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July 26, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-26

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014 A riiiattDafly
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 26, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: RUTH EVENHUIS

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
World-Wide Television
Poses Dangerous Threat
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
MAN DISPLAYS an increasing ability to make life dangerously com-
plicated for himself.
Sixteen years ago, when people discovered what had happened at
Hiroshima, a great many thought that the ultimate blow had been
struck against long-standing conceptions of many sorts - political,
military and social.
Now the prospect of creation of a world-wide television system,
open to all who can set up the machinery, capable of being bent and

U.S. Would Gain
From Berlin Negotiations

T HE UNITED STATES shouldn't be so ready
to go to war over Berlin, because if negotia-
tions give the Russians everything they want
there, the United States will be better off than
it is now.
Certainly it would be a defeat to lose West
Berlin as a spy center and a propaganda show-
piece, but the city itself has been the least of
Khrushchev's concerns.
What he wants most strongly is a German
peace treaty. This would stabilize the existing
borders between East and West Germany, and
also between these two countries and their
neighbors. The United States doesn't want such
a treaty, because it hopes, somehow, that it will
be possible to reunite the two Germanies-un-
der Western control.
ON THE FACE OF IT this seems ridiculous.
The Russians are obviously not going to let
a reunified Germany join NATO; and since
the United States probably won't go to war
over the issue, our hopes for a united Germany
are completely unsupported.
If the United States wanted to insure the
safety ofthe West Berliners, it could agree to
making Berlin a "free city." And even if the
Russians would later try to take it over, our
ability to stop them would be no different than
it is now. No military advantage would be lost
by agreeing to neutralize Berlin. Of course, the
Committee
Hides Head
THE SENATE Foreign Relations Committee
has again chosen to bury its head in imita-
tion of the proverbial ostrich on the question
of Red China.
It has passed a resolution, similar to its past
statements on the subject, which asks the Unit-
ed States to oppose recognition of Red China
and to continue blockading its admission to
the United Nations.
This resolution goes even further than past
statements. It asks the United States to con-
tinue in its obligations to Nationalist China,
and to block recognition and a UN seat for
that monstrous Communist power Outer Mon-
golia.
BUT THERE ARE at least some hopeful signs
that the committee and Congress (which
must now approve the resolution) may someday
wake up to reality:
It makes no plea for divine right of kings,
restriction of suffrage, or mercantilism and
doesn't even admonish us "to carry the white
man's burden."
-D. MARCUS

use of it as a spy base might be impaired, but
this is a relatively minor concern.
When and if the West Germans have the
atom bomb, they might patriotically try to
claim East Germany as a lost province. And
not only the East Germany that exists now,
but pre-war eastern territory as well.
Right now, because the United States and
Russia haven't agreed what the German boun-
daries are, that situation could be extremely
dangerous. If a peace treaty were signed, how-
ever, which recognized the present German
frontiers, then the West Germans could never
try to unify their country, nor could they try
to expand its territory. If they did, the United
States and Russia could agree to stop them.
KHRUSHCHEV feels a real danger from the
"Hitler generals" he sees in the West Ger-
man army. We don't feel endangered, because:
1) Any German expansion would hurt the
Russians and not us, and
2) Anyway, the Germans are our friends.
Both these arguments are ridiculous. If the
West Germans tried to take over East Germany
under the threat of nuclear force, the Russians
would have to decide whether it was worth a
large scale war. Just as we couldn't make up
our minds as to how much Cuba was worth
fighting for, the Russians would have to decide
whether East Germany was worth bombs fall-
ing on their own territory.
But the resulting increase in tension would
ultimately cost us more-in hopes for some
kind of peace-than the Russian embarrass-
ment would be worth. The Russians would de-
cide the United States favored unlimited Ger-
man expansion, and the United States, con-
fronted with an independently strong Germany,
wouldn't know how to control it.
THE ONLY WAY to make sense out of United
States policy is to assume-melodramatically
-that it is obeying militaristic West German
orders. We will hold out against a peace treaty,
thereby permitting the West Germans to claim
new territory. While the stalemate continues,
the Germans could continue present efforts to
unite Western Europe. We like this plan as a
way to end quarreling among the allies. The
French seem to like the idea because it would
restore their lost world influence. No one
knows why the Germans like it. But Khrush-
chev thinks that Germans want atom bombs
and the power of a "third force," to make them
able to pressure Russia.
Whether such paranoia is justified remains
to be seen. But certainly, if the United States
were more interested in its own welfare than
in the Russians' misery, it would have no ob-
jection to signing a German peace treaty mak-
ing current German boundaries and the divi-
sion of the country permanent, or else neu-
tralizing and demilitarizing it.
-PETER STEINBERGER

CRISIS IN BIZERTE::NEGRO:
Bourguiba Disillusioned; Friend

Only Communists Profit

twisted to the will of those who
wish to bend and twist the wills
of whole peoples, promises an im-
pact which could be far greater.
Millions of televiewers in the
United States were treated last
Friday to a small demonstration
of what can happen, inadvertently,
or what could be made to happen
deliberately, through use of this
newest form of mass communica-
tion.
SOON AFTER HEARING oral
reports that astronaut Grissom's
space capsule had floated down
under parachute to 21,000 feet
they were shown pictures of a
helicopter carrying a capsule, pre-
sumably to the waiting aircraft
carrier. The only presumption was
that Grissom and the capsule had
been picked up, and that the eye
of television had flashed ahead
of information for oral announc-
ers.
The presumption was enhanced
by a flashback to Cape Canaveral,
where the space agency announcer
was reporting efforts to confirm
the pickup.
Anyone called away from his
set at that time, just before a net-
work announcer cut in to explain
that the helicopter pictures were
standby preparedness pictures
made when Alan Shepard made
his return from space - and not
actually pictures of Grissom's
capsule - would have sworn that
Grissom and the capsule were safe.
* * *
IF SUCH a misconception can
be created inadvertently, with
everyone understanding that the
network had no intention of being
dishonest but had only been trap-
ped in an attempt to keep the
visual show going during a hiatus,
what could a new Adolph Hitler
do by intent over a worldwide
hookup?
He could show pictures of the
attack by Poland which he ver-
bally claimed. He could show
Polish saboteurs blowing up whole
German towns. He could convince
the world - and probably more
than momentarily - of the neces-
sity of war against Poland.
The prospect becomes the more
disturbing when you consider that
the expected space communica-
tions system will be set up by the
countries with powerful economies,
but will be extended to the least
educated, least informed and
therefore most impressionable
areas of the earth.
* *
IF ALL NATIONS participate,
as the United States is suggesting,
the system will be operated in
part by free men under free en-
terprise, subject to the checks and
balances of open competition. But
it will also be operated oy gov-
ernments which have as their chief
announced objective the persua-
sion of all men to come under their
rule.
That means that a device is
being constructed which will upen
the way - unless unprecedented
controls are established - con-
tains a threat more serious to man
than the threat to kill his body -
the threat to capture and direct
his mind.

British Steer Careful Course

COMMON MARKET meetings on the Berlin
crisis and on federative aspects of Euro-
pean unity have come at a moment when Brit-
ain, "the great dissenter," is being urged to
seek ties with the group in order to relieve
pressures on its economy. But Britain is relying
on austerity measures plus aid from the Inter-
national Monetary Fund to pull it through its
present crisis.
The British course is logical. The benefits
to be gained from access to the six-nation
market area on the European continent are
problematical. They have to be weighed against
possible losses in Commonwealth trade for
Britain, and disruption of present British ar-
rangements aiding British agriculture.
Despite Washington's eagerness to see Britain
and the Common Market in a new expanded
version of European unity, it is possible to see
why British opinion still resists connections on
such terms as are now available. These stress

political federation as the end of economic co-
operation.
INDEED Common Market members just this
week have met to try to further a federal
relationship. For their own sakes they have
every right to do this. But they did not offer at
this meeting to- make it any easier for Britain
to cooperate with them. Many British do not
see how their country, as one nation in a Euro-
pean federation, could also provide accustomed
leadership for the Commonwealth of Nations,
some of whose members oppose the idea of
British ties to the Common Market oneconomic
grounds.
In resorting to self-discipline at home and
to aid from IMF, Britain is pursuing a course
in line with its broadest interests, including
an Atlantic unity in which the Common Mar-
ket plays a less unifying role than Washington
seems to imagine.
-CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR

By THOMAS F. BRADY
New York Times News Analyst
TUNIS, July 24-Everyone con-
cerned - France, Tunisia, the
United States and the Western
powers-stands to lose heavily in
the Bizerte crisis.
The Communists, however, only
can profit from the possible trans-
formation of Habib Bourguiba, un-
til now a stanch friend of the
West, into an enemy of France
and a leader bitterly disillusioned
about the United States. Since
the bombardment of Sakiet-sidi
Youssef by the French in Febru-
ary, 1958, Bourguiba's confident
belief that the United States
would keep Tunisia from being
pushed around has been the cor-.
nerstone of Tunisian policy.
* * *,
IN FORCING the issue of
French evacuation of the Bizerte
naval base at the moment when
the United States badly needs
French solidarity with the Atlan-
tic Alliance because of the Berlin
crisis, Bourguiba miscalculated.
His reaction was apparent in his
comment the other day that the
attitude of the United States and
Britain was "painful and discon-
certing."
He also miscalculated the vigor
of the French response to his
moves to force the evacuation of
Bizerte. He said in the same
speech:
"I never believed the Govern-
ment headed by General de Gaulle,
who has proclaimed his policy to
be decolonization, would act in
such a way."
A WELL QUALIFIED Western
observer described the French mil-
itary moves at Bizerte as a "gross
over-reaction" to the Tunisian
blockade of the base and Tunisian
rifle fire on a French helicopter.
The chain of events that was set
off has cost more than 500 Tuni-
sian lives, by conservative esti-
mate. .
Another element is probably in-
volved in triggering the crisis. If
French claims are to be believed
artillery of the Tunisian army was
effective against French aviation
in the air and on the ground last
Wednesday.
Bourguiba had probably expect-
ed the situation to develop as it
had in 1958 when the Tunisians
threw up barricades around all
French military installations,
which were then spread all over
Tunisia.
He declared the Tunisian air
space closed to French aircraft.
When the French ignored his dec-
laration, he ordered his armed
forces to fire on military planes.
There was rifle fire, but it was in-
effective, and as far as is known,
no French aircraft were brought
down in flight by rifle fire.
* * *
WEDNESDAY, however, Tuni-
sian artillery did shoot down a

cause military action is not his
technique.
Be that as it may, the Tunisians
regard themselves as having moral
right to defend their air space.
Consequently there is no compre-
hension here of the French reac-
tion or the Western failure to
condemn it.
The role of Tunisia at this mo-
ment is profoundly important for
what is called the "third world,"
that of underdeveloped peoples.
The United States had chosen Tu-
nisia to be a "pilot country" for
economic aid and development.
But Tunisia was really a pilot
country of the "third world" in
cooperation with what Marxists
call the capitalist imperialists of
the West.
* * *
THE TUNISIAN4S believed pro-
foundly that the United States was
a country where international
morality was a guiding principle.
They pointed to the United States
reaction to the Suez affair in 1956
and to the French bombing of the
Tunisian village in 1958.
Monday one of Bourguiba's ad-
visers asked: "Where are his
American friends now?"
The French action has strength-
ened Bourguiba within Tunisia,
but the fact that the United
States has not supported him has
weakened his position tremen-
dously.
Copyright 1961, The New York Times

Of Justice
AM MOVED to comment that
we Negroes are convinced that
we are, on the whole, better Ameri-
cans than our white brothers. We
believe in what our freedom docu-
ments say; the white power struc-
ture does not. It follows then-
at least in our minds it does-that
if this country is to be saved, if
it is to assume the posture it pro-
fesses, we must carry the load by
insisting that the Republic be-
come what it swears it already is.
*, * *
"ALTHOUGH we file our suit in
the name of civil rights, we ac-
tually appear as a friend of free-
dom and human justice. If our
plea is heard, and acted upon, the
West-the United, States really--
will take a long step toward cor-
recting its relationships with the
nonwhite peoples of the world.
Most of these peoples are West-
ern in mind and temperament;
their -estrangement-they call it
'neutralism'-is largely due to our
default on the matter of mis-
treatment and exploitation .
"We know the Republic is em-
barrassed by these incidents. But
experience has taught us that our
relief is coincident with that em-
barrassment. When we sit in a
waiting room, we are taking the
Constitution to mean what it says,
we understand the Supreme Court
to mean what it says."
-Louis E. Lomax

DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 26
General Notices
Seniors: College of L.s. & A., and
Schools of Education, Music, Public
Health and Business Administration.
Tentative lists of seniors for August
graduation have been psted on the
bulletin board, first floor lobby, Admin.
Bldg. Any changes therefrom should
be requested of the Recorder at Office
of Registration and Records window
Number A, 1513 Admin. Bldg.
The Office of Veterans' Affairs has
moved from 142 Admin. Bldg. to 2226
Student Activities Bldg. The phone
number is unchanged. Ext. 3301.
August Teacher's Certificate Candi-
dates: All requirements for the teach-
er's certificate must be completed by
Aug. 4. These requirements include the
teacher's oath, the health statement,
and the Bureau of Appointments ma-
terial. The oath should be taken as
soon' as possible in room 1203 Univer-
sity High School. The office is open
from 8-12 and 1-5.
Students who expect to receive Edu-
cation and Training allowance under
Public Law 550 or 634 and are enrolled
in the 8-week session must (1) turn in
the Deans Monthly Certification form
for June 26-July 31, signed by instruc-
tors, to the Dean's Office by Fri.,July
28, (2) sign IBM card for June 26-July
31 In the Office of Veterans' Affair, 2226
SAB. on Aug. 1, 2, 3, or 4. Those en-
rolledin the 6-week session only must
(1) turn in one Dean's Monthly Cer-
tification form for the entire summer
session, signed by instructors at the
final exams, to the Dean's Office by
Aug. 4, (2) sign IBM card for June 26
to Aug. 5 in the Office of Veterans'
Affairs, 2226 SAB, Aug., 1,2,a3,ror4
between 8 a.m. & noon or 1 to 5 pm.
Events Wednesday
German Coffee Hour: Wed., July 28 at
2 p.m. In 4072 Frieze Bldg. All person
interested in speaking German are Wel-
come.
Educational Film Preview: Wed., July
26 at 2 p.m. in the Schorling Aud.,
University School. "High School Band
Day Highlights" and "Toot, Whistle,
Plunk and Boom.".
Baroque Trio: The Baroque Trio,
Nelson Hauenstein, flute; Florian Muel-
ler, oboe; Marilyn Mason, harpsichord;
assisted by Clyde Thompson, double
bass, will present a concert Wed., July
26, at 8:30 p.m. in Rackham Lecture
Hail. Compositions they will play are
by Purcell, Loellet. Jommeli, Bach,
and TelLemann. Open to the public
without charge.
11 1
William Warner Bishop Lecture: Dr.
Jack Dalton, Dean of the School of
7 ibrary Service, Columbia University,
will speak on "International Library
Relations" at 3 p.m. on Wed., July 26,
in the Multi-Purpose Room of the Un-
dergraduate Library. Open to the pub-
lic,
Doctoral Examination for Robert Boris
Marcus, Chemistry; thesis: "The Oxi-
dation of Thin Single Crystals ofCop-
per,"~ July 26, 3003 Chemistry Bldg., at
10 a.m. Chairman. L. . Brockway.
Events Thursday
Baratin, the informal conversation
group of the French Club, will meet
Thurs., July 27, from 2 to 4 p.m. in
(Continued on Page 3)

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TRIP TO TUNISIA:
Hammarskjold Challenges Soviet Claims

Aid Program Seems Safe

PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S foreign aid pro-
gram, a major weapon in his crusade for
freedom, appears to be well on its way toward
final victory. There will be some cuts and
changes, but the indications are that it will
come out of the Congressional wringer sub-
stantially intact and, in any case, adequate
enough to meet the needs for which it was
devised.
Evidence to that effect mounted when the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee approved
the bill authorizing it by a vote of 13 to 4. This
is substantially better than the 10 to 7 vote
Editorial Staff
2f~nQ A ER'nT!Tywta P .i .t'

by which it had already endorsed the most
heatedly contested feature - the five-year
$8.8 billion development loan fund. The House
Foreign Affairs Committee is now expected to
do the same and so is Congress, although the
battle before the more difficult appropriations
committees must still be fought and won.
THE SENATE COMMITTEE did cut the
President's original request of $4.8 billion to
$4.3 billion. It is doubtful that this was a wise
move in view of the imponderables of the
Berlin crisis. But such a cut is in line with
usual Congressional procedure and was largely
anticipated by the administration. The com-
mittee likewise changed the system of operat-
ing the development loan fund; but the ad-
ministration is satisfied with the change.
The die-hard opposition still threatens a
flnnr hattle ever the fund. not so much to

By MAX HARRELSON
Associated Press News Analyst
UNITED NATIONS (R) - Dag
Hammarskjold's role in the
Tunisian crisis could turn out to
be a powerful answer to the So-
viet campaign to replace the Unit-
ed Nations Secretary-General with
a three-man directorate.
If his personal diplomacy suc-
ceeds in restoring peace, both he
and the office of secretary-gen-
eral will get a big boost in pres-
tige. In any event his activities
are bound to have an impact on
this fall's General Assembly de-
bate on the proposed structural
changes.
Developments during the past
week have certainly demonstrated
that the secretary-general is a
potential peace-making arm of
the United Nations which can
supplement the work of the Secur-
ity Council and the Assembly.
* * *
ALTHOUGH Hammarskiold has
insisted that his quiet diplomacy
was not impaired by the Soviet
attacks initiated by P r e m i e r
Khrushchev last September, he
had no opportunity to put his
claim to a test until the Tunisian-

'4

-AP Wirephoto
HAMMARSKJOLD IN TUNISIA-United Nations Secretary Dag Hammarskjold and Tunisian Defense
Minister Bahi Lagdham are interviewed by a Tunis radio newsman after they met to discuss the
French-Tunisian crisis.

Sjiyndav M fivto +nihni s to hcln

o~mmnitted i nries weunt. out of

ousted and the Soviet embassy

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