THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Judge Orders Virginia Schools
Predicts Aggression by U.S.
To Keep Jobs
CHICAGO (P)-The men who
man the nation's trains threatened
yesterday to strike to keep their
employers from changing working
rules that would wipe out thou-
sands of jobs.
The threat was embodied in a
United States district court in
which the unions of engineers,
trainmen, conductors, brakemen,
firemen and switchmen sought to
head off the enforcement of
changes set for Aug. 16.
The suit asked the court to de-
clare that the carriers' promulga-
tion of its plan on July 17 was a
violation of the Federal Railway
Labor Act. It also applied for a
permanent injunction to keep the
managements from adopting new
Forced To Resist
If the managements proceed to
enforce rules changes, the suit
added, the unions "will be forced
to resist said revisionis by asking
those they represent . .. to with-
draw from service" until they have
forced management to put aside
the economy move.
There was no immediate com-
ment from representatives of man-
agement on the strike threat or on
the suit. Spokesmen said they
wished to read the legal docu-
ments before discussing them.
The work rules changes, the1
carriers say, are aimed at elimin-
ating what they call "featherbed-
ding"-keeping on the payrolls
personnel whose jobs are unneces-
sary. The unions disagree and con-
tend the jobs are needed in the in-
terest of safety and, efficiency.
One of the first effects of the
changes would be the elimination
of jobs of 13,000 firemen employed
on diesel locomotives that have no
fires to tend.
These job eliminations were rec-
ommended by a presidential com-
mission n a m e d by President
Dwight D. Eisenhower. It reported
its findings to President John F.
Kennedy in Feb. and made num-
erous recommendations aimed, it
said, at bringing the railroad in-
dustry up to date with current
technological advances. The labor
groups rejected the findings; the
carriers accepted them.
If the brotherhoods should call
a strike, President John F. Kenne-
dy is authorized to invoke emer-
gency provisions of the Railway
Labor Act and name a board to
make settlement recommendations.
TO MEET TODAY-Souvanna Phouma and President John F.
Kennedy will meet today to confer on the situation in Laos. Phou-
ma has expressed some hopes that the newly-created "neutralist"
Laos can endure, but also feels some fear that the growing Com-
munist menace will end the nation's neutrality.
Kennedy, Phouma Meet
On Neutral Laos' Future
WASHINGTON to)-Prince Souvanna Phouma arrived yester-
day for talks with President John F. Kennedy and said the future
of his neutral regime in Laos hinges on internal peace and a solid
Arriving at Washington National Airport, the 62-year-old Lao-
tian Premier was greeted warmly by Secretary of State Dean Rusk
and other diplomats.
Souvanna Phouma said with the conclusion of the 14-nation
Harrison, State Heads
Confer on Situation
RICHMOND P) - A Federal
judge called on Prince Edward
County, Va., yesterday to re-open
its public schools, which the
county closed three years ago
rather than accept racial inte-
gration in the classrooms.
Judge Oren R. Lewis directed
the Prince Edward School Board
to complete plans for the admis-
sion to the schools on a non-racial
basis by Sept. 7.
The result of his order could be
the beginning of the end of an
11-year-old fight in the rural
Virginia agricultural county over
the subject of school integration.
The decision was applauded by
Negro leaders. There was no spe-
cific word from state or county
officials on what their next move
would be. Presumably, they will
seek an appeal.
Gov. Albertis S. Harrison Jr.
went into an immediate conference
with Virginia Atty. Gen. Robert
Y. Button and two other top legal
officials. He said he would have
nothing to say until he had stud-
ied the opinion and conferred with
other attorneys in the case.
Judge Lewis said it would not be
necessary to enter a more formal
court order if the Prince Edward
schools are re-opened
Negroes without School
The county's 1,700 school age
Negro children have had virtually
no formal education since 1959
when the Prince Edward Board of
Supervisors cut off all operating
funds and the schools closed.
The 1,400 white children have
been attending private segregated
schools, financed for a time by
public money until Lewis banned
use of such tax funds.
If the schools aren't reopened by
Sept. 7, Lewis said he would con-
sider any and all proposed orders
offered by attorneys in the racial
Cited by Court
Prince Edward was one of the
original five cases ruled on by the
United States Supreme Court in
its historic 1954 school de-
segregation case. The schools
closed in 1959, and the case has
remained before the courts in one
form or another.
Prince Edward is the only local-
ity in the nation in which all
public schools were shut to avoid
Negro Heads Plan
ALBANY, Ga. (P)-Negro lead-
ers planned their next integration
moves behind closed doors yester-
day in the face of a new warning
from Gov. Ernest Vandiver that
further violence would bring state
action. New marching protests
against segregation had been plan-
ned but it appeared uncertain
when or if they should materialize.
SANTIAGO, Chile (R) - Fidel
Castro told a noisy rally of Cubans
yesterday the United States is pre-
paring direct armed aggression
against their homeland.
He charged the United States
Navy was holding the Guantana-
mo Naval Base "against our will"
and that it has become "a lodging
for drunken inhabitants and coun-
Flailing his arms, the Cuban
Prime Minister told the crowd:
"The imperialists are arming to
He spoke at a ceremony com-
memorating the 9th anniversary of
the start of his revolution here
against ousted dictator Fulgencio
Must Strengthen Defense
Cubans, he said, must work
harder but "not neglect our de-
fense-on the contrary, strength-
Then, a flight of Cuban air
force jet fighters swept overhead
and Castro craned his neck.
"That's nothing more than the
preamble," he said with a chuckle.
As for the United States Navy
Base 50 miles east of here, Castro
said the United States seized it
during the war of independence
By terms of a treaty that went
into effect in the mid-1930's the
United States leases the base from
Cuba for $2,000 a year for as long
as it considers it necessary. The
United States, however, has main-
tained a Navy station there since
1901, after the war with Spain.
Castro charged that "that base
is part of our territory which the
Yankees are holding against our
will and using it as a sector of
Attempting to Infiltrate
He claimed that counterrevolu-
tionaries are attempting to infil-
trate Cuba from the base.
He sailed into counterrevolu-
tionaries with a charge they were
joining forces with followers of
Batista in an attempt to regain
power in Cuba.
The crowd at the rally was noisy
and the bearded prime minister,
dressed in his green fatigues and
beret, halted his speech at one
point and warned he would not
.. goes with the senators
Geneva accords on Laos, signed M
WASHINGTON (A) - A Thor
rocket and its nuclearswarheads b
were intentionally destroyed at P
Johnston Island early yesterday in S
a high altitude test attempt that 0
never got off the ground.
The Pacific 'test failure echoed
in Washington, where Defense De- t
partment and Atomic Energy Com- o
mission officials spent hours inP
A broadcast from Johnston Is- d
land monitored in Honolulu said d
test officials there were "ready to e
"clean up and get ready to goh
again," but that a final order a
would have to come from Wash- t(
An official here said he doubt-
ed yesterday's meetings were held
to decide whether to end the nu- a
clear test series. a
onday, his country has turned a
new page. "With the help of all
our friends we will maintain our
ndependence," he said. 'But he
"We will be able to be really
neutral only if we have peace in-
ide of the country and place our
conomy on a solid basis."
"We know your tasks are just
beginning," Rusk told Souvanna
Phouma. "You have still to con-
olidate your country on the basis
f independence and neutrality."
He said these would be the ques-
ions for discussion with Kennedy
over the next few days.
Kennedy will meet Souvanna
Phouma at the White House to-
ay, and it is expected the Presi-
dent will assure the Laotian lead-
r that the United States will
honor its obligations and expects
11 other mations, including Laos,
o live up to commitments that
t be neutral and independent.
Laos' neutrality was insured last
week when a 14-nation conference
approved the final versiol of a
reaty drawn up after a several
months'-long study. The treaty
rovides for the withdrawal of all
oreign military personnel from
he kingdom within the next 68
During and following the with-
[rawal, activities in Laos will be
upervised by a commission com-
posed of representatives from
_anada, Poland, and India. The
ommission will continue to check
he borders to prevent re-entry of
oreign forces and arms..
Supreme Court Justice Potter
Stewart will hear arguments to-
day on whether he should stay the
state Supreme Court's apportion-
State politicians and officials on
both sides are converging on Little-
ton, N. H., where the vacationing
Stewart will decide the appeal of
Senators Frank Beadle (R-St.
Clair), Paul Younger (R-Lansing)
and John Fitzgerald (R-Grand
Ledge) this weekend.,
The three senators accompanied
by Senate Judiciary Committee
chairman Carlton Morris (R-
Kalamazoo) will confer with their
attorney, Whitney N. Seymour, in
New York City today and then
proceed to Littleton.
Atty. Gen. Frank Kelley, Solici-
tor Gen. Eugene Krasicky and Dep.
Atty. Gen. Leon Cohan will argue
the case for the court decision.
Theodore Sachs, attorney' for
state AFL-CIO president August
Scholle, -whose successful suit
against the Senate started the cur-
rent round of litigation, will also
Seymour is expected to argue
that the court's decision setting
an Aug. 20 deadline is too short
and that an election of senators
at large will cause chaos.
A state district judge ruled yes-
terday that the Kansas state Sen-
ate and part of the House of Rep-
resentatives is improperly appor-
tioned and must be corrected to
meet constitutional requirements.
The state supreme court was
asked by state Atty. Gen. William
M. Ferguson to stay the ruling.
Dist. Judge Marion Beatty up-
held four newspapermen who ask-
ed the court to declare the ap-
portionment laws invalid and en-
join officials from holding elec-
tions under them. His ruling af-
fects all 40 state senators and 13
counties which have more than one
house member each.
Beatty's ruling directed that the
next primary and general elec-
tions for state senators and for
house members in multi-district
counties be held at-large. Sena-
tors would be elected at-large
throughout the state and repre-
sentatives at-large within coun-
ties having more than one house
However, the Supreme Court ap-
peal is expected to prevent the
ruling from affecting the Aug. 7
primary and Nov. 6 general elec-
tion this year, giving the 1963
legislature time to reapportion.
WORLD NEWS ROUNDUP:
T-alk on A irlines Strike,
Urge Prayer Bill Action
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-The United States government kept negotiators
at work last night trying to settle the 34-day flight engineers strike
of Eastern Air Lines. Malcolm Macintyre, Eastern's president, held
several conferences in the offices of Secretary of Labor Arthur J.
Goldberg in a showdown effort to produce an agreement.
WASHINGTON-Several United States Senators urged yesterday
continue unless the crowd near the
rostrum quieted down and stopped
Castro said imperialism was or-
ganizing "gangs of murderers that
are the same ones that murdered
before (the revolution)."
Crowd Answers 'No'
"Will they and the Americans
with their factories return?" he
shouted out to the crowd.
Back came a roaring, "no."
It was here in Santiago that
Castro first moved against Batis-
ta on July 26, 1953.
He and his men stormed an army
barracks, were captured, jailed,
then sent into exile in Mexico.
From there Castro shaped up the
guerrilla force that fought Batista
until his downfall Jan. 1, 1959.
SANTO DOMINGO )-A strike
of government workers yesterday
brought rifle-armed police and riot
squads again into the streets of
this Caribbean capital.
Union leaders called the walk-
out to protest new income tax
rates, but President Rafael Bon-
nelly's government charged it was
inspired by the anniversary of Fi-
del Castro's 26th-of-July revolu-
The riot squads, carrying long
billyclubs and gas bombs, patrol-
led down town streets which were
jammed with tourists.
There were no early reports of
The Santo Domingo airport was
closed for a time when operators
in the control tower walked off the
job and several international
flights were cancelled. Troops
rushed from nearby San Ysidro
Air Base took over and operations
Strong police details patrolled
the vicinity of the pro-Castro 14th-
of-June movement, whose loud-
speakers blared out criticism of
Close Most Stores
Most stores on the capital's main
street, El Conde, were closed.
The strike presented potentially
the most serious challenge yet to
the nation's ruling council, led by
Bonnelly, since it took over six
Backing the striking Govern-
ment Workers Union are the Fed-
eration of University Students,
bank employes, peanut oil industry
workers and the union of munici-
pal workers-with the exception of
those in vital public services.
,t g featuring
BOl Weevil Jass Band
German Park- Pontiac Trail
F R I DAY, July 27 9-12 P.M.
Must be 21
Get off yor
that Congress act to overcome last
which held that officially prescrib-'
ed prayers in the public schools
VIENNA -Vienna doctors and
the Health Insurance Institute
yesterday ended a four-month dis-
pute over fees which was high-
lighted July 9 by a one-day doc-
tors' strike. The Institute agreed
to increase fees by July 30 and to
negotiate later on a general re-
organization of payments.
* * *
ing to block a bill to place the
sattellite communications system
in private ownership managed to
prevent any progress yesterday to-
ward a vote. At issue is a Kennedy
Administration - backed measure
which the House has passed pro-
viding for control of the United
States part of the space system.
* * *
GENEVA - Arthur H. Dean,
United States delegate at the 17-
nation disarmament talks, ac-
cused the Soviet Union yesterday
of deliberately obstructing all ef-
forts to negotiate a nuclear test
* * '*
LIMA - Military President Ri-
cardo Perez Godoy accused United
States Ambassador James Loeb
yesterday of taking sides in Peru's
Presidential election last month.
A United States spokesman in
Washington termed the charge ri-
WASHINGTON - Indonesia's
Foreign Minister Subandrio made
a rush visit to the White House
yesterday and said he discussed
with President John F. Kennedy
"this matter of how to find a
peaceful solution" of the Dutch-
Indonesian dispute over New
Guinea. The White House visit
coincided with reports that ne-
gotiations between representatives
of the two countries were at the
point of a breakdown.
* * *
NEW YORK-Steels and motors
led a stock market advance yester-
day, but late trading shaved some
of the earlier gains. Trading re-
mained light with volume on the
New York Stock Exchange falling
to .2.79 million shares from 2.91
mililon shares Wednesday.
month's Supreme Court decision
ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG
... clears the airways
Rules Island Indirectly
OPEN TONIGHT TILL 9
Tomorrow Till 5:30
(EDITOR'S NOTE-Puerto Rican
Gov. Luis Munoz Marin Wednesday
told Puerto Ricans that he hopesfor
a plebiscite sometime next week, to
determine if the island will remain
under United States control or be-
come an independent nation.)
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
The executive and legislative
powers of the United States touch
Puerto Rico more lightly than they
do any regular state.
The island commonwealth, ac-
quired by a rather left-handed
conquest 64 years ago as a result
of the war with Spain, receives
the benefits of the United States
social system without carrying
either the responsibility or a share
of the cost.
The President makes fewer poli-
tical appointments in Puerto Rico
and so wields less direct political
power there than in any state. For
the last 10 years he has appointed
only an auditor and the members
of the supreme court. Puerto Ri-
cans elect their own officials and
their own commissioner who han-
dles their affairs in Washington.
Now the President has agreed
to an even more firm formaliza-
tion of the right and duty of Puer-
to Ricans to decide the form of
their own institutions and of their
own future, "including independ-
ence if that should be their wish."
Since the proposal comes from
the Puerto Rican governor who
represents the island's majority
favoring continuation of the com-
monwealth association with the
United States, merely eliminating
the last vestiges of direct supervi-
sion or control from Washington,
that seems likely to be the result.
But the plan for a plebiscite will
extend full right of expression to
those Puerto Ricans who would
like actual statehood or prefer
complete, nationalist independ-
U.S. Merely Stands
The United States merely stands
by and says, "Puerto Ricans are
American citizens and have been
for many years. They may do as
they wish. There are no Algerias
and no Angolas in the Americas."
The situation which makes such
an attitude possible is an achieve-
ment of both the United States
and Puerto Rico.
Sixty-four years ago there was
not, on that island, the slightest
basis for political action or for self
government. Tutelage has been a
very real thing there, among a
highly volatile people. A wise elite
has been produced to take over
self-government, and a wise fore-
These leaders, and the.President,
are now determined to eliminate
everything in the relationship
which others might twist into
charges of colonialism. It has hap-
pened before, ini the Philippines.
And it is notable as a coinci-
dence that steps are being taken
to increase the autonomy of Guam,
which soon will remain as the last
small protectorate among the ac-
quisitions from Spain.
In their first message to the
world the founders of the United
States expressed "a decent respect
of the opinions of mankind." The
resultant nation, now playing a
great role in that world, does not
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With your help the People-to-People, Classroom and
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Former President Dwight D. Eisenhower who inaugu.
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ference on September 11, 1956 called its goal "tthe most
worthwhile purpose in the world today: to help build the road
to an enduring peace."
If you would like to participate in the People-to-People
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