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Seventieth Year of Editorial Freedom
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OL. LXX, No. 6S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, JUNE 28, 1960
orse Attacks Age Problem
By MICHAEL BURNS
There is a "deep need" for the
American public to recognize their
"responsibility of citizen states-
manship" in order to "change the
condoning of deception in poli-
tics," Sen. Wayne L. Morse (D-
Ore.) said here last night.
Digressing from his prepared
text at the University's Annual
Conference on Aging, Morse stres-
sed the human social relations as
the basis of the Constitution.
Procedural rights are more im-
portant than substantive rights,
for the former "determine the
PROBLEMS OF AGING-Sen. Wayne Morse told the nation's
experts on problems of the aging last night that the aging are
emerging as an important minority in contemporary society.
THE RULE OF LAW
Part V: International Outlook
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This seven-part series reports the current Law
School lecture series on "Post-war Thinking about the Rule of Law")
By FRED STEINGOLD
There are no longer any safe or practicable alternatives to
the Rule of Law in settling international disputes, Prof. William
W. Bishop said yesterday.
Referring to modern methods of warfare, the Law School
lecturer said: "The old alternative of the actual resort to force
for the settlement of international disputes-instead of mere
threat of force or fear that it might be used-has lost much of
its appeal even for those nations which might not care much for
Prof. Bishop made several suggestions for increasing the
resort to the international Rule of Law.
1) Make greater use of the
legal machinery. Prof. Bishop
said that the basic weakness of
the World Court is that its
compulsory jurisdiction is lim-
The Communist nations have
not accepted the "optional
clause" of the United Nations
Charter which would automati-
cally confer jurisdiction upon
the Court when a controversy
arose. The United States has
accepted the "optional clause"
but the Connally Amendment
"renders our acceptance of
compulsory jurisdiction to a
large extent illusory."
(The Connally Amendment
says that the World Court will
not have jurisdiction over mat-
ters which the United States ..:
determines are essentially with-
in its domestic jurisdiction.)
The international law expert
urged that we take the lead in
conferring greater compulsory jurisdiction on the World Court
"instead of dragging our heels through the effect and influence
of the self-judging limitation in our compulsory jurisdiction
found in the Connally Amendment."
Were the Amendment repealed, the Court itself would
determine, according to international law, whether it had juris-
2) Establish permanent local international tribunals. Prof.
Bishop suggested that an inexpensive procedure should be set
up by which individuals could press, in their own names, their
international claims for injuries at the hands of foreign govern-
3t Compile customary law. "We could do far more than we
have to bring about international cooperative compilation of
international customary law, and make the law easier to find
as well as more clearly defined."
4) Work for better handling of non-justiciable disputes.
Prof. Bishop said that certain questions are better resolved
through political adjustment than through legal processes.
He gave this example: "The question of whether by cutting
off access to Berlin the Soviet Union (or East Germany) violates
international obligations is a justiciable question; the question
of what should be done about the future of Germany is a politi-
cal question falling outside the special competence of courts."
The professor said we must work for better handling of
these non-justiciable disputes by political means which conform
to the law.
5) Create better understand-
ing. "We must try," Prof.
Bishop concluded, "to bring
about a better public under-
standing of the need for inter-
national law, of what we now
have in the way of international
law, of our existing means for
making that law and using
warp and woof of the fabric of
our Constitution," and the rights
of the individual.
One group which is particularly
in need of governmental protec-
tion are those 65 years of age and
"Unlike most of America's mi-
norities, the aged are emerging as
a distinct minority, rather than
The country can afford to aid
its elderly citizens and the aged
ought to make sure that adequate
measures are taken by political
action, the senator said.
The traditional form of assis-
tance, the three-generation fam-
ily, is disappearing from the
American scene for several rea-
sons, he said. First, many persons
wish to continue working after 65
years of age and also many such
persons look forward to retire-
ment as a period of enjoyment.
However, the problem needs
social action, Morse said, for the
group of age 65 and over has
risen from four per cent of the
population in 1900 to approxi-
mately nine per cent in 1958. "The
rise in their numbers has coin-
cided with the isolation of the
aged as a group."
The approach to be considered
in formulating a policy toward
the senior citizen must take into
account the fact that 1975 will
see an estimated 20 per cent of
the over-65 group in the labor
force, while in 1900 the figure
was 37 per cent.
Automation has produced much
of this trend toward youth, the
Oregon senator explained, al-
though stopping automation is
not the answer, but speeding up
adjustment to the process is.
The entrance of more women
into the labor force has also
caused this displacement of the
"Already the lowest income
group insofar as age is concerned,
their (the aged) income problem
is likely to worsen unless some
steps are taken to prevent it," he
Those who wish to continue
working after 65 should be al-
lowed to do so and should not be
discriminated against because of
their age, he stressed.
On the other hand, those who
wish to retire should be provided
by social security with enough to
live "in reasonable comfort."
The senator explained that the
social security system was orig-
niated in the depression and was
inadequate even then. It was or-
iginated to encourage elderly per-
sons to retire to provide more jobs
As the authorsof an amend-
ment to the Forand Bill which
would provide health insurance to
the aged, Morse said he favored
dropping the age restriction in
the case of total disability for
social security and also lowering
retirement age minimum for those
wishing to retire.
There is little chance of passage
of the Forand Bill this session, he
predicted, but there will be "some-
thing of substance" passed this
year by Congress which can be
improved in the future.
He promised that he would at-
tempt to obtain a roll-call vote
in the Senate on either the For-
and Bill or the similar McNamara
Bill in order to show how senators
felt on the issue, (Morse earlier
failed to get such a vote on his
own medical care bill presented
in the Senate.)
The elderly and middle-aged
need to make their opinions
known through "the language of
votes" which politicians under-
stand best, he said. "They must
become conscious of the political
connection between how they vote
on election day and the kind of
policy which they will live under
in their old age. I hope the day
of political action is not far off,"
he said, ". . . which would force
the government to live up to its
moral obligation" to its citizens.
Morse also stated his belief in
an expanding national economy
and he rapped government sub-
sidy for business, warning that
"we aren't living in a free econ-
omy . . we are living in a de-
The country must move toward
a free economy as soon as it is
"safe," but that is difficult to
estimate, let alone achieve, he
By GENE CURRIVAN
New York Times Staff Writer
Tests and procedures used by
American colleges to choose stu-
dents were assailed Saturday by
a group of educators as undemo-
cratic and discriminatory.
They made their charges in a
report that also found that more
students dropped out during col-
lege than in the transition between
high school and college, as had
been generally assumed.
In colleges the drop-out rate
of the top 30 per cent has been
estimated at 400,000 students a
The report was a compendium
of talks on the national talent
loss given last fall at a colloquium
on college admissions at Arden
House, Harriman, NY., under the
auspices of the College Entrance
The over-all situation was de-
scribed as "a sad indictment of
American democracy," by Samuel
A. Stouffer, director of the Labora-
tory of Social Relations at Harvard
The report indicates these
Able students are being deprived
of a higher education because of
their color or economic position.
"Gifted" athletes are the only
students sure of admission to col-
Colleges are partial toward those
students from the "right" schools
and the right side of the tracks.
Too wide a range of mental
capacities is accepted, with the
result that many students who get
into college should never have gone
in the first place.
Colleges do not recruit academic
talent from the "poorer" schools
as they do athletic talent.
A corollary to the indictment
was critical of parents whose atti-
tude may decide whether a boy
or girl goes to college.
John Monro, dean of Harvard
College, who directed the collo-
quium, maintained that if parents
wanted and urged their children
to go to college "the children are
apt to get there, money or no."
Prof. Peter H. Rossi of the Uni-
versity of Chicago sociology de-
partment commented on under-
"A large part of the difficulty,"
he asserted, "lies in the fact that
the undergraduates are only show-
ing a slightly different and more
expensive variety of a general
youth culture which expresses ir-
responsibility, glamour and the
pursuit of the immediately gratify-
"Owning a red, foreign-made
sports car," he said, "is only a
more refined and less objectionable
form of the hot-rod belonging to
the non-college-going youth."
Donald S. Gridgman, consultant
of the National Science Founda-
See EDUCATORS, Page 2 0
DEFENDS PERSONAL DIPLOMACY:
Ike Attacks Demonstrations
WASHINGTON (P) -President
Dwight D. Eisenhower said last
night that although he has no
plan now for another overseas trip,
"I would not hesitate a second" to
venture abroad again in the cause
of world peace.
The United States must "never
be bluffed, cajoled, blinded or
frightened" by Communist tactics
aimed at splitting the free world,
including Red demonstrations
against foreign trips by the United
States, Eisenhower said.
Eisenhower spoke in a nation-
wide radio-TV report to the Amer-
ican people a day after returning
from a two-week journey to the
Philippines, Formosa, South Korea
and United States-held Okinawa.
His planned visit to Japan was
called off after Japanese mobs,
opposing a new security treaty
with the United States, created
The President attacked what he
termed Communist-inspired dem-
onstrations against his trip. He
also gave a basic defense of his
undertakings in personal diplo-
macy since he came to the White
House in 1953.
He noted that now, since he is
near the end of his presidential
tenure, the prospects are he will
not be going abroad as President
By implication, Eisenhower also
rebuffed criticism from some
Democrats in the aftermath of
the summit conference blowup
and the cancellation of his Japan-
'Must Accept Risks'
"We cannot win out against
the Communist purpose to domi-
nate the world by being timid,
passive or apologetic when we are
acting in our own and the free
world's interests," Eisenhower said.
"We must accept the risks of
bold action with coolness and
courage . . ."
LOS ANGELES MP)-The annual
battle within the National Educa-
tion Assn. over the stand that
powerful organization should take
on school integration got under
An opening hearing by the reso-
lutions committee attracted about
500 convention delegates, most of
whom were emphatic and bitter
in their demands for a strong
statement condemning continued
segregation in the South.
They attacked the resolution
presented by the committee as be-
ing worse than no resolution at
all. It is a mildly worded state-
ment which calls for "a spirit of
fair play, good will and respect
for law," and for an approach of
"intelligence, saneness and rea-
DISCUSSES TRIP--President Dwight D. Eisenhower told the
nation last night through radio and television networks that he
would take another tour of foreign countries if he thought it
PETITIONS INVALID: ,
Board Declines Keyes'
Bid for Place on Ballot
LANSING (IP)-The State Board of Canvassers yesterday refused
to certify Dr. Eugene Keyes, former Republican Lieutenant Governor,
as a Democratic candidate for the same office.
Keyes said he would look to the State Supreme Court to give him
a place on the ballot.
The bi-partisan board, which certified all other candidates, said
the Dearborn physician-attorney-dentist needed at least 542 additional
valid signatures to qualify. A minimum 12,708 are required.
The board asked the Attorney General's office to investigate
petitions carrying 1,805 signatures for possible forgeries""double sign-
ings and other irregularities. Un-K
less the Supreme Court intervenes'
the decision cut the field in the P t t o t r
o uh MajPe titioners
D em ocratic race for the nom ina-ti n t fo r Th o he s a e R p ^/
tion to four. The others are Rep.!
T. John Lesinski of Hamtramck,.
WyeWilliam J. Coughlin, Assistant eaO
Wayne County Prosecutor; Rich-
ard Vander Veen, Grand -Rapids
attorney, and George H. Dough- The petition drive to place the
erty, Flint union leaderconstitutional convention question
Key Flitionedecr on the November ballot passed the
Keyes petitioned the court last 200,000 signature mark last week,
week for an order directing Sec. just two weeks before the July 8
of State James M. Hare, the adline.
state's top elections official, to .Te1 raiatoswrigo
certfy hm asa cadidae * The 15 organizations working on
certify him as a candidate. this drive must obtain at least
He also asked that certification 13,218 more names in order to
of his four rivals be withheld un- place the proposal on the ballot.
til their nominating petitions were Donald M. Oakes, executive
subjected to close inspection. director of Citizens for Michigan,
At the outset of its four-hour which is acting as a coordinating
meeting, the board accepted 11,433 agency for the various groups, said
of the nearly 16,000 signatures that the activities of the petitions
Keyes submitted. To this total, it workers have been sharply ac-
added another 733 which were celerated as the deadline ap-
Questions Legality; _
Assesses Damages -
GENEVA W) - The Soviet-led
Communist bloc walked out of the
10-nation disarmament talks yes-
terday in a tumult of shouted
Western charges of hooliganism
The walkout stamped a finish to,
the hopes of slowing down the
arms and nuclear weapons racek
for the present.
An all-Western rump conference,
continued to sit after the walkout
to assess the damage.
The five Western delegates con-
tend the adjournment of the con-
ference by the day's chairman,
Polish Deputy Foreign Minister
Marian Naszkowski, while they
were vainly clamoring for the floor
But their decision to meet again
today on the slim hope that the.
Reds would show up was mainly
reminiscent of the Western sum-
mit leaders' wait in Paris in mid-
May for Soviet Premier Nikita,
Khrushchev to come around after
his lashing at President Dwight D.
A Communist source said the
continued sitting by Britain,
France, the United States, Italy
and Canada was utterly ludicrous.
Naszkowskl called on his four
Communist colleagues one by one,
and then spoke himself, to justify
the walkout. The record then
went like this:
"Naszkowski: 'That was my
statement in my capacity as rep-
resentative of Poland. Now, as
chairman, I should like to say
that, after the statements made
by the representatives of the five
Socialist (Communist) states, the
work of the10-nation committees
is now discontinued, and it ,is
quite clear that the role of the
chairman has been exhausted."
The representatives of Bulgaria,
Czechoslovakia, Poland, Rumania
and the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics started to withdraw
from the meeting.
Jules Moch (France) : "I ask for
the floor. I ask that this meeting
continue and the next represen-
tative in alphabetical order should
take the chair. Mr. Ormsby-Gore,
please take the chair. The meeting
is going on. This is a scandal. It
is hooliganism. What a shameful
Dr. James Watt, M.D., special
assistant on aging to the Secre-
tary of Health, Education and
Welfare, warned in the keynote
speech at the 13th annual Con-
ference on Aging, that "Public
opinion is now getting impatient".
for action on the problem.
"If the proper people do not
take the proper action soon on
some of our aging probems then
improvised and unsound measure
will be'taken," Dr. Watts said.
He pointed out that 19 states
have held meetings preparatory
to the 1961 White House confer-
ence on aging, and 34 more ses-
sions are scheduled for the sum-
mherHothat by the ,time te n
White House conference con-
venes in January, "State programs
will already have been adopted,
and each state will very likely
carry out its own program to
meet its own needs."
"Well thought out extensions
of industrial medicine programs
would increase the scope of the
family physician's work and re-
sult in improved use of his time,"
according to Prof. Fred Slavik of
Srown, Meyner Refuse Kennedy Support
GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, Mont. (RP)--The California and
New Jersey governors refused yesterday to fBing any immediate sup-
port to Sen. John F. Kennedy's attempt to cinch the presidential
nomination before the Democratic National Convention begins.
But they are going to meet today with the uncommitted governors
of two other states-Kansas and Iowa-for a favorite sons political
The session will bring together Edmund G. (Pat) Brown of
California, Robert B. Meyner of New Jersey, George Docking of
Kansas and Herschel C. Loveless of Iowa.
This is a key quartet. Among them, these governors will lead to
the Democratic convention at Los Angeles next month delegations
with 169 of the 761 votes needed to swing the presidential nomination.
Supporters of Kennedy contend the Massachusetts senator al-
ready has more than 700 votes in sight. But that includes some they
are counting already from the four uncommitted states.
There were plenty of disclaimers that the favorite son huddle is a
stop Kennedy tactic. They came quickly from Loveless and Meyner,
as well as from Gov. Abraham A. Ribicoff of Connecticut, who is a
Kenn ,n of longtanding.