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June 21, 1960 - Image 11

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Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1960-06-21

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

V' A CONTINENT:
Irica Gains Independent Nations

. rr..

Chambers Claims
Need for Diversity

By TOM HENSHAW
ated Press Newsfeatures Writer

I)

Welcome To Summer Session!
FOR DINNER AND SNACK
COMPLETE SODA FOUNTAIN SERVICE
GOLDEN BUTTERFLY (OFUEE SHOP
Air Conditioned South Univ. at Church

The headlong rush of African
independence steps up in tempo
in the next week.
Two, possibly four, brand new
nations will cast aside colonial
ties and stand by themselves in
an uneasy world.
Only 10 years ago, the roll call
t of Free Africa could be taken on'
the fingers of one hand-Ethiopia,
Liberia, the Union of South Afri-
ca and Egypt. Their area: about
1% million square miles. -
By sundown next July 1, nearly
half of the 11% million square
mile continent will be independent.
Since 1950, the pioneer four
have been joined by Libya, Sudan,
Morocco, Tunisia, Ghana, Guinea,
Cameroon and Togo.
Independence Spreads
About a week from new, they
will be joined by the sprawling,
brawling Belgian Congo, the con-
J tinent's vast heartland, and sleepy
Somalia on its eastern horn.
It's likely, too, that the Mala-
gache Republic (formerly Mada-
gascar) and Mali, a federation of
Senegal and the French Sudan,
will cut themselves free from
France in that time or shortly
after.
But, even while crowds mill in
the streets toasting the magic
word "independence," the leaders
of the new nations will be rolling
up thtir sleeves to tackle new
4 problems, some of them not fully
understood.
Congo Mess
The Congo promises to be a
real mess.
The vast (900,000 square miles,
13 million people) land was carved
out of central Africa by the Bel-
gians and welded into administra-
tive unity with little regard fort
natural divisions.
As a result, the Congo faces
possible disintegration in bloody1
civil wars even before it takes its
place in the family of nations.
Biophysics
Unit Added
The University's Biophysics Re-
search Center will become a divi-
sion of the Institute of Science and
Technology July 1.
Under the reorganization ap-
proved at the June Regents meet-
ing, IST will assume complete re-
sponsibility, including financial
support, for the Center.
Originally organized in 1955
within the graduate school, the
center's aim was to encourage re-
search in the field of biophysics.
The Biophysics Research Divi-
sion of IST will retain this aim,
with the director responsible for
t arranging scholarly review of the
research conducted and proposed
within the division.
A director for the new division
will be recommended by the direc-
tor and executive committee of I
IST, with the approval of the vice-
president for research, for ap-
pointment by the Regents.

I

Is

"For the sake of the freedoms of
individual choice which we prize,
it is necessary that undergraduate
colleges should be of many types
and sizes, espouse a variety of
aims and methods and foster
diversity in organization and
goals," a visiting professor at the
University recently wrote.
Prof. Merritt M. Chambers, pro-
fessor of higher education, in the
spring issue of the Michigan
Alumnus Quarterly Review ad-
vocates this diversity in education,
explaining that smaller private
schools with more., freedom in
planning their affairs have found
the results desirable.
Attacks 'Sameness'
"Among ,the state colleges not
having substantial graduate
schools . . . there is perhaps a
greater degree of sameness. All
must eschew any denominational
dominance."
Their purpose is to provide equal
opportunity to all youth -in that
state. Their graduate program is
"limited and rudimentary, not in
any broad sense comparable to
university graduate schools."
Their existence is due to the
extension of control over institu-
tions of higher education by non-
educational administrative and
fiscal officials and the unification
of state schools through the crea-
tion of one central governing
board. Th&se devices are becoming
necessary in undergraduate schools
as the institutions grow, the author
states.
Crucial Question
"The crucial question is whether
they can properly be extended to
include the universities and gradu-
ate schools, where freedom and
diversity are of the essence, and
Swhere advancing the peaks of ex-
cellence takes primacy over large-
scale work of a somewhat rou-
tinized natutre.

"Can graduate study be operated
on a 'formula' basis, with costs
per semester - hour held within
narrow limits, with the ratio of
professors to students required to
be at a figure similar to that in
lower schools, with costs of equip-
ment and apparatus rigidly chan-
neled according to undergraduate
standards, and with teachers'
salaries on an inflexible and nar-
row scale?
"An inexorable downgrading
would inevitably follow. From the
viewpoint of the public interest,
it is better to build one pinnacle of
topmost quality than merely to
perpetuate mass mediocrity. In
graduate study and research, no
state can afford to blunt the point
of its spear."
Haschka Set,
to, Join ELI'
Prof. Helmut Haschka, lecturer
in English at the Vienna Institute
of Commerce, will be a visiting
scholar at the University during
the summer session and fall se-
mester.
Prof. Haschka will conduct re-
search on English linquistics while
he is associated with the English
Language Institute. He will also
observe the training of interpreters
in the United States and new
methods of teaching English.
A Smith - Mundt maintenance
grant and a Fulbright travel award
financed Prof. Haschka's' study
here which will include a two or
three month stay at the Institute
of Languages and Linquistics at
Washington's Georgetown Univer-
sity.

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Already, tribes like the Lulua
and the Baluba have been at each
others' throats. Their generations-
old struggle is likely to heighten
after the Belgian referee packs up
and goes home.
Political Confusion
The word for Congo politics is
confusion. No less than 13 different
parties have representation in the!
national house of" representatives.
Tht strongest, the Nationale Con-
golese Movement, has only 35 of
the 137 seats.
The leaders of the parties, none
of which can claim strength in
every section of the country, also
give the impression of an unhitch-
ed team of horses running off in all
directions at once.
Beatnik - bearded Patrice Lu-
mumba, 34 years old, rabble-rous-
ing leader of the National Congo-
lese Movement, is top dog but he
is cordially detested and suspected
even among' members of his own
party.
Joseph Kasavubu, 42 years old,
chief of the Association of the
Lower Congo (Abako Party) with
only 12 house seats, has been ac-
cused of trying to lead the sea-
coast province of Leopoldville out
of the union.
If that weren't enough, there
has been a general flight of Euro-
pean capital - and Europeans
themselves - out of the country,
leaving the fledagling Congo rich
in untapped resources but poor in
money to develop them.

Somalia's problem is different.
The land (194,000 square miles,
1% million people, mostly no-
madic herders) was once an Italian
colony but for the past decade has'
been administered by Italy under1
a United Nations trusteeship.
Somalians Widespread '
It has one strong leader, Pre-
in Abdullahi Issa, 40. whose
Somali Youth League party con-
trols 83 out of the 90 seats in
parliament. Almost all its people
are of one ethnic group, the So-
malis.
The problem is that there are
Somalis all around them, too. They
are in British Somaliland, French
Somaliland, Ethiopia and Kenya.
Pressure for a G reater Somalia is
strong.
The British have answered it by
promising to free their Somaliland
(68,000 square miles, 640,000 peo-,
ple) by July 1 so it can join the
Trust Territory under one flag.
Unwilling To Move Out
But French Somaliland voted
overwhelmingly in 1958 to remain
French and the Ethiopians and
the British in Kenya show no signs
of willingness to turn over their
Somali populations.
The Federation of Mali (531,000
square miles, nearly 6 million
population) and Malagache (240,-
000 square miles, 5 million people)
will represent an experiment by
the French Union.
If they can attain independence
and retain their associations with
France in something similar to the
British Commonwealth, other au-
tonomous members of the French
Union are certain to do likewise.
Freedom Requested
The others - the Ivory Coast,
Niger, Dahomey, Voltaic Republic,

Chad, Congo Republic, Gabon,
Mauritania and the Central Afri-
can Republic-already have asked
freedom but no dates or details
have been worked out.
Two more former British col-
onies are scheduled to receive in-
dependence within the next year.
They are Nigeria (Oct. 1) and
Sierra Leone (Apr. 27, 1961).
The surge of Africa is indica-
tive of one long-held tenet of free-;
dom: The right to govern your-
self, to feel a free man, is worth
all the headaches that are bound
to go with it.

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