THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TWO THE MICtIlG~N DAILY
1---l-, ---- -, A-
UMMER RACIAL VIOLENCE:
Government, Private Citizens
lcNamara Memos Chart
By The Associated Press
The difficulties that come in the
Wattses, the Newarks and other
places, President Johnson said
yesterday, emphasize that the
American people must get on with7
the job of improving living con-
ditions, educational and employ-
ment opportunities "where the
people are - and they are in the
The questioning swung around
to presidential views on the vio-
lence that erupted in Newark and
Plainfield, N.J., in the past few
days during Johnson's press con-
rerence in Washington yesterday.
He said government has tried
to help through rent supplements
and model cities programs and by!
stepping up. efforts to provide
summer and full-time jobs for
the poor. But these, he conceded,
have not remedied the situation.
"We can't correct it over-
night,". Johnson said. "We can't
correct it in a day or a year or
a decade. But we are trying at this
end of the line as best we can."
Ask Congressional Action
Meanwhile Negro leader Whit-
ney M. Young, warning that riots
could break out in almost any
American city this summer, urg-
ed Congress on to act quickly to
ease the problems of Negro slums.
Young, executive director of the
National Urban League, called
for emergency programs to find
jobs for Negro youths and predic-
ted such a step would stop the
rioting at once.
Young said the White House'
and Congress need to treat the
menace of rioting with thessamed
sense of urgency they showed
Monday in halting the rail strike. 1
Two More Months
With at least two more hot
months stretching ahead, Amer-
ican cities, with barely concealed1
desperation, are trying to controll
the social pressures that increas-1
ingly shatter traditionally sleepy+
- By REIMAN MORIN "changed situation" in South Viet- balance the number is not likely 1965-McNamara went to Viet- "The pressure on the Viet Cong,
Associated Press News Analyst nam would check the plan to with- to be increased substantially. nam for the sixth time on July 14. measured in terms of the casual-
E n i Rid o t on aitio n s, NEW YORK U)-Since 1962. draw the 1,000 men. The President There will be both increases and A week later he said, "The over- ties they have suffered, the de-
Secretary of Defense Robert S replied, "No. We're going to bring decreases associated with the all situation continues to be seri- struction of their units, the meas-
For several it's too late. For tion are being made. Acting on McNamara has gone to South back several hundred before the strengthening of the Vietnamese ous. As a matter of fact it has urable effect on their morale, has
others a safety valve of temporary the belief that youngsters become Vietnam nine times and after each end of the year." forces.' deteriorated since the 15 months been greater than we anticipated."
ohrsamsayva-veoftmrar theelieftha yunsthe secdts-Vitnamnistaimeandwa sede n The next day, the U.S. Com- On May 18, Johnson asked Con- ago when I was last here." 1967-McNamara returned from
programs may - or may not - alienated when they feel adults- visit a statement was issued n,
give some relief. Negro or white-don't really care the war as it appeared then and mand in Saigon announced the re- gress for 125 million additional aid Johnson ordered American forces his ninth trip on July 7.
Beyond the obvious frictions of about their problems, adults in an official estimate' of the future patriation would begin on Dec. 3. for South Vietnam, saying, "This in the fighting zone to be increas- "I can't comment on what ad-
k i ter s B course of events. Dispatches said this would leave increased terrorism requires in- ed to 125,000 on July 28. ditional troops, if any, will be sent
striking conflict pattern is that together youth patrols which A vast difference stands be- 15,500 servicemen in Vietnam, an- creased response. In Novenber, McNamara went to Vietnam," he said. He had pre-
helped squelch riots on the prom. tween the first and ninth state- other increase after the McNa- In July, it was announced that to Vietnam for the seventh time. viously indicated that 475,000
young against old within the hp g rios on te drm-twenthe it and nnth tate- mara-Taylor report a month ear- more American troops-"in the "We have stopped losing the Americans would be engaged in
Negro community. ise that grievances would be dealt-ments. It indicates three things: Tier. order of 5,000" would be going to war" he said after that trip. Vietnam by the end of 1967.
Negroes as young as 10 nd 12 In Michigan where adult Ne demonstrated repeatedly in 2,000 Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded Vietnam. This would bring the By that time, the arrival of the As for the enemy, the secretary
threw bottles at police in Buffal groes flock to jobs in the aut years-to confound their enemies Kennedy on Nov. 22 and he sent total to about 21,000. 4th Infantry Division and the said, "They are barely able, as
whlghirprnsbeond o lc ojb nteat er-t ofudtereeis ad Te r aeyala
whileindustry fficials say that anyre In wars of independence, they McNamara back to Vietnam-the Then, on Dec. 11, an announce- 196th Brigade had raised the total best we can tell, by continued in-
lene.Ten-aer lotensor s trsecretary'sa tha an
lence. Teen-agers looted stor major threat of violence cones defeated the Chinese in the dis- secretary's third visit-in Decem- ment in Saigon said the United of American forces to 300,000. filtration from the North and re-
from those btween 13 and 25 who tant past and the French in the ber 1963. McNamara then said, I States was increasing its assist- 1966-McNamara expressed op- cruitment in the South to offset
officials counseled nonviolence, can't easily find work. Every ma- 1950s. After 1962, Vietnamese am optimistic over the progress ance. No details were given "for timism again after his eighth trip the very heavy losses they are
Not TheseyDelinquentsjr ynts sr g Communists escalated the war to be made during the coming security reasons." to Vietnam, Oct. 8-14. suffering."
Nofeiqet or city in the state is trying to moreridlytsealatmoedefetelywar r. OperatosaantteCm -- -
These youngsters are not all supply more jobs and recreation j moe rapidly and more effectivel y yunists from here on will be many
hoodlums or confirmed delin- this summer to that age group. than American officials apparently and wis be effective.wlbma
duents. They don't all agree with But many youngsters seem con- anticipated.andwi bes efecv e-coO
black power prophet Stokely Car- vinced that a civil disturbance is Misplaced Optimism On Dec. 20, correspondents i
michael, the only way to start the oper -Misplaced optimism in Wash Saigon reported that hopes ofy
Efforts to improve the situa- ation. ington. dihdrnlvdaio rncb -1 ol r i' r0 01
Claims Maoismn' Dying
wi nrawing American troops Dy
In 1963, the White House issued the end of 1965 had evaporated,
a statement saying the "major although there was no official an-
part' of the U.S. military effort nouncement to this effect.
could be completed "by the end 1964-McNamara returned to
f-~ i ~
rails 10 atilst last Germans
CAMBRIDGE, Mass. (P) - Is:
Leading China scholars at Har-
vard's East Asia Research Center,
say this peculiar brand of com-
munism bearing the name of
Chairman Mao Tse-tung is either
dead or so near to it that it will
never be the same again.
The experts caution that this
does not mean the end of com-
munism in China. There are many
who still stand and wave the little
red book of Mao's writings. But
the old fervor is gone. !
There has been a big change,
Harvard economist and arms con-
trol expert Dwight Perkins told a
three-day meeting of writers and
broadcasters, sponsored by the.
National Committee on U.S.-
In 1958, Perkins said, Chinese
Communist leaders waved a red
banner and the whole nation
stood up and followed. But wav-
ing the same flag now, it is only
the teen-agers who stand up and
march-the rest remain seated.
"My feeling is that Maoism as
we have known it over the last 15
years is dead-or almost dead,"
"What they are moving into is
-The problem of how much to
report about the war and how
frankly to report it.
Military men usually claim they
must fog over the facts, or not
state them at all, so as not to re-
veal information of value to the
enemy, and to avoid damaging the
morale of troops in the field and
civilians 'at home.
In any event, here are the nine
statements issued following Mc-
Namara's trips and the events that
No Combat Forces
the war zone for the fourth time
On March 13, McNamara and
Taylor returned from Vietnam and
McNamara said, "I did not meet
a single responsible official who
doesn't believe that if a proper ef-
fort is made, victory can be ob-
tained. The path to victory may
be hard. There is no magic for-
mula for winning an antiguerrilla
Four days later, the White
House issued a statement. For the
first time it reported that "there
BERLIN (P) - It is hard to
escape the conclusion that the
Communists in East Germany
have made the most of their
economy considering the restric-
tions imposed on it. Another con-
clusion is even more evident-
that the population at large does
not find this progress good
If the people work very hard,
the government says, they will
one day -have more than they
would under a free enterprise
system. But continued disappoint-
ments for the people and depend-
go to the Russians on what West-
ern experts call preferential bar-
ter trade terms for the Soviet
Union. Another 25 per cent goes
to other bloc members.
Exports to Russia are mostly
finished products such as chem-
icals and whole plants, :iighly
automated ships and railroad
rolling stock, all of which the
East Germans could use them-
selves. In return they get mostly
raw materials such as oil, wool,
and iron ore, some foodstuffs and
some manufactured goods such as
The primary gain for the gen-
eral population in this exchange is
work and wages.
The dimensions of the head-
aches their system brings for
those trying to run it help explain
the pride the Communists take .In
what is accomplished.
But the East Germans com-
pared their lot to that of the
people in West Germany, their
fellow Germans and relatives. In
this comparison, what is good
enough for Communists is not
The biggest boast of the Com-
munist regime is what has been
done industrially, raising East
Germany to No. 9 among the
world's industrial nations. "We
had to do everything ourselves,"
they say, "we had no Marshall
plan." Wartime destruction and
subsequent Soviet inroads left
them with nothing else to do tnan
start all over again on their own.
The hard work this entailed is
one reason more than 3 million
East Germans fled to the West
when they could.
Six years ago, the Communists
began putting up the Berlin wall
that was to reduce the refugee
flow to a trickle. It made possible
a stabilized work force and better
planning. Then credit buying put
within reach such things as re-
frigerators and television sets
with which it is possible to tune
both East and West.
enate Subcomormittee Hears'
)pinions on Newspaper Bill
a very uncertain period. They will 1962-After a visit of two weeks.," Vi' en n
have Communist rulers who are the secretary said the United e unquestionably been set- showing u
haveCommnistbacks" in Vietnam since October
anti-U.S. and anti-imperialist, States had "no plan for intro- when the end of 1965 had bee The Eas
but who do not believe anywhere ducing combat forces into South set as a target date for withdraw- begin and
near as fervently in the desire to Vietnam." He said he was "tre- ing most of the American forces. on the Soy
change the thinking of man. mendously encouraged" by devel- May saw McNamara flying to its sharec
They are becoming practical Com- opments there. American forces Ma sar Mefatar . German C
,,iVietnam for the fifth time.GemnC
munists." then amounted to 8,000 men. He said after this trip, "It may sider tryin
Perkins predicted that the suc- In October, six months later, be necessary, in order to expand the first ri
cessor to Mao will not have the American troop strength rose to the training, particularly for the gime is
kind of political control Mao has 10,000. More significantly, cor- increases in the regular and para- Kremlin.
had and will be much less certain respondents noted that the soldiers military forces of South Vietnam, The Sov
in his job. were firing first and not merely to send over additional U.S. per- beneficiary
"They may go into a period of returning enemy fire. sonnel." He added, "I think on half of Ea
Stalinist terror or in the opposite ~ 1963-On Oct. 2, after a survey; __
direction into a period of collec- in Vietnam, McNamara and Gen.'
tive government," he said. Maxwell D. Taylor reported to TREATY FACES OPPOSITION:
Kennedy. The White House then
Historian John K. Fairbanks, , issued a statement which said: Av
director of the East Asia Research f ' aJor Task Completed A skly P an m a Sovw
Center, says he thinks the next "They reported their .judgment
leader will be a military man, that the major part of the U.S.
probably someone other than the military task can be completed by By BEN F. MEYER clamoring
present heir apparent, Defense the end of 1965, although there Associated Press News Analyst treaty, sor
Minister Lin Piao. But he said the may be a continuing requirement a well-gua
impact of Mao is such that his fo a limited nuber of U.S. train- WASHINGTON () - A skittish Chicago Ti
successor will use Mao's mantle ing personnel.ipolitical problem appears to be terday's ed
but will interpret his writings in reported that by the end building in Panama and the the full te:
whatever way he finds useful, of this year the U.S. program for United States over a proposed volved.
Historian-diplomat Edwin Bei- training should have progressed to treaty giving Panama full sov-
schauer, former U.S. ambassador a point where 1,000 U.S. military Zone and a overoicthe inPanaging Canal ls t
to Japan, said he doubts very personnel assigned to Vietnam can cnatolls to m
much in, the long run that even be withdrawn.~' able enterf
the teen-agers will be marching American forces then were re- Critics in Panama say the ing Panam
because the cultural revolution| ported to total 14,000, an increase; treaty does not go far enough; in revenue.
has been very disillusioning, even of 4.000 in a year. ;Washington, foes say it goes too Tolls ha
to them. But he cautioned that it On November 2, Ngo Dinh Diem, far, especially in light of what has since the
has been a long time since the president of South Vietnam, was happened in the Suez Canal un- 1914 by th
Russian people marched, yet they assassinated. der control of the United Arab now pays
are still ruled by a Communist In a news conference Nov. 14, a Republic. annually. I
regime. reporter asked Kennedy if the Some congressmen have been crease thai
the Soviet union are
p points of strain.
t Germans' economics
end with dependence
viet Union, which takes
off the top. The East
ommunists cannot con-
g to change this since
Ule of life for their re-
close ties with the
iet Union is the chief
of this system. About
ast Germany's exports
WASHINGTON (IP)-The Sen-
te antitrust and monopoly sub-
immittee heard testimony yester-
ay on .legislation providing anti-
ust exemption for the merger or
dnt operation of financially fail-
Jack R. Howard, president of
cripps-Howard Newspaper test-
led that if a new evening news-
aper is launched in New York, it
ill be published only by an exist-
ig newspaper, and called the pro-
osed exemption "vital to the
ealth of the newspaper business."
'Still a Monopoly
But publisher Roy' McDonald of
he Chattanooga, Tenn., News-
ree Press differed. He said no
atter what name was tagged on
joint newspaper operating, ar-
ngeinent, "it is still a monopoly,
ad at this time no competing
iedia can replace it."t
McDonald said his newspaper
ad spent 24 years in joint oper-,
ion with the Chattanooga Times
ad since that arrangement ended,
year ago, "I enjoy independence.,
wasn't as independent as I
aould like to be."
He said his competition with
ie Times and its Evening Post
:oved that independent news-
apers- could exist in smaller
merican cities without joint com-
Subcommittee Chairman Philip
Hart (D-Mich) noted that ear-,
er witnesses had said it took a
opulation of well over 60,000 to
ipport two commercial competing
of the 22 joint newspaper opera-
tions in the country. And in each,
he said, a joint arrangement "has
made possible the preservation of
two independent newspapers."
Hart asked Howard if joint op-
erations would'not deter a poten-
tial new competitor from opening
a newspaper in a given market.
"If a community doesn't support
two newspapers, I don't see how it
could support three," Howard said.
The Justice Department has
challenged joint commercial opera-
tions-in advertising, circulation
and business-of two newspapers
in Tucson, Ariz., the Citizen and
the Arizona Daily Star. That chal-
lenge led to introduction of the
reignty in Canal Zone
for details about the Accompanying treaties cover
me of which had been maintenance 'of U.S. military
arded secret until the bases in Panama and the building
ibune published in yes- of a sea level waterway if Panama
itions what it said was is picked as its site.
xt of three treaties in- Most congressional criticism
j has been in the'House, which has
Toll Boost no ,vote on treaties, a function of:
provides for a boost in the Senate.
ake the canal a profit- But House critics say they are:
prise aimed at satisfy- making their voices heard in the'
na's demand for more' Senate and elsewhere.
Rep. Armistead Selden (D-Ala),.
ve not been increased chairman of the .House Foreign!
canal was opened in Affairs subcommittee on Latin
he United States which America, has called hearings July
Panama $1.93 million 24, 25 and 26 aimed at "express-
Toll increases would in- ing the sense of the Congress."
t more than tenfold to 'Growing Opposition'
million a year in 1972. Rep. Leonor K. Sullivan (D-
S. critics fear Panama Mo), a congressional expert on
ionalize the waterway Panama Canal affairs, says "op-
AR did with the Suez position seems to be growing."
he treaty would give The two governments an-
vereignty in a new and nounced completion of negotia-
nal Zone. tions June 26. There has been
ama Canal Co., a U.S. speculation that Panama's Presi-
t corporation operating dent Marco Robles has talked
would be replaced by over with President Johnson the:
mber board including possibility of Robles' coming to
ntees of the U.S. presi- Washington for a joint signing
our by the Panamanian ceremony but this has come in for
criticism in Panama.
- - - - - - -
J. M. SYNGE'S
"A JOY: ABSOLUTE
FRIDAY 7 and
tiim##m siitsailisL m%#E imietawsaialssasilsismisikisiitssm lssL islsslBatiiistlissssss5smm%2
:. about $22r
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w - ! as the U
N Panama so
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But McDonald said the situ-CDay
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dent and f
Bryce W. Rucker, a journalism
ofessor opposing the antitrust
Kemption, told the subcommittee:
fervently hope you will not arm
>werful, wealthy men with this
eapon with which they may drive
e remaining independent pub-
shers to the wall and take over
eir newspapers. These giant
lblishers do not need your help.
be small ones do."
Howard, who is .also general
itorial manager of Scripps-How-
'd Newspapers, said his organ-
tion was participating in seven
1pus Commons, 8 a.m, to 5:30 p.m.
Bureau of Industrial Itelations Sem-
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No. 33": 141 Business Administration
Bldg., 8:15 a.m. to 5 p.m and 7 to 9
Audio-Visual Education Center Film
Preview-"Marc Chagall, Prints," and
"Story of Time": Multipurpose Room,
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Dept. of Political Science and the
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Studies: Lecture by Dr. Jerzy Wiatr, of
the Institute of Philosophy and So-
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speaking on "The Party System in Po-
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Exta u A CPENT11t 1AB
FIRST OPEN 8:00 P.M. FIRST
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DIAL NO 2-6264
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SEE I FRo /
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OF "DEAR JOHN"
1I,' A Wo m an"
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