jordan River within
Israel has set no date for the
repatriation to begin, but the
Knesset, Israel's Parliament, has:
said it must be completed by Aug.'
31. It is believed, however, that
the deadline could be extended if
Israel and Jordan finally reach-
ed agreement on the repatriation7
program Sunday night with the
aid of the International Red=
Cross. ItI covers the approximately1
260,000 Arabs who fled from the
west bank area up to July 10. The4
accord had been delayed by1
lengthy haggling over the appli-
cation form the refugees will fill]
out for their return.I
Patrolman Says Poverty Aids
Set Stage for Newark Riots
WASHINGTON ()-A Newark, "My knowledge of the UCC has violence in Newark on Jul
N.J., policeman charged yesterday been limited to seeing these peo- The committee is considi
that poverty workers paid with ple picket and demonstrate," Ko- House-passed bill which
federal funds took part in picket- walewski acknowledged. make it a federal crime tc
ing and demonstrations which led 'That's a good deal different a state line with intent to
up to racial rioting. from what you've said previously," riot.
Patrolman Leonard F. Kowa- Kennedy said. Sen. Stephen M. Youn
lewski also asserted that lawyers But Kowalewski insisted that Ohio) called the bill "me
employed in a federally financed Negro demonstrations and civil smokescreen for the real
legal defense program were on disobedience over a five-year per- problems plaguing our natic
hand at Negro demonstrations, on iod created the climate which told the Senate it is unco
grounds they were needed to pro- produced five days of racial riot- tional, a violation of th
tect constitutional rights. ing. Twenty-seven persons were speech guarantee, vague
"A fancy name for, I say, am- killed. - senseless.
bulance chasing," Kowalewski Kennedy asked Kowalewski who Negroes Demonstrate
told the Senate Judiciary Com- he was representing in the witness Meanwhile, a predomi
mittee. chair. Negro group from New
Names Curvin "That is a good question," the Harlem staged a chanting,
Kowalewski, president of the policeman said. He never answer- ping gallery of the House.
Fraternal Order of New Jersey ed it, although he said he had quickly stepped in and,
Policemen, lodged his most direct advised police officials on his call screaming epithets and
complaint against a man named to testify. fists, expelled the group frc
Robert Curvin. He said Curvin Invited Friday Capitol.
was head of Newark's Congress Kowalewski said he was invited Police arrested eight of t
of Racial Equality, and testified to appear Friday, hours after sisting demonstrators, whos
that demonstrations and com- comment that the testimony of a pose was to protest action
plaints against police by that Newark police detective did not House last month in killing
group had set the atmosphere for name names in connection with to set up a federal rat-(
five days of deadly racial turmoil. the riots. - program.
Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D- "In my opinion, the climate for, The group of about 95 p
Mass.) demanded detailed charges the conditions in the city of Ne- including Harlem rent
and documentation. , wark that started the riot began leader Jesse Gray, listene
-- _ - ---in 1Q92" K ipalewsk sai.___. - _-1. .,v_ A
Pentagon sources say it is
ical that the remainder of
________. v. . _ _ _ _
.01st .iroorne ivision wil le ae-
ployed to Vietnam where it would
blend easily with the brigade al-I1uerrilla Morale oses Problems for U.S.,
In addition to the major units of 1 T
of the strategic reserve there ae MMis-Estimates ofmill Brmg Stalemate
thousands of troops in smaller in-
dependent. artillery. engineer and
.,.,t............. wa waavs J f a...aL-j aaavva. a..-aa . _ ..._ ___ _ . ' -----+.. ._ . _.,. .
Iansfield Urges Bomb Halt,
UN Effort To End Viet War
signal units across the country
which could be ordered to Viei-
Guerrilla action around Saigona
has spurted recently. The Com-1
munists shelled the U.S. Navy;
base at Nha Be just south of the
city twice last week, wounding 24,
Americans and setting thousands,
of gallons of fuel on fire in one of
U.S. troops and South Vietna-
mese rangers were being landed
on a suspected enemy position1
yesterday when enemy gunners
popped from their foxholes and
aimed a curtain of bullets at the
U.S. warplans flew 134 missionsa
over North Vietnam Sunday,!
mostly in the southern portion of
the country because of poor
weather around Hanoi.
WASHINGTON (P) - Senate
Democratic leader Mike, Mansfield
of Montana urged yesterday that
the administration take immed-
iate steps to reduce the war in
Vietnam, instead of escalating it.
Mansfield told the Senate
President Johnson's recent deci-
sions to send 45,000 more men
and the battleship New Jersey
into the war, coupled with what
he said were apparently unsuc-
cessful efforts to persuade the
w allies to contribute more troops,
all seemed to point to a longer
war and less chance for peace.
Mansfield said he hoped the
administration would accept three'
suggestions he and other senators
have made to cool off the war.
1. A stop to the bombing of
North Vietnam, while concentrat-
ing on blocking infiltration at the
2. Construction of a defensive
barrier at the southern end of the
demilitarized zone between North
and South Vietnam.
3. A strong U.S. initiative to put
the war before the United Nations
"The accentuation should not
be on further escalation in which
the enemy can match and out-
match us but on concentration
and consolidation in South Viet-
nam through the first two of the
three-point formula listed above
and by taking the third part of
that formula to the United
Nations immediately," Mansfield
Mansfield said he envisioned an
invitation by the Security Council
to "all belligerents, direct and in-
direct, including China and North
Vietnam as well as South Viet-
nam and the National Liberation
Front, to participate in an open
discussion of the conflict and
ways and means to end it."
Sen.' John Sherman Cooper
(R-Ky.) supported Mansfield's
plea, declaring he hoped the
President would try for U.N. set-
tlement before continuing to es-
calate the war.
"A realistic appraisal of the
U.N. prevents us from expecting
the Security Council to produce
some miraculous solution over-
night," Mansfield said.,
"It ought not to prevent us,
however, from expecting the
council at least to confront the
issue of Vietnam squarely and to
make a real effort to contribute
to its solution." Mansfield said
the prospects now are for a fur-
ther escalation of the Vietnam
War "with the costs in lives and
money being borne preponderant-
ly by us."
By JOHN T. WHEELER
Associated Press Staff Writer
j SAIGON (IP)-Failure of mas-
sive U.S. firepower to break Com-
munist morale and fighting spirit
has forced a major revaluation of
the Viet Cong guerrilla warrior in
A continuing search for radi-
cally new tactics with improved
equipment has turned up nothing
essentially new to combat the
Communists' highly effective mo-
bile warfare techniques. M
It is a failure of heavy conven-
tional firepower and of enormous
air superiority? How was it that
air power could be so ineffective
in American warfare on the Viet-
The biggest reason seems to be
geography, terrain. Greece is a
largely barren country and the
Middle East is largely desert,,
where target forces found little
place to hide. But South Vietnam
is largely impenetrable jungle.
The United States faces a grow-
ing stalemate in the war, at least
until new fighting troops arrive.
The offensive pressure of the
enemy has lessened, but his de-
sertion rate is dropping.
Although enemy defections have
nearly doubled over the same per-
iod last year, the number is about
half that of those deserting their
government posts, and include butj
few of the hard core fighters or
important officers or political
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Concern is high here over the
Communist's ability to maintain
their morale and high fighting
spirit. Until these can be broken,
no military victory appears pos-
sible. Political victory, sought
through pacification of the coun-
tryside seems even more elusive,
senior U.S. officers say.
When' U.S. combat troops were
committed to Vietnam early in
1965, the U.S. Command here
predicted the enemy would not
long be able to withstand U.S.
units. Air power and artillery,
neither of which the enemy had,
were listed as key factors.
At Loss To Explain
Gen. William C. Westmoreland,
the U.S. commander here, says
that he is at a loss to understand
how the enemy can continue to
suffer such heavy casualties, en-
gage in battles knowing that he
will be mercilessly hammered by
shell and bomb with no defense
and still come back for more.
Lt. Gen. Robert E. Cushman,
Commander of U.S. Marines in
Vietnam, told a newsman: "They
take heavy casualties from the air
and artillery. Apparently they
don't care if they throw away
their young men."
Senior intelligence officers say
the vital point is not so much the
commander's willingness to sacri-
fice his men, but the willingness
of the private and corporals to
hurl themselves into uneven
They say the earlier erroneous
estimates of the capability of
American firepower to crush the
enemy's will was partly due to ap-
plying Western logc to assess the
reactions of Asian Communist
Senior U.S. officers trying to
evaluate the enemy's ability to
snap back after a , sharp defeat
were not surprised to find that
the Viet Cong 9th Division, after
being destroyed in and around
War Zone C, was refitted and
brought up to fighting strength
in a matter of a couple of months,
Some Morale 'Bad'
In some areas morale is bad, in-
telligence officers believe. But
they say these spotty reports show
no sign of a trend. Leadership has
weakened in some areas also, but
over-all, new officers and non-
coms also seem to be in good sup-
ply on the enemy side.
Government figures show that
so far this year, 18,987 have left
the Communist side and turned
themselves into the government.
In the same period last year,
10,523 deserted. However, most of
these were political agents, run-
ners, porters, or minor cogs in the
World News Roundup
By The Associated Press
SAIGON - Brig. Gen. John
F. Freund, a decorated infantry-
man of, the .Vietnam war and
veteran of World Wor II, was
caught in a hail of Viet Cong
bullets yesterday when his heli-,
copter swooped down to rescue
two American soldiers in a battle
seven miles north of Saigon.
One bullet hit Freund in the
lower right leg and the general's
aide, a lieutenant, was hit once
in each leg.
* *' *
ident Dwight D. Eisenhower's doc-
tors indicated yesterday he is
maintaining the improvement he
achieved during the weekend
against his gastrointestinal upset.
A hospital spokesman said his
condition could be described as
* * *
PASADENA, Calif. - The
clearest pictures yet of the moon's
rugged back side were televised
yesterday by Lunar Orbiter 5.
The photographs, taken Sun-
day from, an altitude of 1,660
miles and processed later on
board the spacecraft, showed high
mountains and miles-wide }crater
typical of some of the, rougher
areas on the visible half of the
In some, the surface resembled
wind-tossed waves, as if the moon
had been hit by a swarm of
metorites all about the same
NEW YORK '- Six Cubans
and a Puerto Rican printer were
indicted yesterday in what the
government said was a plot to
sell $1 million in counterfeit bills,
ostensibly to finance anti-Castro
Agents have seized some $427,-
000 of the counterfeit bills in two
Manhattan apartments, the pros-
ecuter said, adding the Cubans
allegedly had been seling the bills
for from 8 to 12 per cent of their
2 Days !
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