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July 26, 1961 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1961-07-26

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See Page 2


4 JA&r A&A
OA t t an



Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom


Tunisia Warns
Of More Fighting
Calls for Security Council Action
To Force French from Bizerte
TUNIS (A) - President Habib Bourguiba declared yesterday
"fighting is bound to start again" if the French cling to their battle-
won positions at Bizerte.
He appealed to the United Nations Security Council for further
action to force them back.
"We have decided to resist until the end and we are prepared
for new hostilities," the Tunisian leader told a news conference.
"We have decided to inform the Security Council that this cannot
Bourguiba said other nations where France has military bases
should act against those bases. He apparently referred to Morocco,
where France shares one small base with the United States, and to
nearly a dozen former colonies in Africa where France maintains
a network of naval, air and army installations. Offered military

Bon isteel





Passengers 1
Gain Release
From Cuba
MIAMI (M)-Thirty-two passen-
gers and five crewmen of a hi-
jacked Eastern Air Lines Electra
returned from Cuba yesterday.
Fly Back
After being detained since their
landing. Monday morning, the
passengers and crewmen were
freed by Prime Minister Fidel Cas-
tro and flew to Miami on one of
the twice-daily flights operated
by Pan Amercan Airways between
Florida and Havana.
Castro gave no hint that he
would release the $3.5 million air-
craft. Some members of the con-
gress said the United States should
demand its return, and back up
the demand with force.
"Here is the occasion for which
we have been waiting," said Sen.
Spessard L. Holland (D-Fla), "be-
cause here is an act of piracy pure
and simple."
Threatens Seizure
Castro threatened in a radio-
television speech July 5 to seize
any American aircraft hijacked
rand flown into Cuba.
Presumably, this would be in re-
taliation for the grabbing of seven
Cuban planes in this country by
Miami advertising man Erwin
Government officials said there
was a distinction, however. Cuban
planes were taken over by law in
the United States for satisfaction
of unpaid Cuban debts.
In New York, the Federal Bu-
reau of Investigation moved to
break up a purported Cuban plot
to hijack five more American com-
mercial airliners and fly them to
Havana. Eastern, National and
Northeast Airlines, the major New
York-to-Miami carriers, were said
to be the targets of the plot.
Members of the Electra crew
headed by the pilot, Capt. W. E.
Buchanan, were hustled off by
FBI agents on their return here
for questioning about the incident.
Livg Index
Makes Hike
NEW YORK () - The labor
department reported yesterday
that increases in most transporta-
tion and housing costs combined
with a seasonal rise in food prices
raised the cost of living to a new
high in June.
The consumer priceindex for
June - the average costs of the
typical city-dwelling family - was
127.6, which meant that prices
averaged 27.6 per cent higher
than in the 1947-49 base period.
The June index was two-tenths
of 1 per cent above May and one-
tenth of 1 per cent above the pre-
vious high reached last December.
It was nine-tenths of 1 per cent
higher than June of 1960, mainly
because of a 2 per cent rise in
prices of services.
Ewan Clague, commissioner of
labor statistics, commented at a
news conference there had been
practically no change in the in-
dex since last October.
Clague foresaw factors "prob-
ably on the upside" for the July
cost of living figures, due a month
from now.
Report Backs

'help by some of Tunisia's Arab
League partners, Bourguiba said
he has informed them that he
needs trained guerrilla fighters,
planes, guns and mobile antiair-
craft batteries.
Possible Violence
Bourguiba spoke of possible new
"iolence despite the presence of
UN Secretary-General Ilag Ham-
marskjold, who arrived last night
as the President's invited guest
on a peace-making and fact-find-
ing mission.
He omitted reference to Ham-
marskjold when he announced the
new appeal to the Security Coun-
cil. The Secretary-General's pres-
ence has done little to ease Tu-
nisian bitterness at French dom-
inance at Bizerte, where France
kept a naval-air base by treaty
after granting this former protect-
orate independence in 1956.
Accuses Troops
Bourguiba accused French troops
of violating the Security Council's
cease-fire order by refusing to
withdraw to their prebattle posi-
tions within the military enclave,
though his own troops also have
made no move to pull back. Tu-
nisian soldiers and volunteers are
standing pat at barricades they
managed to salvage in the four-
day action.
The Tunisians want the French
expelled from both the city of
Bizerte, where Bourguiba declared
they are acting like conquerors,
and from the naval-air installa-
Hammarskjold said after an ex-
ploratory conference with the
Tunisian president last night he
had not scheduled a visit to Bi-
Britain Sets
Higher Tax
LONDON ()-Britain's conserv-
ative government yesterday voted
a 40 per cent boost in interest
rates and a sharp tax curb on
home consumption.
After almost a decade of buy-
ing consumer items as never be-
fore, the British again must cut
down. The problem is that de-
spite prosperity at home, the cost
of British manufactured goods is
going up abroad and new competi-
tors have cropped up in postwar
British goods are not selling as
well abroad, and this island nation
lives on international trade. Gold
and dollar reserves have been fal-
ing, imports have exceeded ex-
ports and there has been a loss of
confidence in the strength of the
British pound.
The government's measures are
aimed at reversing this trend, al-
though some of its most influen-
tial critics claim that the only
real solution is for Britain to
loosen its historic commonwealth
ties and join the European Coi-
mon Market and try to compete on
the continent.

Beats Eseh,
Nominee To Face
Grossmnan in Election
Roscoe o. Bonisteel last night
handily won the Republican nom-
ination for the first state legis-
lative district's Constitutional con-
vention post.
Piling up 4,670 votes, Bonisteel,
at the latest available figures,
decisively defeated his opponents
Marvin L. Esh of Detroit and
Lewis G. Christman of Ann Arbor
with 1,044 and 2,571 votes re-
Bonisteel will oppose Democrat
Allen W. Grossman of Saline in
the Sept. 12 contest for conven-
tion delegates. The winner will
represent the first legislative dis-
trict at the convention which
opens October 3 in Lansing.
Former Regent
Bonisteel, a former Regent and
member of the Wayne State Uni-
versity board of governors, is past
president of the State Bar of
Michigan, member of the State
Board of Law Examiners of Mich-
igan, and vice-president of the
Historical Society of Michigan.
He believes that one of the
principle issues of the convention
will be restoration of responsibility
to local government within the
state "so that it can meet the
problems confronting it."
On other issues, Bonisteel favors
a four-year term for the governor
with a limitation of two terms.
"This is precisely what I stand
for and what I shall continue to
stand for."
He commented that he wishes
to retain the present status of
the state universities as bodies
within the state yet with a sub-
stantial degree of independence.
Bonisteel commented, "I thank
all my frinds and fellow citizens
who knowingmy love for theistate
of Michigan helped me win the
election through their work and
He does not believe an entirely
satisfactory plan for reapportion-
ment of the state Legislature has
been submitted yet.
Grossman, who was unopposed
for the Democratic nomination,
is the Saline city attorney and
has a private law practice in Sa-
He believes the single most im-
portant issue to be considered at
the convention will be reappor-
"The house should be appor-
tioned on a strict population
basis," he says. "Although some
consideration may be given to-
ward function and area, Senate
apportionment must be more
closely related to population,"
He favors maintaining the con-
stitutional status of the state uni-
Yesterday's primary narrowed
the field of prospective con-con
candidates to 288. Half of these
will be elected Sept. 12 to fill the
144 convention post.
Each senatorial district and each
legislative district in the state
will be represented by one dele-
gate. Prof. James K. Pollock of
the political science department
was unopposed for nomination as
the Republican candidate from
Washtenaw's senatorial district.
His opponent in the September
election will be Robert W. Carr,
a teacher of government and his-
tory in the Ann Arbor public

Carr was unopposed for the
Democratic nomination.











White House
May Request
Added Taxes
Propose No Change
In Current Deficit
WASHINGTON (P) - President
John F. Kennedy served notice last
night that he will ask a tax in-
crease, if necessary, to balance the
federal budget in the next fiscal
year and to finance the buildup of
military spending he proposed.
However, the President said that
although the deficit for the cur-
rent fiscal year, which started on
July 1, will climb beyond $5 bil-
lion instead of the $3.7 billion pre-
viously predicted, it will not be
met by a general tax increase.
"The Secretary of the Treasury
and other economic advisers as-
sure me . . . that our economy has
the capacity to bear this new re-
quest," Kennedy said.
Amount Indefinite
The prepared speech did not
specify how much of the $3.454
billion of new defense budget re-
quests would be spent in this fis-
cal year. This disclosure evidently
was left for part of his brief bud-
get request to be sent to Congress
However, the speech indicated
that at least $1.5 billion of the
total new funds would be poured
into the military and civil defense
buildup in this fiscal year. Even so,
Kennedy said, the recovery from
the business recession is beinge
achieved with deficits "far smallert
than those of the 1958 recession."c
Promises Balance
"This improved business outlookr
means improved revenues," Ken-t
nedy went on, "and I intend tos
submit to the Congress in January2
a budget for the next fiscal year
(1963) which will be strictly inf
'To Increasel
Civil Defense
. r
WASHINGTON () -Presidentk
John F .Kennedy announced last
night he will ask an additionals
$207 million for a "new start" in
civil defense.
That would virtually treble the
$105 million previously asked oft
Congress for protection of civilianst
against any nuclear assault on the
American mainland.
The President said his new
money request to Congress would
be used to identify and mark
space in existing private and pub- f
lic buildings which could be used
for fallout shelters; to stock the
shelters with food, water, first aid
kits, tools and "other minimum
essentials for survival."1
The funds also would be used toa
improve the warning system and
fallout detection systems, Kennedy
said, including the new "buzzer"
warning system attached to elec-
tric circuits in each home.

Lpproprlations, Draft
............Calls on U.S.
:: : ::.:::: .::::::.::.::. :: p:.i:Pi:t-iTo:<i:0S a c rifice} v ::::v:i



-AY Wirephoto
DIVIDED CITY-A view across the border into East Berlin from the Western sector, which Presi-
dent Kennedy has vowed to defend, shows an entrance (arrow) to the subway system through
which an ever increasing flow of East Germans have escaped to the West.
To Develop Satellite System

WASHINGTON (/) - The gov-
ernment called for full speed yes-
terday in setting up a privately
owned and operated satellite com-
munications system.
A prediction that experimental
relays of telephone, telegraph and
television signals could be started
sometime in 1963 was made before
a Congressional group by T. A. M.
Craven, a member of the Federal
Communications Commission.
Craven added that orbiting
Earth satellites could go into reg-
ular operation about a year later,
relaying messages and visual pro-
grams to distant parts of the
FCC Chairman Newton M.
Minow, who appeared with Craven
before the House Commerce Com-
mittee, said the FCC regards the
satellite system as its most im-
portant pendingobusiness.
Asks Committee
The FCC called on American
companies now handling interna-
tional communications to form a
temporary committee to speed

plans for joint development of a
private enterprise but non-monop-
olistic satellite relay system.
The agency acted after Presi-
dent Kennedy laid down yesterday
the policy that this country's role
in a global communications satel-
lite system should be assigned to
private companies, provided cer-
tain requirements are met.
Denies Conflict
Minow told the House group
there is no conflict within the
government as to private versus
public ownership. He said FCC
wholly favors extension of the
existing system of privately own-
ed, federally regulated communi-
cations to the satellite field.
"Philosophically, if we are in
a race with Russia, this should
provide a good, concrete test," he
Craven, asked whether there was
information that Russia was try-
ing to develop a similar system,.
said "the information we have
is negative."

Recognition Resolution
Passes Senate Group
WASHINGTON ()') - By vote of 16 to 0, the Senate Foreign
Relations Committee approved yesterday a resolution opposing United
States recognition of Communist China and its admission to the
United Nations.
The resolution now goes to the Senate.
Similar resolutions have been passed periodically. Senate Repub-
licans are insisting on another this year in hopes it will help stemn
'growing worldwide 'sentiment for
admitting the Red Chinese Into
the UN.

In giving his timetable for use
of satellite communications, Cra-
ven distinguished carefully be-
tween television relay and direct
broadcast of television from satel-
lites to home receivers. The latter.'
To Consider
WASHINGTON (P) - Govern-
ment nuclear experts told Con-
gress yesterday of advanced prep-
arations for a series of atomic
detonations that would start
quickly if the White House gives
the word to resume nuclear weap-
ons testing.
The experts, from the Pentagon
and Atomic Energy Commission,
testified before the Senate-House
Atomic Energy Committee that all
the experiments are designed to
help develop ways of spotting fur-
tive explosions.
These would range in novelty
from buried atomic blasts in the
western states to satellite checks
on the feasibility of detecting nu-
clear detonations in the reaches
between the moon and the sun.
C. M. Beyer, deputy director of
the Defense Department's nuclear
test detection office, described
plans for 13 nuclear detonations
and 23 conventional explosions, all
T-itan Missile
Mee ts Test
In 'New System
ocean-spanning Titan missile
rumbled 5,000 miles to a South
Atlantic target yesterday in the
first successful test of the weapon's
new inertial guidance system.
The Air Force reported the 98-
foot rocket performed as planned
on the 30-minute flight to the.
intended impact area near the
island of Ascension.
Primary purpose was to check
the inertial guidance system which

For Peace
Announces 217,000
Increase in Services
WASHINGTON (P) - President
John F. Kennedy backed up a
warning that America will fight
if necessary with a call last night
for boosting military appropria-
tions $3.4 billion to meet the Com-
munist threat to Berlin and the
He plans to call more men to
arms. The draft and reserve pro-
grams will be used to bring more
men into uniform.
And Kennedy called upon his
fellow Americans to make new
sacrifices, to carry heavier bur-
dens in defense of freedom, to
maintain "courage and persever-
ance for many years to come."
While he held out offers to talk
and negotiate :with the Commu-
nists for peace, over and over he
pounded home an intention t
fight if necessary to keep Berlin
and the rest of the free, world
from Communist clutches.
"o4 *o **Vlk
"We will at all times be ready
to talk, if talk will help," he said,
"But we must also be ready to
resist with force, if force is used."
"We do not want to fight-but
we have fought before .. . we can-
not and will not permit the Com-
munists to drive us out of Berlin,
either gradually or by force.
As Kennedy saw it, the imme-
diate threat to free men is in
West Berlin.
But West Berlin, he said, is not
an isolated problem, even if it is
an isolated outpost, and "the
threat is worldwide."
To meet it, with resultant sacri-
fices and budrens for the Ameri-
can people, Kennedy iroposed an
extra $3,247,000,000 in appropria-
tions for the military forces and
$207 million for civil defense in
the bookkeeping year which be-
gan July 1.
Boosts Budget
These requests would boost the
nation's defense budget for this
year to $47.5 billion.
Kennedy proposed to bolster Ar-
my, Navy and Air Force manpow-
er by 217,000.
He announced that draft calls
will be doubled and tripled and
asked Congress to let him order
some reservists and National
Guard air squadrons to active
duty. He proposed to hold in serv-
ice many ships and planes once
tagged for retirement.
And hersaid he intends to use
about half the extra money he
seeks to buy non-nuclear weap-
ons, ammunition and equipment.
Requests Funds
The request for funds will go
to Congress today; as a followup
to the President's prepared address
to the nation by radio and televi-
sion last night.
Kennedycalled, too, for the
Western allies to assume their
share of the risks and .burdens,
because the challenge is one "to
every nation which has asserted
its sovereignty in the name of li-
berty." Especially is it a challenge,
he said, to the Atlantic communi-
ty-"the heartland of humanfree-
Questions Sale
Of Medicines
States Food and Drug Adminis-
s.. +;l -sa ta


Officers Make Soldiers' Lot Difficult

Today's resolution had an extra
provision. This would put Con-
gress on record as feeling that the.
United States should continue to
m~n+ 0 nhlanfitte ~ha WA

The poor lot of the common
soldier in the Civil War on both
sides was the result of blundering,
professional jealousy, and general
incompetence on the part of the
colonels and generals, Prof. Dwight
L. Dumond of the history depart-
ment said.
In his lecture, "Drummer Boy
to General," Dumond described

positions, after seeing the carnage
done the attackers, the men began
deserting whenever the order to
attack was given, or if they dared
fight, pinned notes naming their
next of kin on their backs. Yet
however many men they lost, the
generals continued to order frontal
Another case of shortsighted-

steads. The same was true of ioeeLt it CI1 aiUnese rn TonE X
clothes, especially shoes. Dry goods tionalist Chinese. government on
could be appropriated from South- Formosa.
ern towns, but the generals would Against Mongolia
not allow it. On another Asian matter, which
Probably the greatest blunders many Senate Republicans feel is
of the war were made by General related, Sen. Styles Bridges (R-
James W. Ripley, chief of supply NH) opposed any recognition of
of ordnance. Ripley, 68 at the Outer Mongolia, a Communist
start of the war and unwilling to state lying between the Soviet

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