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July 03, 1962 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1962-07-03

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Mbr Aidlignt 3Baikj
Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Convention Writes
Civil Rights Clause
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second of a nine part series on the new
state constitution.)
"NO PERSON shall be discriminated against in the exercise of his
(political and civil rights) because of religion, race, color, or
national origin."
This section of Article I is only one of the provisions in the
new Constitution's Declaration of Rights article. It is said to be
the strongest found in any state constitution.
The provisions for Article I were drawn up by the Committee on
Rights, Suffrage and Elections, chaired by Prof. James K. Pollock

Eisenhower Gives Nation
Odd Warnings on Defense


WHAT IS ON former President Eisenhower's
For the second time in two years Eisen-
hower has sounded cryptic warnings against the
growth of the military. In his farewell address
he said, "We must guard against the acquisi-
tion of unwarranted influence . . . by the
military industrial complex." Last week he
filled in some detail declaring, "I must record
my personal belief that substantial amounts
in our current defense budget reflect un-
justified fears, plus a reluctance in some quar-
ters, to relinquish outmoded concepts. Ac-
cordingly, I personally believe-with, I am sure,
very little company in either party-that the
defence budget should be substantially re-
President Eisenhower should know. After all,
he spent over 40 years in the army during
the time it was growing from the small de-
fense arm of the United States to a mighty
military machine. He was president when the
army as well as the armed forces underwent
a costly technical revolution and settled down
to become a major fact of economic and
political life.
YET EISENHOWER refused to reveal pub-
licly the bases of his fears nor spell them
out in further detail. However, the trends
of recent years make them clear. Hopefully,
Eisenhower could elucidate them and start
a trend that would roll back the military
industrial complex to a realistic and safe
Since World War II the military and in-
dustry, first joined to each other by dire
necessity, later less so, have created a great
complex devoted to the weapons of war. Many
areas of the country, including Michigan, have
ccme to depend on the Defense Department
for their prosperity. This has given the com-
plex a great deal of political power which is
mainly used for self-perpetuation. Occasionally,
the complex expands further, preaching an
extreme right-wing anti-Communism.

The armed forces have become an important
force in American economics and foreign policy.
Their decisions in the economic areas can mean
life or death for a region. The swing to missiles,
for example has made California a prosperous
state where an estimated one-quarter of Los
Angeles workers are in some way connected
with defense work. Or it can create a perman-
ently depressed area, such as Michigan, whose
share of defense contracts in the last 10
years dropped from 10 to three per cent,
eliminating thousands of jobs forever.
IN FOREIGN POLICY, military influence
ruined the best post-World War II oppor-
tunity for disarmament when it forced the
United States to reverse a position the Rus-
sians had agreed to and take up the "open-
skies" proposal instead. It is still a strong
strain in U. S. foreign policy, being dominant
in South Viet Nam policy and less so con-
cerning Formosa.
Lastly, this military-industrial complex
branches into politics where large defense con-
tractors and military men frequently conduct
seminars, lectures and "sabools" hewing to
a stern anti-Communist, antt-liberal and anti-
dissent line. Fortunately, thin practice seems to
be waning among active military men as a
result of the adverse publicity attached to it.
However, many retired officers, having easily
slipped into executive roles in defense in-
dustries, still speak out.
Thus the danger of the garrison state, com-
mitted to war and final, if fatal, victory and
to the suppression of civil liberties and civilian
welfare to meet its goals, lurks. The voices of
those sensing the danger have been weak and
unheard to date. Civil disobedience at Newport
News and student picketers in Washington
has not shaken Congress, nor the public's blind
faith in the Defense Department. Only a public
figure of great stature like Eisenhower could
begin to change the tide.

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Court Ruling Not Antireligious

New .Nation Risks Civil War

T HIS WEEK, the tiny United Nations trust
territory of Ruanda-Urundi is experiencing
s first taste of freedom. Yesterday, July 1,
as the date set for the territory's indepen-
nce, and today experts from both East and
Wst are uneasily guessing the fate of Africa's
west nation.
Actually composed of two separate countries,
Rwanda, with.a Belgium-backed parliamentary
)vernment, and Burundi, a kingdom, the pos-
ility of civil war hangs heavily over the
A .rican area. Two years ago, in the then
rthern Kingdom of Rwanda, the majority
the population, Bahutu tribesmen, revolted
ainst the Watusi rulers. Bloodshed ensued,
* ad the Bahutus, backed by Belgium, set up
h ir own parliamentary government.
Burundi remains under the rule of King
vwambutsa IV, a Watusi, and the Bahutus
.aLl retain their position of near serfdom
id-r their willowy overlords.
-OTH NATIONS are economically under-
developed; there is no heavy industry, and-
railroads are non-existent. In both Rwanda
and Burundi, there are only 212 miles of paved
r.ads. The wealth of the area is represented
s lely by flocks and herds. Seventy-five per
cent of the population is illiterate.
The republic of Rwanda is constantly under
threat of invasion from exiled Watusi tribes-
men, who are busily forming their own guerrilla
arfare units to re-establish Watusi rule. On
the other hand, the kingdom of Burundi is
under threat of a Bahutu revolt, similar to
that which took place in Rwanda several
years ago.
According to Belgian sources, the Bahutu
bajority party in Rwanda is definitely pro-
Western. The former Watusi government was
suported by the eastern bloc, and the Watusi
xiles are at present being supported by the
AR, Morocco, Casablanca, and the USSR.
N BURUNDI, the Watusi party, known as the
Uprona, is neutralist, but little is known
about the political sympathies of the Bahutu
majority. As of now, the Bahutu in Burundi
are not organized into any clearly established
political activity. However, it is reasonable to
assume that their sympthies lie in the same
direction as their Northern brothers'.
If organized civil conflict does result, chances
are that it will take place in Rwanda, between
Editorial Staff
FRED RTSSELL KRAMER .................. Co-Editor
PETER STEINBERGER .................... Co-Editor
AL JONES .............................. Sports Editor
CYNTHIA NEU .......................... Night Editor
GERALD STORCH ...................... Night Editor
PHILIP SUTIN ...................... Night Editor
DENISE WACKER ...................... Night Editor

the Belgian-backed pro-Western Bahutu gov-
ernment and the Watusi exiles. It is also
very likely that the Bahutu government will
be able to maintain it's stability against the
forces of the Watusi, owing to the popular
support it receives.
Another question is: If civil war breaks
out in Rwanda, will the Burundi government
attempt to support their fellow Watusi 'tribe-
men in their attempt to regain power? If the
Burundi kingship does attempt to lend a hand,
its action may foment revolt among the long
surpressed Bahutus.
At the worst, the situation could develop
into another Congo. However, the conflict in
Rwanda could cool off and the status quo be
The United States is pursuing the best pos-
sible policies towards the infant nations, which
is one of neutrality between the two. The
U. S. should not be too hasty to throw in
support for either Rwanda or Burundi. Above
all, until the warring factions in Rwanda come
out in the open where they can be clearly dis-
tinguished, we can do nothing else except sit
and wait.
Dearborn, No!
UNIVERSITY MALE juniors-to-be were re-
cently greeted through the mails by a little
brochure from the Dearborn Center, extolling
the virtues of enrolling in its cooperative busi-
ness program. The student would alternate
semesters of attendance in school with "periods
of compensated employment at selected work
The brochure sees need for competent busi-
ness leadership, feels that future businessmen
should be trained in the same manner as
employees; and notes that "employers in the
area have expressed their enthusiastic sup-
port of the program."
Laudable though these warm feelings may
be, the internship setup at Dearborn does raise
some critical questions.
WHY SHOULD the University engage in a
type of program that not only closely par-
allels offerings at other state colleges, but also
reduces it to a training ground for people out
only to make money?
Why are the brochures, whose cost in view of
the more than 2,000 recipients must be more
than a little, sent out after the sophomore
year, after the student has already made his
academic plans for the coming terms?
Why are the brochures sent out at all,
especially since no other department in the
University finds it necessary to solicit students
with printed commercials?
THE ANSWER seems clear. The Dearborn
Center has no business engaging in thinly-
veiled begging, and probably will get none with
its pamphlets. It does have the responsibility

Daily Staff Writer
AS ANTHONY Lewis has pointed
out, the Supreme Court has
never drawn any clear line be-
tween church and state. And per-
haps it can not. The issue is so
broad and intricate that no single
statement, no single case or even
no series of cases can resolve it
once and for. all.
Nevertheless the Court must
make decisions on issues within
issues, and this is what it did
earlier this week in its momentus
decision on officially prescribed
prayers in public schools.
The essential points about the
New York prayer involved in the
case are these: it was drafted
by state officials for general use
in schools; it was read every day
in classrooms by pupils and teach-
ers together; students could be ex-
cused from participating-but at
the risk of being nonconformists;
and it ivas incontestably religious
in nature. It went like this:
"Almighty God, we acknowledge
our dependence upon thee, and
we beg thy blessings upon us,
our parents, our teachers, and our
* * *
THIS PRAYER is nondenomina-
tional; the saying of it would not
violate the rights of a Catholic
or a Protestant or a Jew in par-
ticular. It might be argued that'
since the reciting of it was vol-
untary no one's rights would be
violated. But, as the Court pointed
out, a teacher is a symbol of au-
thority and respect, and pupils
would feel obliged to join in the
prayer simply because of this. In
addition, they are a captive audi-
ence. It is in these ways that the
rights of the children of atheists
or agnostics would be violated.
.The prayer was sanctioned in
two ways: the teacher led in its
saying, and the state government
drew it up for general use. It is
this double sanction that makes
the act providing for the prayer
unconstitutional, for although it
directs "the school district's prin-
cipal to cause (the prayer) to be
said aloud by each class in the
presence of a teacher," this very
action necessitates that the teach-
er give the prayer sanction).
The Court is not saying that a
teacher cannot read to his classes
from the Bible, and it does not
seem to say a teacher cannot
draw up his own prayer. The ele-
ment of voluntary action enters
here. If a teacher wishes to draw
up a prayer, and if all the pupils
and their parents wish to recite it,
who is to stop them?-Hopefully,
not the Supreme Court.
THIS, IN EFFECT, is the prac-
tice in many parochial schools. It
would seem that, so long as the
practice is completely voluntary
and so long as it has the consent
of all who are directly involved, it
could be done just as well in pub-
lic schools.
Perhaps this is one of the an-
swers for those Congressmen and
churchmen who so vehemently
criticize the Court's decision. The
objection would then center solely
on the government's role in the

Justice Hugo Black, writing for
the Court, centered his chief ob-
jection in this way. He said:
"The history of governmentally
established religion, both in En-
gland and in this country, showed
that whenever government had
allied itself with one partidular
form of religion, the inevitable
result had been that it had in-
curred the hatred, disrespect and
even contempt of those who held
contrary beliefs. That same his-
tory showed that many people
had lost their respect for any re-
ligion that had relied. upon the
support of government to spread
its faith."
* * *
AMERICA'S Founding Fathers,
Justice Blacknoted, saw how per-
secutions had received the sanc-
tion of law both in England and
in the colonies soon after the es-
tablishment of official religions.
"It was in large part to get com-
pletely away from this sort of
persecution that the founders
wrote our Constitution and our
Bill of Rights, with its prohibitions
against any governmental estab-
lishment of religion."
To analyze this argument, we
need examine the First Amend-
ment mandate on religion and the
Virginia Bill for Religious Liberty
whicch is its father. The First
Amendment provides that "Con-
gress shall make no law respect-
ing an establishment of religion,
or prohibiting the free exercise
thereof . . ." This and other pro-
visions of the Bill of Rights came
about largely through the agitation
of Thomas Jefferson, the author
of the Virginia Bill.
* * * . ,
IN HIS "Notes on Virginia" Jef-
ferson noted that the Virginia Bill
for ReligiousrLibertynproclaimed
"it to be a truth, and a natural
right, that the exercise of religion
should be free." And in the Vir-
ginia Bill he cited the Deity in
providing the rationale for the
separation of church and state.
Jefferson stated, in the preamble,
"Almighty God hath created the
mind free, and manifested His su-
preme will that free it shall re-
main by making it altogether in-
susceptible of restraint; that all
attempts to influence it by tem-
poral punishments, or burdens,
or by civil incapacitations, tend
only to beget habits of hypocrisy
and meanness ... to compel a man
to furnish contributions of money
for the propagation of opinions
which he disbelieves and abhors,
is sinful and tyrannical; . . . that
our civil rights have no depend-
ence on our religious opinions, any
more than our opinions in physics
or geometry; "
It is here that we can note the
application to the Supreme Court
decision. Citizens pay taxes to
support public schools; to compel
atheists and agnostics to furnish
contributions of money for the
propagation of opinions that they
disbelieve and perhaps abhor is
in Jefferson's words "sinful and
tyrannical", and since a prayer is
an expression of belief in God, the
result is a type of tyranny. To
avoid this type of tyranny, we ef-

on account of his religious opin-
ions or beliefs; but that all men
shall be free to profess and by
argument to maintain, their opin-
ions in matters of religion, and
that the same shall in no wise
diminish, enlarge, or affect their
civil capacities."
A prayer is a type of worship.
For the government to promulgate
a prayer in public schools is to
infringe upon an individual's free-
dom to profess and maintain his
opinions in matters of religion.
The infringement becomes the
more obvious as the negativism of
an individual toward religion and
a Deity increases.
This is not to deny the religious
tradition of America. Nor is this
to say that atheism is the right
belief, or even that it should be
taught in public schools. The
meaning of the separation of
church and state that we can de-
duct from the Virginia Bill for
Religious Liberties, the First
Amendment and the Supreme
Court decision is that neither re-
ligion no ratheism shall be a part
of the government's role in Ameri-
ca's public schools.
* * *
JUSTICE Potter Stewart, the
sole dissenter, is correct in his
belief that there was no "official
religion" established by the New
York prayer. But there was estab-
lished the concept of religious be-
lief in general, and even a nebu-
lous religion is antithetical to the
idea of separation of church and
Viewed in this way, this idea of
separation would seem to be hos-
tile to religion, but this is not ac-
tually the case, as Justice Wil-
liam O. Douglas notes in a con-
curring opinion. He writes:
"The First Amendment leaves
the Government in a position not
of hostility to religion but of neu-
trality. The philosophy is that the
atheist or agnostic-the nonbe-
liever-is entitled to go his own
way. The philosophy is that if
Government interferes in matters
spiritual, it will be a divisive force.
The First Amendment teaches that
a Government neutral in the field
of religion better serves all rel-
gious interests."
In short, the idea of separation
of church and state is not anti-
religious; it is instead essential
to the well-being of religion-and
atheism-in a democratic society.
the great American dream that
no student should be deprived of
the opportunity for education be-
cause of economic poverty. This is
the motive and basis for free pub-
lic education.
We believe that every human
being is entitled to an equal op-
portunity for the development of
his potentialities, that economic
differences ought not to operate to
discriminate against him.
The least we can do, we have
decided, to insure equal opportuni-
ty-which cannot be guaranteed
absolutely because of many other

(R-Ann Arbor) of the political
science department.
* * *
is established under section 29 of
the legislative article and em-
powered "by law to investigate
alleged descrimination against any
person.. in the enjoyment of the
civil rights . . . and to secure the
equal protection of such rights
without discrimination."
Although the civil rights pro-
visions were praised by most dele-
gates as a momentous step for-
ward, most Democrats voted
against the article on, the final
The Democratic members sub-
mitted their own suggestions in
a substitute constitution, which
was rejected by the Republican
dominated convention 100 to 43.
They called for stronger lan-
guage on civil rights and stronger
authority for the commission.
They said that "equality of poli-
tical power being necessary to
equality of right, thenpeople shall
be entitled to proportionate repre-
sentation in the Legislature."
* * *
wanted to extend the anti-
discrimination section to prohibit
discrimination because of sex, race,
color, religion, or national origin
in "housing employment, public
accommodations, education, or in
his enjoyment of any other of his
civil rights, by the state or any
political or civil subdivision, or
any firm, corporation, institution,
labor organization, or by any per-
Great opposition also arose be-
tween the two parties over the
wording of search and seizure
The Republican document said
that "persons, houses, papers and
possessions of every person shall
be secure from unreasonable
searches and seizures . . . (but
that) the provisions of this sec-
tion shall not be construed to bar
from evidence in any criminal
proceeding any narcotic drug,
firearm, bomb, explosive or any
other dangerous weapon, seized by
peace officer outside the curtilage
of any dwelling house in this
* *
strenously to the latter part of
this provision, which would allow
as evidence anything seized during
an illegal search conducted with-
out a warrant. The Democratic
provision states that "the right of
the people to be secure in their
effects, against unreasonable
searches and seizures shall not be
violated and no warrants shall
issue but upon . . . particularly
describing the place to be searched
and the persons or things to be
During convention debate Negro
delegates told of many incidents
where they had been subjected to
illegal searches after a crime wave
in Detroit.
Opponents of the "weapons"
part of the search and seizure
section pointedout that Michigan
was the only one of the 50 states
with such a constitutional provi-
But supporters quoted from a
letter that Herbert Hoover had
sent to the convention:
"Our system of law enforcement
machinery has been steadily un-
dermined by legislative action and
judicial machinery.
"Our system of law enforcement
came from the English common
law. The British still need to make
it work. We need to get tough."
* * *
SOME OF the major changes
that were finally incorporated into
the new document included:
-Allowing the appeal of crim-
inal convictions a matter of, in-
dividual right, instead of leaving
appeal right to the court's ap-

-Guaranteeing the right of just
treatment at legislative and execu-
tive hearings.
-Deletion of a section relating
to subversion.
-Giving a much stricter and
clearer definition of the circum-
stances under which a person
could be tried for treason.
* * *
SOME OF the most heated de-
bate came over an amendment
that would ban the controversial
"Rule Nine."
This rule, issued by the Cor-
poration and Securities Commis-
sion would cause a real estate
operator to lose his license if he'


U' Recital
SATURDAY evening, baritone
Ralph Herbert, with pianist
Eugene Bossart, devoted an en-
tire recital to Schubert's Die
Winterreise (The Winter Jour-
ney). A full hearing of this, per-
haps the greatest and surely the
longest of the great German song
cycles, is both rare and most
The 24 songs make constant de-
mands on the singer's technique,
physical stamina, and emotional
and intellectual energy. Herbert
responded to all these demands
spendidly, and Bossart's artistic
playing fully matched him. The
University may well be proud of
counting such men on its faculty
and the University community
heartily grateful.
An artist of Herbert's stature
deserves the sharpest standards of
criticism. It is regrettable that he
made so little use of the true
mezza voce, the soft lyric tones he
has potentially at his command.
The touches of these, as in Was-
serflut (Torrent), made one wish
he had had more confidence in
their effect.
* * *
A FEW of the tempi might be
debated; Rueckblick (Looking
Backward) might have been taken
more slowly. The overall interpre-
tation seemed to suggest an older
poet, partly because of the depth
of the voice, than Mueller's
poems call for.
Having noted the flows for the
sake of historical record, one must
turn again to praise. Herbert gave
far more than an impressive
amount of voice to the songs. He
gave a constant feeling of in-
volvement. This goes beyond the
intellectual understanding of the
text and music. He moved the
audience to feel with him the
bursts of n e w experiences and
emotions which each song dashes
upon the poet.
Even before singer and pianist
stepped on stage, the balance of
participation was suggested by the
fully open lid of the piano. Con-
tributing equally to Schubert's
music, the skills of pianist and
singer were equal to whatever
blend of sound they chose. No help
from a lowered piano lid was
needed. Bossart's sure tone sailed
as light and lyric as he wished it,
and in the climaxes Herbert's
voice rose to match the full vol-
ume of sound.
SPECIAL mention mus t be
made of the concluding song of
the cycle, Der Leiermann (The
Organ-grinder). The poet, after
the storms of pain and loss, senses
an identity with an old organ
grinder, a beggar. "Should I go
with you?" he asks, "Do you wish
to play for my songs?" Schubert's
genius did full justice to this sur-
prising and moving conclusion of
Muller's poems, voice and piano
part imbued with the tremendous
impact of understatement. Her-
bert, with Bossart, gave the ad-
ience the full genius of this con-
ception. It was a stunning close
to one of the finest evenings of
music I have heard in Ann Arbor.
Thanks are due for the English
translations provided in the pro-
gram. C o m p l e t e translations
would have been more welcome
still, but this was far better than
the customary absence of any clue
as to what the songs are about.
American audiences are essential-
ly monolingual, and they should
be helped rather than punished
for it.
-Ernest Kramer

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Noices
Tickets available now for Peter Shaf-
fer's award-winning drama, "Five Finger
Exercises," to be presented Wed. thru
Sat., July 11-14, 800 p.m. Trueblood
Aud., Frieze Bldg., by the U-M Players,


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