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July 21, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-21

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... . .. . .... --'.. .

AMt i1d igyn &iL9
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MIcH. " Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must he noted in all reprints.
FRIDAY, JULY 21, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM

"Yion Too Can Leap Forward To A Different Life"
t z

CINEMA GUILD:
Short Steals Show
From 'Bicycle Thief'
THE REMARKABLE THING about the movie at the Cinema Guild
is that, as film art, "The Bicycle Thief" is overshadowed by the
short immediately preceding it, "An Diesen Abenden" (On These Eve-
nings). If one is given to symbolism, then "An Diesen Abenden" is a
mystic's Bible of symbolic logic.
A painted skull fades into the finely boned face of a farm laborer,
lying agonized, in a field. Over her shoulder one sees two men carrying
scythes walking along the road beside the field-the first dressed in
black, the second in white. The girl hoists an incredible load of forage
on her back and staggers into the dirty little village where young
couples scurry off into umbrous recesses. Suddenly, she is in her hovel

Kennedy Keeps Quiet
On F'reedom Riders

T HE PRESIDENT'S NEWS CONFERENCE
Wednesday brought him an opportunity to
say something on the Freedom Riders, but
when a reporter asked him the question, his
answer was curiously non-committal.
He replied that the Freedom Riders were
allowed to use buses just like anybody else,
and that freedom to travel, like freedom of
the press, was a universally recognized right.
He could have said whether or not he ap-
proved of the Riders, or their aims or tactics.
But he decided not to.
That the Freedom Riders exist at all is due
to violations of federal law by Southerners.
Kennedy's announced policy is that the present
anti-segregation laws are sufficient if they
are enforced. Maybe. But why doesn't he have
the Justice Department enforce them, then?
IF HE THINKS the Freedom Riders are stir-
ring up opposition to more gradual inte-
grationist tactics, he should say that, too. But
in merely announcing that the Riders have
a right to travel, he is not being neutral.
When the law explicitly states that segrega-
tion of interstate bus lines and terminals is

prohibited, the President can't overlook the
fact that the law is being violated.
It is not 'just politics' to avoid giving a
firm statement against the terminal -segrega-
tion. This isn't a matter of policy (or it
shouldn't be). It is a matter of law - clear-cut
and unquestionable.
No federal suits have been introduced against
those operating the illegally segregated facili-
ties. Maybe the Justice Department is short-
handed and busy elsewhe're, but this is all
the more reason for a clear, non-evasive an-
swer by the President about how he feels on
the Freedom Rides.
IF ONE MAN wants to kill another, you don't
arbitrate the case by allowing the removal of
one limb. If the South wants to segregate
facilities, you don't non-committally say it's
all right for the victims to struggle.
They say that words are cheap, and the
President has spared few of them when urging
more defense spending.
But he is extremely niggardly about saying
what he thinks of those who - as private
citizens risking their lives - try to implement
the law he is supposed to uphold.
-PETER STEINBERGER

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Celebration Profane

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION:
Taxation Powers Crucial

F OR A NATION "conceived in liberty" and
constantly swearing devotion to eternal
peace, our celebation of the Civil War is unique
and disturbing.
Lectures, exhibitions, books and toys glorify-
ing the struggle between the states are out-
selling everything else on the market this cen-
tennial year of the war's start. Commercial
exploitation was bound to occur, and the fierce
struggle between Civil War trivia and Eichmann
atrocitia make the competition of a free en-
terprise system amusing to observe.
The unusual aspect of the war celebration,
however, is the re-enactment of its chief
military campaigns and battles. Today is the
100th anniversary of the first Battle of Bull
Run and men from all over the nation are
gathering at Manassas Battlefield, Va., to get
set for a grand re-enactment of the battle
this weekend.
Deviationists
THE MISSISSIPPI SHERIFF who has been
keeping watch over Freedom Riders tem-
porarily under his protection reported yester-
day that one of them tried to hang himself.
Out on bail now, this student may nonethe-,
less have given us non-demonstrators a clue as
to whether Riders are really Communists or
not.
This try at hanging himself convinces even
the most doubtful among us:
-After all, isn't it those Russian jails that
are full of people who commit suicide?
-P. S.

There will only be a dress rehearsal today.
The actual show is Saturday, with a repeat
performance on Sunday.
AS THE 2,000 MEN (mainly members of the
North-South Skirmishes Association) oil
their old muskets and comb their beards and
prepare to defile whichever of the Sabbaths
they happen to believe in, a question of pro-
priety arises. Is this the proper way to re-
member that agonizing period of American
history? Is it a meaningful attempt to recall
the ethical and political conflicts which led
to the war, and which are still partially un-
resolved?
The answer is clearly negative. The 80,000
observers (who are expected to pay up to $4
to watch) are coming to participate in the
vicarious thrill of playing at war. Without
going into a psychological analysis of their-
motivations, they will probably enjoy them-
selves immensly and learn little.
These same people would vehemently pro-
test, if they were not disgusted enough to
withhold reply, any suggestion that we re-
enact the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
the sinking of the Lusitania, or the atomic
destruction of Hiroshima.,
OR MAYBE THESE EVENTS are just too
recent to be treated without an aura of
sacredness. Perhaps our moral beliefs and pub-
lic grief are merely time-dependent and we
will someday celebrate these events as we do
the Civil War.
And who's to know that on some far off
star other beings won't some century re-enact
our nuclear destruction??
-MICHAEL OLINICK

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
is the fourth of a six-part analysis
of the issues likely to be consid-
ered at the forthcoming constitu-
tional convention. Primary election
for delegates to the convention is
next Tuesday.)
By PETER STEINBERGER
Daily Staff Writer
THE STATE CONSTITUTION as
it now stands makes it hard
for the Legislature to provide for
the state financially, and its prob-
lems can be summed up in one
word: rigidity.
One example of this is the ear-
marking of funds. Over 65 per cent
of the taxes collected by the state
must be spent in specific areas
designated by the constitution,
and out of reach of lawmakers
who might want to readjust the.
proportions.
The money available for educa-
tion isn't available for some other
purpose if that purpose becomes
more urgently needed. And-the
other side of the coin-the total
amount of money available to sup-
port education is limited because
only certain kinds of tax money
can be used to do so.
* * *
EARMARKED funds seem most
sensible for highway construction,
which is paid for out of gasoline
taxes-thus letting those who ben-
efit most from the roads pay a
proportionally larger share.
But the various restrictions on
which funds can be used in which
particular areas means that new
taxes have to be devised for new
expenses. And even if the new ex-
pense is for some service that
will benefit everyone equally, it
may be impossible to think of a
constitutionally permitted tax
which distributes the burden
equally.
An income tax-on personal or
corporate income-is generally re-
garded as unconstitutional now.
Efforts to amendithe constitution
to have it specifically permit this
tax failed in 1924. 1934 and 1936.
Because of complicated wording
in the constitution's Section Ten
(which takes up financial mat-

ters), the legality of each "spe-
cific" (as opposed to property)
tax can be contested in the courts
by those affected. This has con-
sistently been done, although the
state's Supreme Court has upheld
the Legislature in its efforts so
far. (But the revoking of the "use
tax" shows how precarious the
lawmakers' freedom to tax is.)
* * *
DESIGNERS of the present con-
stitution were concerned with pro-
tecting citizens from an abuse of
taxing powers. But the corollary
danger-of "starving out" govern-
ment until it can no longer pro-
vide needed services-was not ade-
quately avoided.
One reason for this is the age
-30 years and more-of many of
the specific limitations on taxing
power. All the new government
services sprung up since the war
were not allowed room in the reve-
nues the current constitution pro-
vides for.
In years to come the rapidly in-
creasing population (of children
and old people in disproportionate
measure) will mean more govern-
ment services and expenses, as
will technological advances that
will have to be controlled by now-
unknown departments.
For these reasons political scien-
tists have urged making many of
the specific prohibitions and re-
strictions in the constitution an
area in which legislators can
change the figure by statute, in-
stead of constitutional amend-
ment.
While making tax limitsstatu-
tory would give the Legislature
larger powers, denying it those
powers means that when money
is needed it must be raised
through stop-gap and unfair tax-
ation.
* * *
ONE of the most often criti-
cized parts of Michigan's fiscal
rules is the "fifteen mill amend-
ment," which says that no more
than 1.5 per cent of the assessed
value of property may be levied in
property taxes for all purposes in
any one year.

Passed in 1932, the amendment
also allowed a five-year rate of
five per cent if two-thirds of the
voters concerned approved it. (The
property taxes in Michigan are
levied by local governments only.)
In 1948 this was changed to
permit a simple majority of voters
in a district to approve a five per
cent rate for a twenty-year per-
iod.
At first it was thought that
cities, also, were subject to this
five per cent (or 1.5 per cent, if
they chose) limit. But a court de-
cision said that they came under
the ruling only if they voluntar-
ily chose to do so.
Eleven cities did, and their sub-
sequent financial troubles forced
the Legislature to pass the Bates
Law in 1949, which in effect re-
moved the 1.5 per cent limit from
all cities.
* * *
THE "EXTRA" maximum of
five per cent is considered restric-
tive by some administrators al-
ready, and so there is pressure
that the limit be revoked entirely.
An added reason for asking this
is given by the "county tax alloca-
tion boards." Because the limit
(whether 1.5 per cent or the vot-
ed-in figure of five per cent) is for
all the taxes levied, this means
that when both townships and
counties are applying property
taxes, they have to split up the
money the taxpayer gives.
So, county allocation boards try
to distribute the property tax dol-
lar in some fair way. Needless to
say, someone is always unhappy
with the way chosen.
By raising the property tax lim-
its local governments could meet
their costs. But it is impossible
to set down any specific figure
now which would take in the
needs of local government at some
time in the future.
By taking such limits out of the
constitution and into the control
of the Legislature, the con-con
delegates would allow for speedy
changes when needed, without giv-
ing local forces a totally free hand
in determining how much to tax.

of a home, hoisting two pails of
water to wash in; the village idiot
discovered leering at the window
watches her change clothes. She
smiles beckoningly; then in horror
of his immediate lust she turns
away.
And, again suddenly, she is
watching an ascetic praying be-
neath a cross. Out in the dirt
street; she picks up his strait-
Jacketed chant; the drooling idiot
follows. She beckons, he ap-
proaches, and she is suddenly
praying beneath a public cross in
the street.
ANOTHER SUDDEN transfor-
mation, to a cellar beneath the
gaze of three intumescent "maids."
Another beckoning, another ap-
proach, but no cross. Only dark-
ness, a foetal crouch, and the re-
turn of the insane cyclic singing
of the ascetic chant. Sand passes
through an hour glass.
The girl re-enters the street and
returns to the field in her shape-
less tunic. She crosses the infinity
of bare plowed fields beneath a
white-washed sky to the grassy
forage. Two men carrying scythes
walk past-the first dressed in
black, the second in white. She
writhes on the ground, clutching
the earth. It does not open.
* * *
NOTHING HAPPENS in this
film in the same sense that nothing
happens in a sonata, because you
end up where you started. A mag-
nificent sense of form, a smooth
arc from terror to terror, domi-
nates the film. There is no inter-
ruption by change of place, for
the viewer is never allowed to be
certain where he is. A background
score consisting simply of altera-
tion between two adjacent notes
adds to the fine spun tension.
(As for the person who hissed:
Eyes have they, but they see not;
ears have they, but they hear
not.)
And if the object of the vener-
able approbation of TIME Maga-
zine may be' given short shrift,
"The Bicycle Thief" is also worth
seeing. All the elements of a
Hollywood mental enema are im-
minent in the film, but de Sica
manages to avoid the saccharine
while capturing the sad and the
sweet.
-Joel Cohen
.Expensive
Scruples
"RECENTLY, it has been said,
this time in Western circles,
that as the international Secre-
tariat is going forward on the
road of international thought and
action, while member states de-
part from it, a gap develops be-
tween them and they are growing
into . . . mutually hostile ele-
ments.. . From this view the con-
clusion has been drawn that we
may have to switch from an in-
ternational Secretariat . . . to an
intergovernmental Secretariat.
"SUCH a passive acceptance of
a nationalism rendering it neces-
sary to abandon present efforts
in the direction of international-
ism . .. might, if accepted by the
member nations, well prove to be
the Munich of international co-
operation . . . To abandon or to
compromise with principles on
which such cooperation is built
may be no less dangerous than
to compromise with principles re-
garding the rights of a nation. In
both cases the price to be paid
may be peace."
-Dag Hammarskjold

STATE:
'Love'
Drips
MOODY, complicated men of the
world, unite! You have noth-
ing to lose but your deviancy! Up-
standing, blue-blood New England
lawyer, pillars of society, learn
that Justice does not equal mercy
-for, as the posters have it, "the
bold bestseller that sent a fever
through America now fires the
screen" at the State Theatre, and
you too can be "By Love Pos-
sessed."
Here on display are some of
Hollywood's most cherished stock
figures, all wrapped up in bright
technicolor tinsel, decked out with
gorgeous sets (wood paneling,
white convertibles, mansions and
all) and surrounded by a layer of
maple syrup (which seems to fit
the New Englan setting well)
that just oozes from the happy
ending.
Witness the Prodigal Son, who
refuses to find happiness in good
marks, a blue-blood heiress, and
a comfortable position in Dad's
law firm. See the Beautiful Wife,
searching for happiness away from
her Crippled (and more than just
his leg is hinted at) Husband, who
refuses the divorce. And the Grand
Old Man is on hand too, the senior
partner in the law firm of Tuttle,
Winner (Pillar of Society) and
Penrose (Crippled Husband).
* * *
IT ALL CENTERS around poor
Arthur, the Pillar (though cer-
tainly not Ibsen's!) This unfortu-
nate fellow is only a highly suc-
cessful (to judge by his house and
wardrobe) lawyer, has a charming
wife and rising son, a set of val-
ues that has traditionally been
accepted in America, and a cool;
level head. Poor man! For he is
destined to learn that he has been
"untouched by human hands, that
his son thinks his father does not
understand the younger genera-
tion, that ... oh, it's not hard to
guess at all. And of course, the
Beautiful Wife is played by Lana
Turner, and she once knew Ar-
thur, and so ...
It's all so hard for Arthur, nicely
grayed not only at the temples,
but obviously (Hollywood again)
dyed gray (how significant, since
he learn that not all is black and
white in justice) to grasp-"the
pillar is :cracking," he says, and
looks for consolation to another
dyed head, Lana's.
BUT THAT'S NOT ALL. The
Prodigal (Arthur's) Son, unwilling
to accept the "snug, smug" life
(but much too well-dressed to be
an Angry Young Man or, worse, a
beatnik), still has to have his fling,
be accused of rape, cause a death
and be accepted back into the fold
-to which he comes willingly,
fading out on the words "I need
you so much, Dad" while his nos-
trils qliver. And since Dad has
learned so much (thanks, Lana),
there's little else to do but swell
the heart-throbbing music again
to settle the Crippled Husband
subplot, and add a passing tear
for the Grand Old Man, too beati-
fic and old-fashioned to need the
maple syrup.
Only one thing needs to be
cleared up: is 20th Century Fox
using a new filming technique, or
does the projector at the State
need a cleaning? only the center
of the film was clear; the edges
all around were a bit foggy. Oh
well, next at the State we are
promised a glimpse of "butcher
lions" striking "with fang and
claw," and even "the naked jungle
paradise of primitive women."
-Mark Slobin

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Room for Negotiation

THE AMERICAN, British and French' notes
to the Soviet Union over its threats to Berlin
are - as they should be -- firm, sound and
specific. They state clearly points of Western
policy over which there can be no compromise.
Their unity and positiveness should leave
Moscow in no doubt that as to these points all
three nations will support their position with
military means if necessary.
But that should not be necessary. If ration-
ality and nuclear-age discretion control Com-
munist councils, Premier Khrushchev and the
Soviet bloc will find ways, as they have done
before, to let the crisis which is of their
making somehow evaporate. Or if they are at
all constructively minded they will respond to'
some of the overtures that are made for honest
and honorable two-sided negotiation.
SO FAR, the Kremlin and its East German
puppets have proceeded by one-sided, take-
it-or-leave-it demands. These, as the notes con-
vincingly demonstrate, are spurious in their
contention that a made-in-Moscow deal can
barter away inherent rights of West Berliners
or acquired rights of the Western occupation
powers.
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS.......................Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL......................Co-Editor
DAVE KIMBALL ........................ Sports Editor
R.TR!r114T'7 '7'W1 T O1. 7 4 A'.4. r'A4 .

Just as it took four nations to make the
agreements for the postwar administration of
Germany, including Berlin, it takes all four to
alter those agreements. There is now an addi-
'tional factor which should be considered: that
is the wishes of the German people, in both
West Germany and East Germany.
The Western notes properly insist that self-
determination is the basis on which a peace
treaty should be made with all of Germany, and
that this would solve the Berlin question as
well as other questions. This policy of self-
determination is as fundamental to the free
world as the policy of government monopoly of
property is to Communism. It should there-
fore be on the table for all to see, regardless
of whether Moscow is likely to accept it.
AND, OF COURSE, Communism is not at all
likely to accept a tenet that would lead to
its own self-destruction. But that need not
mean the end of the discussion nor of nego-
tiation. The fact that the abrogation of other
people's rights by ukase is ruled out does not
signify that a situation which is awkward, in-
convenient and even dangerous for all parties
cannot be changed by two-sided rather than
one-way negotiations.
The Communists, of course, want West Ber-
lin. That is "out." They can't have it. Next
to that, they presumably would like most to
have some kind of recognition of their satel-
lite government in East Germany. Western
governments cannot properly recognize that
regime as representing the will of the East
German people but under certain conditions

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