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July 27, 1961 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-27

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Survey

Shows International Students'

ttitudes

By DAVID MARCUS
Foreign students at the University unanimously agree that the
faculty is of a much higher quality than they had originally ex-
pected.
This is one of the findings of "The 1960 Survey of International
Students at the University" done by Sociology-Psychology 185, a class
of introduction to survey research taught by Prof. Angus Campbell,
director of the Survey Research Center, last fall.
The report of the survey states "In light of the increasing con-
cern with international understanding, we view this study as dealing
with an important question: cross-cultural education in an academic
community and the place of the international student."
Deals in Three Areas
The survey-based on questionnaires sent to every foreign stu-
dent on campus, 68 per cent of whom returned the completed forms-'
dealt in three areas:
1) A description of the foreign student in terms of sex, country
of origin, marital status, etc.
2) An investigation of the social conditions in which the foreign
student lives. This includes such questions as where does he live and
has he encountered any discrimination?

3) A survey of attitudinal changes.
The findings regarding the faculty were a part of the compara-
tive attitude study.
Least Favorable Response to Students
Of all the aspects of the University, foreign students showed the
least favorable change in attitude toward the student body. Also,
twice the number of blank responses were found in the question
about the students.
Among other aspects of the foreign student's life, the survey also
inquired into the number of American friends each had made in
comparison to the number of other foreign students and fellow coun-
trymen who were his friends.
Western Europeans showed the highest percentage of friendship
with Americans, 64 per cent. There is a progressive lessening of such
friendships to Eastern Europe, Latin America, the Far East and the
Asian subcontinent with only 21 per cent of Middle Eastern and North
African students noting friendships with Americans.
Nationals Provide Most Friends
Findings also showed that these students tend to have the most
friends amongatheir own nationals followed by Americans as opposed
to any other national group.
Western Europeans also reported fewer friends among their coun-

trymen while 76 per cent of the students from the Asian subcontinent
reported many of their friends were fellow nationals.
About half reported that they participated in clubs consisting of
their countrymen, while 23 per cent said that they did not have such
a club and 14 per cent stated that they did not participate.
About 50 per cent reported no participation in clubs outside these
national groups.
Men Far Outnumber Women
In profiling the international student body, the survey, which
excluded Canadians and those in the English Language Institute,
found a 4.25 to 1 ratio of men to women.
This varied with geographical distribution. Southeast Asian men
and women are about equal in number at the University while Middle
Eastern and North African men outnumber women by about 20 to 1.
They also found 40 per cent of the students in engineering, 15
per cent in social sciences, 14 per cent in humanities, 13 per cent in
natural and physical sciences, eight per cent in medical sciences with
the remainder scattered through other fields.
Further, 60 per cent are graduate students, 19 per cent juniors
or seniors, nine per cent visiting scholars, six per cent special students
and five per cent freshmen and sophomores.

There are also geographical breakdowns included in the survey of
variation within eight culturally defined areas on each subject.
A majority of the students (60 per cent) said that the Univer-
sity, overall, was better than similar institutions in their own country,
while only four per cent rated it inferior.
Only among students from Western and Eastern Europe did the
feeling that home universities were better exist in a plurality.
While 71 per cent of the students lived in apartments or private
homes (most likely single rooms, according to the survey), only 12
per cent of the group reporting said they had encountered discrimi-
nation while 86 per cent answered that they had met none.
Inquiring into their present ideas about America, the survey
found that about half had the "same impression" as before their
studies, about one third reported more favorable attitudes, while a
sixth showed less favorable ideas about the United States than before.
Report Worsened Impressions
Latin American and Afghanistanian, Indian, Pakistani and Iran-
ian students tended to have the largest group of worsened impressions
of America and Americans.
Regarding their own social status in America as compared to
their native lands, 43 per cent found a lessening, 10 per cent noted
See SURVEY, Page 3

HANNAH FACES
NECESSARY CHOICE
See Page 2

Sir 43Z6F

~E~aitF

WARMER
High-8'7
Low-64
Chance of light
afternoon showers.

Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No. 218 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, JULY 27, 1961S FIVE CENTS

FOUR PAGES

Castro

To

'Unify' Cuban Revolution

t -t-
Premier Anticipates
Single Organization-
Grgarin Pledges Armed Support
At Eighth Anniversary Celebration
HAVANA (P) - Fidel Castro, assured of "the armed help of
the Soviet people," announced last night the Cuban revolution will
be unified into a single "socialist" organization.
The bearded Prime Minister made his announcement before
hundreds of thousands of cheering Cubans gathered in Jose Marti
square for celebrations marking the eighth anniversary of Castro's
revolution. Commenting on reports he planned a single all-powerful

*

*

Congress

*
Moves

*

*

To

Give

Funds Kennedy Requests

ACCUSED DIPLOMAT--United Nations Secretary-General Dag
Hammarskjold was accused last night of favoring Tunisia in the
Bizerte crisis. Hammarskjold had written French Foreign Minis-
ter Maurice Couve De Muirville complaining that the French
government had not complied with the UN Security Council
resolution to withdraw troops to their original positions at
Bizerte.
Claim Hammar'skjold
Partial to Tunisians
PARIS OP) - France last night accused United Nations Secretary-
General Dag Hammarskjold of favoring Tunisia in the Bizerte crisis
and said it would be useless for him to visit Paris.
Hammarskjold went to Tunisia "at the invitation of the Tunis-
ian government," a Foreign Office spokesman said, "without being
encharged with any mission by the Security Council." The spokesman

May Return
Stolen Plane
KEY WEST (W)-Cuban Prime
Minister Fidel Castro yesterday
offered to return a hijacked East-
ern Air Lines plane that landed
in Cuba ,hree days ago if the
United St; 'es would promise to
return plart:s hijacked from Cuba
and taken to the United States.
He said the Cuban government
did not order the seizure because
this "is against our principles and
we would just be giving an excuse
to imperialism for launching an
attack against us."
Castro said at first the plane
would be returned in exchange for
a commitment from the United
States government to return hi-
jacked Cuban planes. Then he
said he was demanding the re-
turn of all planes hijacked from
Cuba in the pastas well as inmthe
future.
The Cuban Prime Minister said
a total of 10 Cuban planes had
been hijacked in flight and taken
to the United States.
Several of these have been con-
fiscated to satisfy a judgment
against the Castro government in
behalf of a Miami advertising
firm.
FBI Names Man
Who Seized Plane
MIAMI (P) - A Cuban-born
waiter at resort hotels, whose wife
thought he was a loyal American,
was booked "in absentia" yester-
day as the man who hijacked an
airliner and forced the pilot to
land in Havana.
The FBI said that Wilfredo
Roman Oquendo was a " secret
policeman in Cuba during the
regime of ex-President Carlos
Prio Socarras, and now is a mem-
ber of Fidel Castro's 26th of July
movement.

'proletarian party modeled after
those in Communist bloc coun-
tries, Castro said:
Only One Organization
"The revolution will have only
one organization. This is the
meaning of the integration of rev-
olutionary organizations."
He declared "this process start-
ed months ago, but still has not
been concluded."
Castro spoke after 27-year-old
Soviet spaceman Yuri Gagarin de-
nounced the United States and
pledged "the armed help of the
Soviet people" in what he called
Cuba's fight for freedom and in-
dependence.
Creates Unity
Castro said all Cuban organiza-
tions - political, military, labor
and others - will be united in "the
United Party of Cuba's Socialist
Revolution."
Castro said it is impossible."to
reach socialism in 24 hours, In
one month, in two years."
He said the only way to "reach
this just society" is through "work,
economic development of the
country, increased production and
great efforts through progress."
Aspire to Justice
"Socialism," he declared, "is the
consequence of the people's as-
piration to justice. We must es-
tablish just conditions so that all
leaving (Cuba) do it, not because
they are not given the opportunity
to live here, but because they do
not want to live here honestly."
Castro admitted there had been
cases in agrarian reform and na-
tionalization of industries when
revolutionary laws "were not so
just in their application and regu-
lations as they were in their pur-
poses."
He denounced Cubans fleeing to
the United States as "parasites
and worms" hoping to find "their
old exclusive and aristocratic
clubs."
But, he said, "they will find
they will be discriminated against
there as Latins, as Cubans by the
Yankee superior race.'
The crowd frequently inter-
rupted Castro with cheers and
shouts of revolutionary slogans.

Raise Draft,
Ask Billions
For Defense
McNamara Testifies
At Senate Hearings
WASHINGTON (P)-The Pen-
tagon yesterday made a fast start
on President John F. Kennedy's
new military buildup as it order-
ed a sharp increase in the August
draft call and asked Congress for
billions of dollars to muster an-
other quarter of a million men.
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara went before a Senate
appropriations subcommittee with
plans to "achieve quickly . . . a
peak readiness" to respond to any
kind of armed Communist ag-
gression anywhere in the world.
Details Spending
McNamara specified how the
Defense Department would spend
an additional $3,454,000,000 to in-
crease the armed forces to a total
of 2,743,000 men, arm them with
more missiles and otherhmodern
weapons, and prepare to send
more fighting men overseas swift-
ly if the need arose in Berlin or
elsewhere.
While the Pentagon chief was
before the Senate group, the De-
fense Department announced it
was increasing the August draft
call from 8,000 to 13,000. All the
draftees will serve in the army.
Outlines Plans
In outlining partial mobiliza-
tion plans Tuesday, Kennedy
said draft calls will be doubled or
tripled in the coming months. He
sent his formal military buildup
request to Congress yesterday.
McNamara told the Senate sub-
committee the September draft
call would come to at least 20,000
to bring the Army closer to the
new goal of one million men
While indicating no immediate
callup of National Guard or re-
serve units, McNamara asked for
legislation that would authorize
the President to order to active
duty up to 250,000 members of
the Ready Reserve.

UNITED EFFORT-Senate Republican Leader Everett M. Dirk-
sen (left) pledged GOP efforts yesterday to insure that Congress'
grants all the money President John F. Kennedy wants to deal
with the Berlin crisis.
MSU CONTROVERSY:
Professor To Lose Pay
If He Wins in Con-Con
By MICHAEL OLINICK
A Michigan State University professor must take a leave of
absence without pay to serve as, delegate to the Constitutional Con-
vention, but the school's president refuses to assume one for per-
forming the same task.
MSU Provost Paul Miller yesterday told Prof. Gordon L. Thomas,
of MSU's speech department, that he must give up his regular pay

Leaders See
QuickaAction
For Crisis-
Republicans To Join
Democrats' Attempts
To Pass Legislation
WASHINGTON (P)-Both Re-
publicans and Democrats led a
drive in Congress yesterday to
give President John F. Kennedy
all the money he wants to face
the Berlin crisis and he should
get it by next week.
Senate Republican leaders~met
and announced they would help
Democrats rush passage of a de-
fense appropriations bill swollen
by the extra $312 billion request-
ed by the President yesterday.
"I think the timetable is to
have it on the President's desk by
next Tuesday night," said Senate
Republican leader Everett M.
Dirksen of Illinois.
May Delay Passage
Democrats, however, thought
Dirksen optimistic. Some of them
said paperwork and debate would
delay passage of the bill until
late next week.
In the House, meanwhile, steps
were taken to rush Kennedy's
other requests through Congress,
Rep. Carl Vinson (D-Ga), chair-
man of the House Armed Services
Committee, introduced bills cov-
ering the President's requests to
build up military manpower and
equipment.
Authorize Actions
The bills, among other things,
would authorize the President to
activate 250,000 reservists, extend
enlistments, and buy $958,570,-
000,000 worth of aircraft, missiles,
and naval vessels.
Most of the drama covering the
President's requests will be played
in the Senate, where members of
both parties praised the Presi-
dent's speech to the nation Tues-
day night.
judge Defers
School Order
RICHMOND, Va. JP)-A fed-
eral judge said yesterday he was
not going to enter an order re-
quiring the reopening of Prince
Edward County's public schools,
closed two years ago in a racial
dispute.

Lloydl Policies
Draw Protests
In Parliament
LONDON () - The govern-
ment's new home economy drive
stiffened the pound sterling on
world markets yesterday but
touched off angry shouts in Par-
liament and threats of wage strife
on the labor front.
Protests bellowed across the
House of Commons when Selwyn
Lloyd, Chancellor of the Ex-
chequer, spoke in defense of the
higher taxes and tighter credit
policy he announced Wednesday.
Lloyd weathered the uproar and
proceeded to outline a vague five-
year plan intended to develop the
nation's resources.
His program boosted taxes on
a vast number of consumer goods
ranging from cigarettes and beer
to automobiles and bedsteads.
In addition he raised the Bank
of England interest rate from 5 to
7 per cent and thus imposed a
strict clamp on instalment and
mortgage spending.
/'

%aid the French government's
viewpoint "thus makes any visit
to Paris useless."
Hammarskjold arrived in Tu-
nisia Monday in response to an
urgent appeal from Tunisian
President Habib Bourguiba that he
hold personal talks on the French-
Tunisian quarrel over France's
huge military installations near
Bizerte.
-The Foreign Office confirmed
reports Hammarskjold tried un-
successfully to be received by Adm.
Maurice Amman, French comman-
der at Bizerte.
The admiral "courteously de-
clined" the request on instructions
from Paris, the spokesman said.
He said Hammarskjold's official
car was stopped and searched by
French paratroopers on the out-
skirts of Bizerte yesterday because
the UN chief failed to advise
French authorities he intended to
visit the war-scarred city.

checks, if elected to Con-Con.{
Thomas, the mayor of East Lans-
ing, was unopposed in the primary
election.
Explains Position
He had asked Miller for a clari-
fication of MSU rules that deal
"ambiguously" with a professor's
relation to Con-Con. "The rules
say you don't need to take a leave
to run for the office, but they
weren't clear what happens if you
win," Thomas said last night.
MSU President John A. Hannah
indicated earlier that he would
not take a leave or give up his
salary if elected. He said, how-
ever, he would not accept the
$1,000-a-month, Con-Con salary.
"The president's job at an in-
stitution like this one yon cannot
'take a leave' from. It's a 24-hour-
a-day, seven-day-a-week proposi-
tion."
Secures Permission
Prof. James K. Pollack, of the
political science department, said
he had secured permission from
the Regents to seek office as a

Extermination
Of Angolans
Seen in Congo,
LEOPOLDVILLE (R) - Baptist
missionaries doing relief work
here among refugees from An-
gola have drawn up a report
charging Portugal with attempt-
ing to exterminate all educated
Negroes in that rebellion-torn ter-
ritory.
The report, a copy of which has
. gone to the International Red
Cross, said large areas of Angola
immediately south of the Congo-
lese border have been depopulat-
ed.
Speaking of the fighting, in
which both sides have been ac-
cused of atrocities, it said:
"The evidence is conclusive that
a great number of men have been
rounded up and imprisoned or
shot.
"Q.0 4, rin Pmnnel lc. hoe. Hori ,-

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