MUSIC SCHOOL SHIFT:
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Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
Good chance of thunderstorms
in the afternoon
VOL. LXXI, No. 9S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, JULY 11, 1961 FIVE CENTS
Two Places Deny
By RUTH EVENHUIS
The "Freedom Ride" to Dear-
born proceeded without incident
Forty-nine Negro and white per-
sons were served in all but two
of the 23 establishments tested.
Small Negro groups were re-
fused entrance into a restaurant
which was reported closed for
cleaning. A similar group was
denied the use of a bowling alley's
facilities on the grounds that no
alleys were vacant. White "con-
trol" groups were served in both
instances shortly thereafter.
CORE, YD's Participate
Representatives of the Detroit
and the Ann Arbor Congress On
Racial Equality and Michigan
Young Democrats conducted the
tests in restaurants and bowling
alleys. CORE co-ordinator Anna
Holden said that the restaurants
tested were in both East and West
Dearborn and that a cross-section
of upper and lower class establish-
ments was maintained.
Three weeks ago, a smaller
CORE group tested 13 restaurants
and obtained service in 11 of
Miss Holden said that many
of the restaurants tested which
did not practice overt discrimina-
tion did display "minor discrimi-
nation" in inferior service.
Given Poorer Service
Negroes were frequently given
poorer tables than the white "con-
trol group" following them. There
also appeared to be some instances
of increased prices for Negroes,
Miss Holden said.
While in many cases, the Ne-
gro groups were served without
consternation, Miss Holdenhsaid
that occasionally consultations
with the manager and some ten-
sion preceded service. There was
also some personal discrimination
Although they question whether,
in some instances, the success of
the test cases might not be do to
a desire to avoid publicity, the of-
ficers of the participating groups
said that they are "encouraged
by their findings." They plan fur-
ther tests in Dearborn.
At Crystal Pool
More than 60 people are op-
posing alleged discrimination at
Crystal Pool in Oak Park.
A "stand-in" has been in prog-
ress since Saturday when the
management refused admittance
to Negroes. The pool is privately
owned and charges admission.
Users must fill out membership
cards at the door before being
Teen-age members of the De-
troit Youth Congress On Racial
Equality and of the Detroit
Brotherhood League are conduct-
ing the "stand-in".
Two white persons entered the
pool in suburban Detroit Satur-
day just before the inter-racial
group was refused admittance. The
group remained in line outside the
subsequently closed pool until mid-
afternoon while unsuccessful at-
tempts were made to talk with the
Henning Rylander, the pool's
manager. said the club is a pri-
vate organization operated by a
corporation. "If we like their looks,
we let anyone in," he said. "No,
there have never been any Ne-
Co-ordinator of Ann Arbor
CORE, Ann Holden, said that the
membership cards are a device
which has sheltered the pool from
legal interference. The case has
come to court several times in the
past five years.
The group will meet today to
decide further action.
UNITED NATIONS-Prof. Henry Bretton, of the political science
department, left, Theodore Ntoampe from Basutoland, Africa and
Prof. Preston Slosson, of the history department, spoke at a pan-
el discussion on the UN last night.
IBretton Cites Need
For Efective UN
By MALINDA BERRY
"There is no future in the United Nations unless a modus opper-
andi exists between the powers .of the East and West," Prof. Henry
Bretton, of the political science department, said last night at a panel
discussion about the UN and Africa sponsored by the American Asso-
ciation for United Nations.
"Unless a method of operation is adopted, the UN will become
either an almsgiving agency to the poor or it will just disappear," he
And the UN is vital to African affairs. It first was interjected in-
to African affairs in many spheres: technical assistance; trustee-
,ships; and in the arbitration of
-uw r.. smallnllftvenIha" c i ±u uee-
LEOPOLDVILLE () - Seces-
sionist Katanga seemed yesterday
to have again endorsed the idea
of Congolese national unity.
A United Nations envoy, Mah-
moud Khiari of Tunisia, announc-
ed the necessity for reconvening
the Congo's national parliament.
There's one hitch. Tshombe in-
sisted in weekend negotiations
with Khiari in Elisabethville, Ka-
tanga's capital, on a preliminary
meeting with President Joseph
Kasavubu and Antoine Gizenga,
the Lumumbist leader, "in neutral
territory outside the Congo."
Can Resolve Problem
"We do not think this will be
possible," Khiari told newsmen.
"All other factions are agreed on
the desirability of preliminary
summit talks and I think the
secondary dispute over the place
for such a meeting can be re-
The Tunisia'n diplomat said the
UN hopes the three leaders will
get together at Lovanium Uni-
versity, outside Leopoldville. The
campus is still being prepared as
the site for a parliament session
originally called for June 25.
Hostility of Tsbombe as a result
of two months of imprisonment
by Kasavubu's government last
spring, slow assembly of parlia-
mentarians asnd the need for se-
curity precautions to seal off the
campus have contributed to delay
in convocation of the parliament.
Despite the UN's official op-
timism, secondary disputes in the
past over the place for high-level
meetings among Congolese poli-
ticians have frequently blocked
Quits in Fight
Over New Plan
NEWBURGH, N.Y. () - City
Welfare Commissioner John O'-
Donnell resigned yesterday, re-
fusing to administer a proposed
new program tightening welfare
He said the stricter welfare
regulations, planned by the Re-
publican-controlled city council to
go into effect Saturday, are in
conflict with state welfare laws.
Shortly before O'Donnell's res-
ignation, Orange County Demo-
cratic Chairman Sears Hunter
added his support to Democratic
Mayor William Ryan in opposi-
tion to the proposed 13-point wel-
fare revision program.
Hunter saw the welfare changes
as an effort by one segment of
Republicans to embarrass Repub-
lican Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller
and the State Soial Welfare
Board. He also claimed it would
result in bad publicity for New-
Actually, the program has at-
tracted praise as well as condem-
nation since it gained nationwide
The new program cuts off aid to
mothers of illegitimate children
who continue to have more such
children. It also denies aid to
able-bodied men unless they agree
to work on municipal projects.
Af ter Soviet
NATO Seeks 77 777
May Ask UN
NEW YORK (iF) - Federal
Judge Sylvester J. Ryan yester-
day granted the government an
80-day Taft-Hartley law injunc-
tion against renewal of the na-
tional maritime strike.
Ryan dated the start of the 80-
day cooling off period from last
Monday, when he originally ended
the 18-day strike with a restrain-
The Taft-Hartley law process
was invoked by President John F.
Kennedy. It was based upon re-
ports by his fact-finders that the
economy could ill afford contin-
uance of the multimillion dollar
strike of 82,000 seamen.
The government claimed that
the strike tied up nearly 500
American shills in 30 port cities.
More than 400 others rode out
the emergency at sea.
smal disputes. wnen the trustee-
ships became critical, the UN set
up a more efficient machinery in
Africa, Prof. Bretton said.
"Most Africans expectnthe UN
not to itnerfere in internal affairs.
However, the Africans need the
UN: first, to assure independence
after it is achieved. Second, to
keep the cold war off the backs
of the Africans as far as possible."
The UN has a utility for Africa.
It can help guide towards inde-
pendence. "It can settle disputes.
The UN is useful to Africa because
whenever there are disputes the
great powers get into the act."
The UN can also aid Africa by
giving a form to the aid poured
into that continent. And the UN
does have facilities to move in
during crises-this was recognized
by the Africans during the Congo
crisis, he continued.
The UN also offer personnel,
can cover up the political impli-
cations of foreign aid, and through
agencies as WHO and UNESCO,
can de-politicize the world's con-
tributions," Bretton said.
Conduct New Survey
Of European Needs
PARIS (An) - Officials said yes-
terday they are conducting a new
study of defense needs in Western
Europe under a directive from the
recent conference of North Atlan-
tic Treaty Organization foreign
ministers in Oslo.
But they said the alliance's mil-
itary experts have not yet reached
any conclusions on current needs.
Nor has there been any decision
linked to an impending crisis with
the Soviet Union over the status
of West Berlin, they added.
This was confirmed by American
official sources who said the mili-
tary situation is under constant
study within the NATO permanent
council, its military committee,
and the three-nation standing
group in Washington.
In Oslo last May the foreign
ministers instructed NATO to
make a new assessment of mili-
tary needs and report back to the
full NATO ministerial council next
This would be NATO's regular
review sessions in Paris in the
early part of December when the
foreign, defense and finance min-
isters of the 15 member nations
convent to prepare the NATO pro-
gram for the coming year.
Reliable sources said that cur-
rent NATO force goal for Western
Europe is 30 divisions, a level set
by NATO planners in 1957. As
far as is known, even this rela-
tively modest goal, which repre-
sented a sharp cutback from goals
set at Lisbon in 1952 ,has never
The present strength of NATO
powers in Europe is about 22 di-
visions, including two underman-
ned French units."
Ties with China
TOKYO 0P)-Premier Kim Il-
Sung of North Korea yesterday
reaffirmed in effusive praise his
country's ties with Communist
President Liu Shao-Chi re-
sponded by congratulating Kim on
a new mutual defense pact linking
the Soviet Union and North Ko-
The treaty, signed in Moscow
last week, is generally regarded in
the West as a challenge to Pei-
ping's influence in the Asian
Communist satellite. But Liu said
it strengthens the Communist
bloc as a whole, in addition to
enhancing Soviet-North Korean
The speeches were exchanged
at a banquet in Peiping for Kim.
DEFENSE CHIEF--Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara yes-
terday announced that the United States is reappraising its de-
President Makes Appeal
For ForeignAid Funds
WASHINGTON (')-President John F. Kennedy asked the Amer-
ican people yesterday to spend $4.8 billion on foreign aid, saying it
would buy freedom, security, and peace.
"'d much rather have us do it this way . . ." he said, "tlan to
have to send American boys to do it."
Kennedy's appeal will be carried to the nation by the Citizens
Committee for International Development. Thirty members assembled
i the r d UOe 5arrl4 of th Whit.4U
Columbia Says Our Century
Too Complicated To Teach
Contemporary civilization has just become too complicated and
specialized for an ordinary contemporary faculty man to teach, Co-
lumbia College educators confessed yesterday.
The New York university has "suspended" its compulsory sopho-
more course in Contemporary Civilization (1914 to present) after a
faculty committee regretfully admitted the complexities of the mod-
ern world were just too much to grope with.
The required freshman course, Contemporary Civilization A, will
not be affected. Contemporary Civilization B, the sophomore course,
will still be available, but only ast
in cre rose gar aen of tewnie
House to hear him record the ap-
Calls Bill 'Vital'
Kennedy described the bill as
"probably the most vital piece of
legislation in the national inter-f
est that may be before the coun-
try this year."
Kennedy said that he could say,
as former President Dwight D.
Eisenhower once did, that if the
United States fails to meet its
responsibilities in the foreign aid
program, "other countries must!
"Freedom for ourselves and
others is not purchased lightly,"
Kennedy said, adding:
"I want to ask the American
people to support this program in
the fight for our own security and
the fight for peace."
In a statement of policy, the
citizens committee said it consid-
ered Kennedy's proposal for long-
term development loans "a mod-
ernized, business-type approach to
foreign aid." The committee said
this could be achieved without
sacrificing annual reviews by
Plan To Help
GENEVA (AP) - Ambassador
Adlai E. Stevenson yesterday said
the United States government
plans to make sure that its for-
eign aid funds "shall be used, not
to enrich the few, but to improve
the lot of the many."
The United States delegate to
the United Nations told the UN
Economic and Social Council:
"While the United States can-
not make decisions for other coun-
tries on measures to foster social
justice, we plan to offer induce-
ments to make it attractive for
any developing country to under-
take internal changes in its own
He added that "the crucial ne-
cessity is that aid shall be used
effectively by governments willing
to make economic and social re-
forms so that it will benefit not
only a few, but the people as a
Kennedy Asks Study
Of Military Strength
As Reds Boost Arms
WASHINGTON (,?)-On direct
order from President John F.
Kennedy, the United States yes-
terday began a new weighing of
its military might against a back-
ground of Communist saber-rat-
tling over Berlin.
But from the diplomatic side
came word that the whole perilous
Berlin-German situation may go
to the United Nations.
The Defense Department an-
nounced the re-examination and a
few hours later White House Press
Secretary Pierre Salinger confirm-
ed earlier reports that the Presi-
dent ordered the callover as a re-
sult of Saturday's belligerent
threats from Moscow.
Confers with Aides
Kennedy's decision was reached
in Saturday conferences with his
top defense and diplomatic lieu-
tenants and the study began yes-
terday, Salinger said. He added
he did not know how long it would
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara announced the fresh
examination of United States war
capabilities. He called it "the sim-
plest precaution" in the wake of
Saturday's announcement by So-
viet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
that Russia is boosting its mili-
tary spending and dropping plans
to cut its armied 'forces by a nil-.
Secretary of State Dean Rusk
said "at some stage" the whole
question of Berlin might very well
"come to the, attention of the
Answering questions after a
speech at the National Press Club,
Rusk declined to estimate the
gravity of the war threat in the
Berlin dispute. But he said the is-
sue will be around for months and
"must be soberly dealt with."
In his speech, Rusk reiterated
the long-held United States view
that the Soviet Union has deliber-
ately plunged the world into con-
tinuing crisis by seeking to "im-
pose a world of coercion" on all
Rusk said1 "the underlying crisis
of the generation arises from the
fact that the Soviet Union did not
join the United Nations, in fact as
well as in form, and lend itself
to the (peaceful) commitments
they and the rest of us made in
the midst of a great war."
Touching on the military as-
pect, Rusk said the United States
is moving to strengthen the free
world's ability to meet "the varie-
ty of dangers which have to be
Shortly before McNamara issued
his statement, Deputy Secretary
of Defense Roswell L. Gilpatric
told a Senate appropriations com-
mittee the re-examination was or-
dered by Kennedy, and that a
factor in the decision was a dis-
play of advanced Russian airpow-'
er in Moscow Sunday.
Currently, McNamara, said, "we
are as strong-if not stronger-
than any potential aggressor, add-
"But in the face of the ines-
capable realities that confront us,
such as threats to dispossess us
of our rightful presence in Ber-
lin, we can do not less than re-
examine our needs. This we are
To Speed Fight
PHILADELPHIA (R)-The Na-
tional Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People was
one of several alternatives.
After a three-year "suspension"
as a required course, it will be
decided whether a new college-
wide sophomore course can, or
should be, designed.
The faculty committee-headed
by Prof. David B. Truman-chair-
man of the Department of Public
Law and Government-cited "dis-
proportionate numbers of junior
officers of instruction and low
With an unduly high propor-.
tion of the teaching of such re-
quired courses in the hands of in-
experienced teachers," it said too
many "regard their obligation to
teach Contemporary Civilization
as the substantial price to be paid
for employment at Columbia, not
as an intellectual challenge to
their professional skill."
While the freshman subject
THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH:
'Great God Average' Hurts Nation's Slow Learners
By PETER STEINBERGER
Local control of education and a
national worship of "the great god
Average" have prevented us from
properly educating the 30 per cent
of high school students called
This was the analysis given an
audience of English teachers and
education school students yester-
day by Prof. Donald Miller of
William Woods College, Missouri.
Prof. Miller said that insistence
on completely local control of
teacher qualification has pre-
vented any national level of quali-
fication similar to that of doctors
So poor English teachers join
forces with a national tendency
+o +hink t+hat PvarvnnP eaon nrnfit
fresh from college who don't have
the skill to teach anybody any-
thing, he said, or else they can be
older incompetents who volunteer
for "difficult" classes to mask their
failure to teach anything to regu-
Prof. Miller described most arti-
cles on successful experiences
teaching slow learners of the "How
I Once Grew Chartreuse Petunias"
"They don't get very far and
they obscure the real issues," he
said. "We don't know the answers
even to such simple questions as
whether or not 'slow' classes
should be read to more by teach-
He noted that there is no pres-
tige attaphed n tonhinr dulls tu-I
when I was superintending Eng-
lish teachers in Kansas City.
"Some very eager intern teacher
would be in the front of a "C"
class pournig out intricate details,
and a student would give up and
say 'I'm too dumb to learn that.'
Student Outsmarts Teacher
"The intense teacher would say,
'No you're not, Dan!'-but in this
case the student was smarter than
Prof. Miller urged homogenous
grouping of students so that all
slow learners could be taught to-
gether. He said that a stigma in
being place in a 'dumb' class
couldn't be avoided, but it could
be minimized if the pupils found
that they learned something in
the class, and if their teacher was