By THOMAS HAYDEN
Special to The Daily
LOS ANGELES-The decision to nominate John Fitzgerald Ken-
nedy for the United States Presidency marks an ambiguous but deeply
important juncture in American political history.
Many here made their choice on the basis of political expediency.
Kennedy is considered sure to help their state or local tickets sucbeed
in November. Others made their choice on the basis of sound effects.
Kennedy's hungry rush for the nomination, his huge headlines and
ebullient campaign almost compelled one's allegiance.
But for both the decision was a brave one. The convention could
have chosen experience in two ways: they could have followed the
advice of the old guard, Mrs. Roosevelt and Mr. Truman, Jim Farley,
Sam Rayburn, and the rest; or they could have picked a Presidential
candidate with greater tenure-Adlai Stevenson or Lyndon Johnson.
Chose Potentials, Youth
Instead, they have chosen potentials and bet on the ability of
John Kennedy and the emerging generation he represents. Further,
they have bet on racial and religious tolerance by accepting a strong
civil rights program and a young Catholic to implement that program.
As with any such decision, this one, involves great anxiety. They
tell jokes here about John Kennedy's youth and religion which belie
a real and legitimate worry about the man they have nominated.
They do not display devotion to Kennedy in the way Adlai Steven-
son's few supporters show devotion to their candidate. Stevenson's
people at this convention have not been the intellectuals or the sophis-
ticates. He had a core group, made up of all kinds, held together by
an unyielding, child-like reverence for Adlai.
Of Kennedy's people, on the other hand, many are settled in
organizations held together only by confidence in their candidate's
Kennedy Raises Doubts
So even with the nomination sealed, there exists a leitmotif of
doubt in the common jubilance which emerges from any successful
convention. There are still those, one suspects, who are fearful over
what they have done here. It is time, then, for a look at John Kennedy.
He is an ambivalent character, a man whose thinking is influ-
enced bs classic liberalism, and Catholic dogma.
He is a senator whose declarations are sometimes more courageous
than his actions; a politician dedicated to the public greatness but
at the same time calculating and opportunistic.
He is fa tireless, energetic campaigner with a bad medical record;
a sensitive observer but a dispassionate human being; and in his
youthful urbanity, a reflection of the junior executive.
Called 'Compact Candidate'
Neil Staebler, Michigan Democratic chairman and a silent but
powerful Kennedy supporter, says the young senator from Massa-
chusetts is a "compact candidate."
"Jack is young, vigorous, charming, and gives people the im-
pression he understands them. He thinks things through very carefully,
When he is finished, he knows his position very clearly. This is why
he can be so precise, and why he may appear over-confident to some
when he speaks."
Stevenson has never been this way, Staebler says. "He is never
quite finished thinking things out. In addition, he will not come down
to the level of the people in his campaigning. Jack will."
Jack Kennedy the thinker is reflected even further in his "Profiles
in Courage" and "Strategy for Peace." His work is heavily deductive,
resulting in an almost dry, but clear, prose style. When Kennedy
argues, he brings forward not one, but many, reasons for a conclu-
sion. His writing is more legalistic and analytic than emotional. His
speeches are thorough, but unexciting. He does not often prefer a
moral Justification for a point if there is a convincing logical argument.
As a campaigner, however, his speeches have been as vigorous
as his other activities. They are short, blunt, almost staccato, in their
impact. They have been delivered to more delegations and caucuses
than the speeches of any other candidate this year.
After reading the speeches and listening to the man, the question
one must eventually raise is that of Kennedy's ideological position.
It has never been quite clear whether he is a "liberal" or a "con-
servative." He refuses to declare himself subject to labels.
See KENNEDY, Page 2
By The Associated Press
Amid charges of Communism in Prime Minister Patrice Lumum-
ba's Congo Republic from Belgium and Africa, between 2,500 to 3,000
African troops were assembling under the United Nations banner to
stop the new nation's plunge toward anarchy.
Within hours after the Security Council gave him the go-ahead,
UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold received offers of contin-
gents from Ghana and Tunisia. Both were reported ready to move
immediately and become the vanguard of a unique peace task force.
Hammarskjold was reported to have asked the United States,
Britain, Russia, Italy and India to supply food and transport. He was
Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXX, No. 18S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, JULY 15, 1960
WASHINGTON (-The United
States denounced Russia's Nikita
Khrushchev in blistering language
yesterday and warned him to stop
trying to foist Communism on the
It accused the Soviet premier of
trying to supplant with a "Bolshe-
vik doctrine" the historic Monroe
Doctrine which guards Latin re-
publics against outside interven-
In solemn words, approved by
President Eisenhower, the State
Department reaffirmed United
States determination to uphold
the 137-year-old Monroe declar-
ation in the face of Khrushchev's
rocket-rattling threats to inter- ;
vene to help Cuba.
"This naked menace to world'
peace, brandished so callously by
the Soviet leader, reveals the hy-
pocrisy of his protestations in be-
half of peace," the department
said in a formal statement.
The State Department's reply
to comments Khrushchev made at
[ Kremlin news conference Tues-
day added up to one of the most
bitting indictments leveled at him
since the blow-up of the Paris
summit conference in mid-May.
Call Off Talks
To back up what appeared to
be a new tough-talk policy, the
State Department called off civil
aviation talks with Russia which
r are due to begin here Monday.
Khrushchev's newest barrage of
threats and distortions, the de-
partment said, has worsened the
international atmosphere to the
point where there is no chance
for an aviation agreement. A de-
partment spokesman said "a suit-
able time" for rescheduling the
talks would depend on Moscow's
In Moscow, the Soviet Union
charged by formal note yesterday
that planes of the United States
and other Western powers de-
liberately and frequently buzzed
Soviet ships on the high seas.
The notes said the incidents en-
dangered the Soviet vessels and
violated the rights of shipping in
The notes were delivered to the
United States, Britain, Denmark,
France, Norway and Canada. list-
ing the charges item by item. The
note to the United States, in the
form of a memorandum, said
American planes over a period of
years had been responsible for
more than 200 such incidents.
NEW YORK (4P) - An unusual1
14-foot detective missile will be
dropped 31/2 miles to the Atlantic
Ocean floor, it was announced yes-
It will carry sensitive instru-
ments to listen for underwater 1
sound and for distant earthquakes
and to help scientists chart the
structure of the earth.
The two-masted oceanographic
schooner, Grace, sailed yesterday
with Columbia University sci-
understood also to have asked the
British to permit the use of the
airfield at Kano, Nigeria, as the
main staging area for the UN
force. This request, he said, is
under consideration in London and
Lagos, the Nigerian capital.
Hammarskjold also named as
commander of the new Congo UN
emergency force Maj. Gen. Carl
Von Horn of Sweden.
In Elizabethville, Africa, the Ka-
tanga Provincial Assembly last
night ratified secession from the
Congo as proclaimed by Provincial
President-Premier Moise Tshombe.
In breaking with the Leopold-
ville regime, Tshombe declared its
premier, Lumumba, and his gov-_
ernment are Communist.
Tshombe's government twice
prevented Lumumba and Congo
President Joseph Kasavubu from
landing here this week on their,
air journeys around the Congo.
Tshombe is relying on Belgian
forces to restore and keep order
and declares Katanga will not
admit UN troops. The province is
the richest in the Congo with re-
sources of uranium, copper and
other minerals and upland prairies
that produce cattle.
Several high Belgian govern-
ment officials claimed yesterday
there is growing evidence that
chaos in the Congo is the result of
a long planned, well organized
They charged Congolese Pre-
mier Lumumba has given his sup-
port to such a plot and that it is
aimed at outright dictatorship.
These assertions came shortly
after it was announced here that
the Congolese government has
broken off diplomatic relations
They also followed a statement
by Premier Gaston Eyskens in the
House of Representatives that
hinted strongly at a Communist
role in the disturbances in the
newly independent Congo.
The officials, who would not be
named, said in a summary:
"We have obtained precise in-
formation that those advising and
inspiring the Congo Premier, Pa-
trice Lumumba, are Communist
Balks at Nominee
Gov. G. Mennen Williams and the Michigan delegation, objecting
to the selection of Sen. Lyndon Johnson of Texas as the Democratic
Vice-Presidential candidate, yesterday attempted to lodge a formal
protest on the convention floor.
Surprised at the news of Johnson's selection, the delegation began
caucusing in the afternoon, but could reach no accord on how to
formally protest the choice before the Texan's nomination by accla-
mation. In the confusion, a few of the state's delegates shouted "No,
we don't want Johnson." but they were drowned out by the acclama-
tion vote. The protest, however, does not mean Michigan is unwilling
to back the Kennedy - Johnson
Roll Call Voting
Kennedy Picks Texan as Mate;
Cheers, Dissatisfaction Heard
CONVENTION HALL, LOS ANGELES (M -D e m o c r a t s
nominated Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson as their vice-presidential
candidate last night to stand by the side of Sen. John F.
Kennedy in the great election battle of 1960.
Kennedy, the Massachusetts senator, mowed down John-
son, the Texas senator, on the way to th presidential nomin-
ation Wednsday night. Then he tapped his vanquished rival
to team up with him on the ticket.
The national convention of Democrats formally accepted
this alignment without even bothering with a roll call vote.
ticket. Williams, a strong Kennedy
supporter, is bidding for a cabinet
post and probably will not sacri-
fice his chances by fighting the
ticket, informed sources in Los
Both Williams and State Party
Chairman Neil Staebler said yes-,
terday that they will stump for
the Democratic choices in the
Caucusing resumed after John-
son's nomination, and continued
well into the night. No one knew
what the Michigan delegates were
saying, but it was pretty obvious
that the labor and Negro segments
of the group were worried and
shocked at Kennedy's choice of a
Between caucuses, Williams told
newsmen at a press conference
that he was publicly applying for
a federal job, should Kennedy win
The Governor hinted that he
would be happy to be Secretary of
Health, Education and Welfare.
Asked if he would be receptive
to the offer of a cabinet post, the
retiring six - term governor said
"to have a place on the new team
certainly is something to which I
aspire and which would give me
A little later he recalled that
in announcing against a seventh
term bid last March he expressed
a desire to work in the cause of
peace-hopefully in some public
He said that thte importance of
"brainpower" in achieving and
maintaining world peace came
ahead of manpower and firepower,
"Good work in the field of edu-
cation really leads to the develop-
ment of a program for peace."
Under questioning before tele-
vision cameras by a panel of
Young Democrats, the midwestern
chief executive plugged his right
hand man for political organiza-
tion as an ideal successor to Paul
Butler as Democratic National
Butler is due to step down to-
morrow. His place will be taken
by somebody acceptable to Ken-
Williams said the appointment
of Staebler "would in my mind be
the very best."
He called Staebler a "man with
a record behind him," a reference
to a long succession of Michigan
election successes during Staeb-
ler's 10-years as state chairman.
Staebler on more than one oc-
casion had said he does not want
the national chairmanship. The
manner in which Williams
brought up his name suggested
that Staebler probably would ac-
cept if Kennedy expressed a de-
sire for his services-at least for
the remainder of the campaign
HAPPY TEXAN-Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson, unsuccessful candidate
for the No. 1 Democratic nod, beams as he was picked by Sen.
John Kennedy as his November running mate.
Regents To Acced-pt
By ANDREW HAWLEY
Bids for construction of housing for the University's forthcoming
high-energy cyclotron will be accepted by the Regents in their meet-
The bill providing for the cyclotron has been approved by the
House of Representatives and a Senate committee in Washington, but
has not yet passed the Senate itself. It is expected to pass, however,
Author Creates 'Self Image'
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
"The writings of Mikhail Zosh-
chenko provided a much-needed
rectifying force in Soviet litera-
ture," Prof. Hugh McLean of the
University of Chicago said here
yesterday in a lecture presented
under the auspices of the Com-
mittee on Programs in Russian
Speaking on the topic "Zosh-
chenko and the Rectification of
the Self-Image," Prof. McLean
likened certain aspects of litera-
ture to the physical self-image of
"By physical self-image," he
said, "I mean our own idea of
how we look and. how we affect,
others." He added that emotional
pressures produce a mental im-
age of ourselves as we would wish
to be, and that generally we see
ourselves more in this image than
in a realistic light.
However, the image of ourselves
as we wish to be is forced to bat-
ture because, as under any totali-
tarian government, criticism of
the regime is not permitted.
On the whole, then, modern
Soviet writers are "yea-sayers"
extoling the virtues of Commu-
nism and its institutions and
A few, however, have dared to
criticize the Communist way of
life, among them the author Zosh-
He stated openly in 1922 that
he was not and never would be
a Communist, a statement for
which he was repeatedly and se-
verely criticized in later years.
Zoshchenko challenged a core
principle of the Communist doc-
trine, the idea that human traits
are completely determined by a
person's economic surroundings.
He believed that human nature
was much more intractible and
immalleable than the Communists
People in his stories are not
Zoshchenko also poked fun at
the frequent change of street and
building names in Russia, which
is due to the frequent fall from
favor of powerful individuals. In
one famous short story, a man
travelling on a steamboat leaves
the boat and goes ashore for a
He returns and cannot find the
boat because its name has been
changed. A little later he goes
ashore again and returns to find
that the boat has again been re-
named, this time for a man who
had been dead for some years.
At this point, the character'
predicts that the boat will retain
its latest name forever. "Being
alive," he says, "is a great handi-
cap to preserving one's reputa-
By spoof ing Communist doc-
trines, Zoshchenko's w r i t i n g s
served the function of restoring a
more balanced view of human na-
ture and he became almost a poet
celebrating daily life.
soon after the Senate resumes its
Steps to begin construction of
the building on North Campus will
begin immediately following the
Regent's action, according to Prof.
David Dennison, chairman of the
The cyclotron itself is expected
to be ready for use 20 to 24 months
after construction begins, Prof.
William Parkinson of tihe physics
department, chairman of the pro-
The analyzing equipment which
will determine the effect of the
beam of particles produced by the
cyclotron ought to begin operating
three years after the work begins,
Vice-President for Student Af-
fairs James A. Lewis will report to
the Regents on behalf of the Uni-
versity Committee on Discrimina-
tion in off-campus housing.
The committee was created to
work towards eliminating discrimi-
nation in off-campus housing, in
accordance with a University by-
law. Its proposed policy statement
says, in part, "The University will
not permit its services to be used
in the rental or sale of housing to
its students by owners who dis-
criminate because of race, color,
religion, creed, national origin, or
Court Rej ects
LANSING (Al) - The State Su-
preme Court yesterday cut short
Dr. Eugene C. Keyes' fight to get
a place on the Aug. 2 primary elec-
tion ballot as a Democratic candi-
By JOHN S. KNIGHT
Publisher, Knight Newspapers
The real story of this conven-
tion is not that Kennedy won.
This was a fairly predictable cer-
What is news is the way and
how of Lyndon B. Johnson for
Here's what happened. Thurs-
day morning, young Bobby Ken-
nedy paid a courtesy call upon
Johnson in his suite at the Bilt-
more. It was a good will errand for
the purpose of discussing several
available people to team up with
TG Bobby Kennedy's amaze-
ment, Johnson informed him that
he and Sam Rayburn had been
having a talk and had agreed that
Johnson should be named for vice-
Bobby immediately reported this
astounding information to brother
Jack who thought that perhaps
Bobby didn't get it straight. So
Jack hustled down to see John-
son, who proceeded to repeat what
he had said earlier to Bobby.
This ultimatum put Jack Ken-
nedy squarely on the spot. After
gulping hard a few times, Jack
told Lyndon that he would like
to present this thought to a meet-
ing of leaders from several key
When Jack made this announce-
ment to such men as Mayor Rich-
ard Daley of Chicago, Gov. David
T .uira'. nA fPAnnrv, .!na Ofr
They whooped their approval,O
but with some lusty dissents.
Under the rules, it took a two-
thirds vote to suspend the rules,
skip a roll call, and nominate
Johnson. The ayes on that were
louder than the noes, but nobody
will ever know whether they had
a two to one edge.
Gov. Leroy Collins of Florida
whammed down his chairman's
gavel, said it was a two-thirds
vote, and the decision stuck.
That was it.
This sports arena roared with
acclaim. Delegates toe danced in
the aisles. Spectators in the gal-
leries-what there were of them
-hollered and waved.
Beaming, waving, Johnson made
a little speech. It wasn't his ac-
ceptance speech, which comes to-
hight. But there's no doubt he'll
take the job.
Proud Of Kennedy
"As an American," he said, "as
a Democrat, as a warm, good
friend, I am proud to stand be-
side and to stand behind the next
President of the United States,
"I want to serve and to serve
i well. I will leave it to my fellow
Democrats, to my fellow Ameri-
cans, to determine what will be
the title on my door."
Right now the title is Majority
Leader of the Senate.
Delegates reacted differently to
the idea of a Kennedy-Johnson
ticket. Most of them said it was
a good one and a winning one.
Some went to far as to exult that!
it was a "dream ticket."
But dissatisfaction rumbled out
of liberal elements in the Michi-
gan, California, Wisconsin and
District of Columbia delegations.
Gov. G. Mennen Williams of
Michigan said the choice was a
The District of Columbia dele-
gation voted to split its nine votes
six to three between Gov. Orville
Freeman of Minnesota and John-
son. Freeman called them off.
It was Gov. David L. Lawrence
of Pannsylvania, one of the elder
statesmen of the Democrats, who
put Johnson's name before the
convention. He proclaimed the
Texan to be a man with the ex-
perience, abilities and capacities,
to share the leadership of a na-
tion faced with "ever increasing
challenges" and a "crucial strug-
gle to- maintain peace in our
world and to extend the frontiers
There still were the quickie
seconding speeches to go through
-and a Negro congressman came
through with one of them for a
TOKYO (M) - Hayato Ikeda, an
able and respected administrator
but a question mark as a diplomat,
took over from Nobusuke Kishi
yesterday leadership of a bitterly
divided Liberal Democratic party
and prepared to step in as Prime
The transfer of command from
Kishi to Ikeda, remembered for
the tough anti-inflation program
which laid the foundation of Ja-
pan's postwar industrial boom, as-
sured continuation of the basically
pro-Western policies of the Japa-
An attack on Kishi by a knife-
wielding ultra - nationalist at a
victory celebration for Ikeda
shocked the nation and marred
the relief with which most of the
country, tired of the anti-Kishi
violent riots, welcomed the change-
Kishi was stabbed six times in
the left thigh by 65-year-old Tai-
suke Aramaki, who told police he
only wanted to injure Kishi, not
kill him. The premier was rushed
to a hospital, where doctors took
30 stitches and predicted he would
recover in 10 days.
Undeterred by the incident -
in fact, ignoring it - the leftist
opposition which engineered the
riots against Kishi gave notice it
would continue the same pressure
against Ikeda, as it staged a parade
of 50,000 persons assailing the new
conservative leader as a carbon
copy of Kishi and demanding that
he call early general elections.
Kishi, carrying out the first step
of a promise made after seeing
the new United States-Japan Se-
curity Pact come into force last
month, resigned as president of
the Liberal Democratic party yes-
terday morning. In a party con-
vention which followed, Ikeda, 60,
defeated Mitsuiiro Ishii, candidate
of an anti-Ikeda coalition, on the
second ballot, 302-194.
To Restore Prestige
In a victory statement, Ikeda
told newsmen his first btask would
be to restore Japan's international
prestige, damaged by the riots
which forced cancellation of Presi-
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower's visit
"Wemust pursue a policy that
will command the .resnppt. of' the