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July 17, 1962 - Image 2

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1962-07-17

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Seventy-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
- UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1962 NIGHT EDITOR: CYNTHIA NEU

Picket Line

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NV

American Hercules
Faces Soviet Hydra

I

THE UNITED STATES government is "dis-
turbed" over reports of a military uprising
in Peru. Conceivably this could be the first
in Castro's attempt to "liberate" the masses
of South America, thereby bringing Commun-
ism into the area. Once again the Soviet
menace will be felt-and this time a little
closer to home.
The Soviet challenge to the United States
is akin to that of Hydra, the many-headed
monster, confronting Hercules. As soon as
one head is removed, another one appears.
"The significant feature of Soviet power is
the way it uses military and non-military
means interrelatedly to play upon the forces
at work in particular local situations," Mar-
shall D. Shulman says. A coup d'etat in Peru
would be a perfect example.
MERICA'S ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS is
a better-late-than-never attempt to com-
bat the Russiap technique. Nationalism, in
under-developed countries is a useful tool for
the Communists. They can preach anti-
colonialism and give support to independence
movements because their satelites, little more
than colonies, are far from troubled spots.
Nationalists are concerned with a brand of
colonialism they can recognize.
America's anticolonial record and the cry
that we were once a colony carries little
weight with new nations. For our defensive
alliance-the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion, in particular- and our international
agreements in general are mostly with colonial
powers. Our United Nation's voting record
on the colonial question shows our bias. For,
when we do not vote against nationalism,
we usually abstain.
American aid has been used as a lever to
force the neutral nations to align themselves
with the West. John W. Spanier feels "this
has made American purposes suspect; for the
new nations fear that America may represent
a new form of colonialism, by which the

United States, through alliances, wishes
use them as pawns in the Cold War."

to

THIS MOTIVE, in and of itself, is not evil.
It's just that the Russians are better at
camouflage than we.
Russian technolog ical development is very
impressive to new nations. The Soviet Union
has become the world's second greatest in-
dustrial power in the space of forty years.
This experience is meaningful to underdevelop-
ed countries as they strive to achieve a higher
standard of living.
Soviet technicans live and work directly with
the people in a foreign country. Thus they
make themselves a part of the society,
T HE "UGLY AMERICAN" concept unfor-
tunately holds true in many places and
the Peace Corps is only a small step in the
right direction. There mustbe a positive at-
tempt to show underdeveloped countries that
they are worth more than just a place for
a missile base and a pro-Western vote in the
UN.
The persistent refusal of the Southern states
to grant Negroes their full measure of civil
rights is a hindrance in the attempt to win
over the uncommitted world peoples that
rightly regard segregation as a contradiction
to the principle of human equality on which
the United States claims to stand.
The challenge is not only to American
foreign policy but to the effectiveness with
which our society can grasp and respond to
the conditions of a rapidly changing world.
Americans should face these challenges
realistically and recognize their implications.
"Better Dead than Red" is not the answer.
Americans will have to become more familiar
with the problems of rising nationalist move-
ments. America must overcome such obstacles
imposed by democracy as segregation. America
must wake up or Peru might be just the
first step.
--SARABETH RICHMAN

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OUR OPEN SOCIETY:
Education:Privilege or Right?

STRATFORD FESTIVAL
Goulden Touch
Sparks Conrcerts
special To TheDaily
STRATFORD-ON-AVON, Ontario - Canada's musical heroes, Oscar
Shumsky, Leonard Rose, and Glenn Gould were in fine fettle last
weekend even though the last named was not, strictly speaking, on the
program.
Glenn Gould is a man of ideas, both musical and other, and a
technician in his major craft of no small accomplishment. But in ad-
dition and at issue here is the freedom of spirit and sureness of mind
to which his early success has led him. It leads to the releasing of ideas
which might have died unborn. His was the idea of the ballet to "Time
Cycle" by Lukas Foss, according to the latter; it also leads to program
notes which are almost unbearably flippant, though often amusing and
clearly well-informed. One cannot help but wonder where this strange
young man will end; we are privileged to watch his progress whatever
it be.
He was present incognito - that is, minus gloves, scarf, and cap -
in the audience for the chamber music concert Saturday morning. This
was a distinct improvement over the last one I heard two years ago.
At that time these Ititle matinees were little more than pracice ses-
sions for sudents of the major musicians at the festival, and the per-
formances were often inadequate. With the added formality of assigned
seating and printed programs came better musicians well rehearsed.
BEETHOVEN'S String Trio, Opus 9, No. 3, opened the program. The
playing was excellent, marked especially by the exquisite tone of Oscar
Shumsky's violin. Quintet for Woodwinds by Harry Freedman followed.
This is a light, pleasant, conservative piece written in 1961.
In its use of development of common motives in the three move-
ments and in its felicitous handling of the several instruments - there
were indeed some marvelous colorings - the work displays the com-
poser's background as a jazz composer and instrumentalist. The work
was not a bastard "Jazz for the concert hall thing" but a thoroughly
enjoyable piece. More from Mr. Freedman would be welcome.
Saturday's concert closed with the Piano Quartet, K. 478, by Mo-
zart. This revealed Lukas Foss as an unsuccessful classical pianist. His
immersion in his own terse, dry idiom seems to have affected his inter-
pretation of more fluid music. His phrases are flat until the very end,
where a curiously quiet accent succeeds in drawing unnecessary atten-
tion to the end, while terminating it so abruptly that the phrase seems
not concluded but lost.
THE NAME of Arnold Schoenberg still scares people away in
droves. It is curious then that Sunday's concert was entitled The
Schoenberg Heritage, for there was nothing on it typical of the usual
image of Schoenberg's music. One suspects the heavy hand; of the
shadow of Glenn Gould behind this perverse naming.
The music was never harsh, though often atonal, and always good.
The performances were excellent.
The opening work was, indeed, by the theme composer of the day;
but "Verklaerte Nacht," Opus 4, is Schoenberg while he was still Wag-
ner.
FIVE PIECES for String Quartet, Opus 5, of Webern is of a drier,
fragmentary nature. It is difficult to judge the quality of the perform-
ance, for we were presented with the reverse of the old question of
whether or not ballet music will stand up in the concert hall. Here
concert music, of indeed the most abstract and self-sufficient kind, was
accompanied by a ballet. It certainly distracted one from complete con-
centration on the music itself, but the total effect was good. Grant
Strate has captured the diaphonous mood of Webern with dancing
to match.
The major work of the afternoon was "Time Cycle" by Lukas Foss.
In this Mr. Foss shows to much better advantage than in playing
Mozart. The work consists of set-
( " tings of four poems, each some-
what relatedtosthethemeof time,
separated by improvisational in-
terludes. One cannot tell just how
much these interludes had been
rehearsed but they revealed How-
ard Colf, 'cellist, and Richard Du-
fallo, clarinetist, as masters of the
subtleties of their instruments.
But the major kudos here are
x t :° for Grace-Lynne Martin, soprano.
Like it or not, one must admit that
this music is difficult vocally. Miss
Martin handled it without, a
quaver. Her voice is full and clean,
capable of many hues and wide
but graceful skips. It encompasses
the high notes without shrillness
and the low notes with resonance.

I

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TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Britain and the Common Market

By WALTER LIPPMANN
WE MUST BEAR it in mind that while the
Common Market, as established by the
Treaty of Rome in 1957, deals only with
economic relations, it has been agreed by all
six members that they will soon sign another
treaty, which is now being negotiated, to
establish a political union.
Their object is to create a new great power
which is to be known not as France or
Germany but as "Europe." It is in the forma-
tion of this new political entity that the
issues of the British-American nuclear con-
nection arise.
All of this is not, however, the subject of
the formal negotiations which have begun in
Brussels. They are concerned, we may say,
with whether and how Britain can be admitted
to the Common Market. They are not avowedly
concerned with British membership in the new
political entity which has still to be created.
Nevertheless, the political and strategic issues
are, I feel sure, controlling, at least in France,
and how they are to be resolved no one
knows.
WE CAN BE SURE that unresolved these
problems will not make it easier to solve
the economic issues which in themselves are
very difficult indeed. To understand the nature
of the economic difficulty, around which the
Brussels negotiations revolve, we must realize
what is the basic compact of the Common
Market.
It is a bargain between French agriculture
and German industry. The key to this bargain
is that French agriculture is being modernized
and is becoming increasingly productive. At
bottom the Common Market enables France
to sell the bulk of the basic food--wheat and
imeat-protected against Canada, Australia,
New Zealand, the Argentine, and the United
States by a common variable levy which would
prevent imports, no matter how low in price,
from competing in the European market. In
return, German industry primarily, but also
Italian, Belgain and Dutch, have the privilege
of free trade within the market and protection
against the rest of the world by a customs
union.
(I might say that the reciprocal relation
between French agriculture and German in-
dustry is comparable with the economy of our
own political union. The United States is a
common market in which there is an economic
compact between the industrial Northeast and
the agricultural South and West. On a smaller
scale, of course, the Common Market in Europe
rests on a similar system of reciprocal ad-
vantage.)
NOW WE CAN SEE why the British applica-
tion to join the Common Market raises
such difficult questions on both sides of the
negotiating table. For Britain buys most of
her essential food outside of Europe. The food

costs at retail about 18 cents per kilogram
(2-1/5 pounds); in France, Germany and
Italy the wheat flour costs about 21 cents.
Beef costs the British at retail aboue $1.66 a
kilogram; it costs the French and Italians
about $2.16.
The biggest economic issue in the negotia-
tions arises from the fact that France and
what might be called the fundamentalists of
the Common Market in Brussels, Bonn and
Rome, say that, to be admitted, Britain must
open her market to French agriculture and
in effect close it to Australia and New Zealand
and North and South America.
THIS POSES a very hard choice both in
Paris and in London. How much the French
will wish to sharpen the issue depends, as I
have been saying, on great political and
strategic questions. But there are powerful
economic interests in France which, leaving
all political considerations aside, will press for
very hard terms. France is in the midst of the
same kind of agricultural revolution which has
created our own farm problem.
For example, the yield of wheat per acre
has increased by more than half over the
pre-war levels. France is able not only to feed
her people but she also has surpluses to
export.
The French farmers, like our own, are a
powerful political force. They are interested
in exports at high prices, and Britain seems
a natural market for French agriculture. French
and other continental industrialists view higher
food prices for British workers as a wage-
equalizing factor. It would thus be most dif-
ficult for any French government to allow
Britain to enjoy cheap food from overseas.
FOR THE BRITISH the terms for admission
present a truly agonizing decision. If the
British must shut out the old dominions, which
are the producersof temperate agricultural
products such as wheat and meat and butter,
the old political and human allegiance of the
empire and the commonwealth will suffer a
rude and painful, if not a fatal, shock.
The issue is deep, momentous, and highly
charged with sentiment. No solution of it is
now in sight. To find a solution, the con-
tinentals will have to move into a much more
generous and flexible position than Gen. de
Gaulle and Dr. Adenauer now occupy.
The British are not so hard-pressed that
they can be brought to a kind of unconditional
surrender to Paris and Bonn. Thus the im-
mediate fate of the grand project depends
primarily on Paris and Bonn. 1
KNOW that this sounds gloomy. For the
short run the prospect is gloomy if we expect
a full solution in which Britain "joins" the
European Community of Gen. de Gaulle and
Dr. Adenauer. This is so difficult that we may
count ourselves fortunate if the negotiations
are not broken off and if a way is found to
continue them, perhaps for some years.

By ROBERT SELWA
Daily staff writer
"THY are students here? Is edu-
cation at a university a right?
Or merely a privilege?
According to the official pub-
lication, "Excerpts from Univer-
sity Regulations Concerning Stu-
dent Affairs, Conduct and Disci-
pline," attendance at the Univer-
sity is a privilege and not a right.
But an examiation of judicial
decisions and an anaylsis of the
role of education in American de-
mocracy leads one to a different
impression: that it is both a privi-
lege and a right.
THE STATE v. White (82 Ind.
278) decision of the Indiana Su-
preme Court indicates that an aca-
demrically qualified student has a
right to be admitted to a univer-
sity. In 1882 the same court is-
sued a writ of mandamus to com-
pel the admission of a student who
had been rejected solely because
he had declined to sign a prom-
ise to resign as an active member
of the Sigma Chi fraternity dur-
ing his stay at the university.
The court justified its action by
noting that "the admission of stu-
dents into a public educational in-
stitution is one thing, and the
government and control of stu-
dents after they are admitted ..
is quite another thing . . . The
possession of this great power over
a student after he has entered the
university does not justify the im-
position of either degrading or
extraordinary terms andcondi-
tions of admission into it . ..
However, there is no right to
attend a private college, at least
according to the 1947 case of Peo-
ple v. Northwestern University
(303 Ill. App. 224, 74 N.E. 2d 345).
A private institution can refuse
an applicant for any reason it
considers adequate, the appellate
court of Illinois declared.
* * * *
A STUDENT who not only is ad-
mitted but also completes the ed-
ucational requirements for a de-
gree at a public college may be de-
nied that degree if he engages in
contumacious conduct (People v.
New York Law School, 68 Hun.
118, 22 N.Y. 663, 1893).
He may also be denied a degree
if he has "unpatriotic and revo-
lutionary" views, according to a
1921 New York court decision
(People v. Albany Law School, 198
App. Div. 460.191 N.Y. Supp. 349).
The student, accused of being a
Socialist, asserted that he was
"one hundred per cent American"
in his views. But the court said
"the faculty acted within the
scope of its discretion, to such pur-
pose that no review may be made
by a court."
A case like this illustrates the
fear many Americans had (and
still have) of the open market-
place of ideas, a fear that makes
democracy inoperative. But the de-
cision stands on the books, un-
repudiated and unreversed, and it
indicates that fulfilling the educa-
tional requirements for a degree
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to

does not insure that one will get
it.
* * *
THE IDEA that education is
solely a privilege leadsto the no-
tion that a univesity can arbi-
trarily dismiss a student. But this
is not so, according to the first
decision in the case of Anthony v.
Syracuse University (130 Misc.
249, 223 N.Y. Supp. 796, Sup. Ct.
1927).
A young woman admitted to
Syracuse University in 1923 was
peremptorily dismissed three years
later. The university made no
statement of the grounds of dis-
missal and gave the young wom-
an no opportunity to answer any
charges. Sherbrought action in the
New York Supreme Court for a
judgment directing the university
to reinstate her.
The court granted the order,
noting that "no institution, by its
own act, can endow itself with
the power to impair, by indirec-
tion, by innuendo, or by implica-
tion, the reputation of an indi-
vidual . . . (This is) an intoler-
able and unconscionable situation,
and the action of the university is
arbitrary, unreasonable, and, in
a high degree, contrary to a true
conception of sound public policy."
* * * -
THIS DECISION was reversed
on appeal by another judge,
though, on the grounds that "the
university need not accept as a
student one desiring to become
such. It may, therefore, limit the
effect of such acceptance by ex-
press agreement, and thus, retain
the position of contractual free-
dom in which it stood before the
student's course was entered
upon.,,
The meaning of this is that ad-
mission to a university does not
by itself insure the stay of a stu-
dent there. It follows that the right
to continue getting an education
is partly contingent upon the right
to be admitted to get it.
Court rulingslean at times to
the position that education at a
university is a privilege and lean
at times to the position that it is
a right. Just as the American
economy is neither purely capi-
talistic nor purely socialistic but
instead mixed, so also do the judi-
ciaries give us a mixed amalgam
of the right and privilege of educa-
tion.
ASIDE from what court rulings
furnish us, it is clear that attend-
ance at a university is a privilege
for two other reasons and a right
for two other reasons.
It is a privilege to the extent
that standards of a c a d e m i c
achievement must be set and met
for a student to get into and stay
at a university. It is also a privi-
lege to the extent that the univer-
sity experience can improve and
better an individual.
But education at a university is
a right to the extent that a uni-
versity is tax-supported and in
this way responsible to all the citi-
zens. And education is a right to
the extent that it is necessary for
the well-being of a democratic so-
ciety and its self-governing in-
dividuals .
EVERY GOVERNMENT degen-
erates when trusted to the rulers
of the people alone, Thomas Jef-
ferson noted. "The people them-
selves are its only safe depositor-
ies. And to render even them safe,
Chairmina mild: h. a imnmvnoni i

relied on for ameliorating the con-
dition, promoting the virtue, and
advancing the happiness of man."
In this way the greatest formu-
lator and founder of American
democracy stressed the need of
education in democracy's perpetu-
ation. His position is valid. To see
where democracy has failed is to
look at the countries where the
opportunity of higher education, if
it existed, did not extend to all.
To see where democracy has but
little chance to succeed is to look
at the backward and primitive
countries of the world.
EVEN IN AMERICA, the liberty
motif of democracy takes on little
meaning for those of limited
schooling. This was shown by the
1960 Purdue University study of
the attitudes of 10,000 high school
students. More than one-third of
them would abolish the right to
circulate petitions. Some 37 per
cent said they do not object to
third degree police methods. Some
43 per cent either favor curbs on
public speech or were undecided
on this matter.
The open society that America
stands for and seeks to more per-
fectly achieve (the, cold war not-
withstanding) seems to mean little
to citizens lacking a penetrating
college education. Being an Amer-
ican and the carrying out of the
duties and responsibilities inher-
ent in this, take on greater and
clearer meaning when one has
studied American and world his-
tory, culture, economics, politics
and literature.
It is thus the duty of a univer-
sity to give as many persons as
possible a good education. And it
is the responsibility of Americans
to do as thorough a job as possi-
ble in getting that education.
AN INFORMED CITIZEN is not
necessarily an educated citizen,
and an educated citizen is not
necessarily an informed citizen.
But for the citizen who wants to
be informed the resources are
available: fine daily ' newspapers
as the New York Times and the
Christian Science Monitor. And for
the citizens who want to be edu-
cated the resources are also avail-
able: fine public universities as
the University and Wayne State
Univresity.
Being both educated and in-
formed is the first step toward
being a good citizen. But to de-
clare, as the University declares in
its regulations, that attendance is
only a privilege and not a right, is
to negate the concept of the edu-
cated citizen. For in denying him
the exercise of this right a uni-
versity denies him part of his citi-
zenship and makes him less of an
American.
Other bad consequences can re-
sult, too. A university can set forth
the position (as this University
sets forth the position) that "in
order to safeguard its ideals of
scholarship and character, the
University reserves the right, and
the student concedes to the Uni-
versity the right, to require the
withdrawal of any student at any
time for any reason deemed suffi-
cient to it." And this in turn can
be expulsion or punishment or the
denial of a degree without a trial,
without hearing, without appeal,
without any form of due process
of law within a university-and
this happens.
* * * i
ToTr11m TaXrVl.. owThT umf r y a n. ,

I

I

Ik

f

ALMOST as important for this
work as her voice are her appear-
ance and actions. She stands tall
ana stately, her face is long and
thin, her hairdo yesterday was
just a touch of weird. She accom-
panied the angularities of the song

GLENN GOULD
... incognito, but.. .

with head motions that provided a perfect visual accompaniment to
the words and music.
After an intermission the work was performed again, without the
improvisations but with ballet added. The most effective section was
the third,' a setting of a section from Kafka's diaries. Miss Martin, in
addition to her singing, took a part in the dance, directing as it were
the others, who portrayed a man, Kafka; one presumes, torn asunder
by internal forces.
It is obvious that the lovely soprano is not capable of the acrobatics
of the dancers, and Grant Strate showed great skill in melding her
stately movements with the airy fantasies of the rest.
If this, indeed, as I surmised, comes from the shadow mind of young
Glenn Gould, then give us more of it, for it was fine.
-J. Philip Benkard
AT THE CAMPUS:
'Adult 1-talian Drama'"
SUMMER HAS RETURNED to Ann Arbor and with it, again, the
double feature. This week's, at the Campus, involves two bantam-
weights, Wee Gordie and Love is a Day's Work.
"Wee Gordie," a Scotch love farce, is easily the more successful.
Little boys have dreams like this movie.
It concerns a ninety-pound-weakling who writes away to build
muscles, becomes an Olympic champion, and wins his true love
anyhow. The-film is very funny and the fantasy-corn is blended so
subtly with the moments of really quite adequate drama that people
in the audience kept forgetting and hissing the most delicate satire.
NOW HISSING is a fine idea and shouldn't be discouraged, but
a better idea would have been to save it for the film which followed.
"Love is a Day's Work" is an Italian love farce, but it doesn't know
it. (That wonderful telephone lady calls it an "adult I-talian drama").
It is part of the debris swept up on American shores by the New
Wave. Following feebly in the tradition of "La Dolce Vita," it is a
boring movie about boredom and how love is the only answer and
so forth. This is not easy stuff to mess around with, and so we
should accord it a couple of points for a spunky try.
IT'S TRUE THAT THERE are those sex scenes which you saw last
week in the preview, but, then, you already saw them in the preview;
the mnvie itslf is filler The film is also full nf the rinrdof ri hliminna1

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