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July 01, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-07-01

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Waterfront Fog

Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, JULY 1, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: PETER STEINBERGER

WALTER LIPPMANN:
American Policy
In Berlin
SINCE VIENNA there have been many statements about Berlin from
both sides of the Iron Curtain. They are significant for what they
do say. They are no less significant for what they do not say.
Each side has said what is the vital interest which it will fight
for rather than surrender. The West has made it unmistakably clear
that it will fight for, rather than surrender, the freedom of West
Berlin and freedom of access to West Berlin. The Soviet government
has made it very clear that it will sign a peace treaty with East
Germany and it argues from it all the legal consequences. But the
West has not said it will refuse to discuss the guarantees of the

The Soviet Plot
And U.S. Social Problems

WELL, I guess a few of us can heave a deep them are, they de
sigh of relief and get a good night's sleep weaknesses: inability
now that Brig. Gen. T. B. Birdsong has in- faults and an improp
formed us that the Freedom Rides were "di- of Communist action.
rected, inspired and planned by known Com- By blaming some
munists." movement for protest
For a while it looked as though there might cal, social or econon
really be something wrong in American so- that no honest, de
ciety, an inequality which demanded protests share these protests:
and public attention and, above all, change. or unfair about what
But now that we realize that the deft hands there should be, the s
of the Soviet Plotters controlled the whole without agitation or
affair, we can dismiss the purpose of the
Freedom Riders as un-American, the problem THE INVALIDITY
they sought to solve as non-existent and seen by reference
the harrasment, beating and jailings they re- American- history. Th
ceived as well-deserved. in Southern society (
Another American institution-segregation not change significa
and the denial of basic human rights-will Only as reforms were(
be defended and preserved because its op- as militant non-viol
ponents have been labeled Communists. sit-in, stand-in andf
of the inequalities rec
WE HAVE ALREADY seen this principle in The actions and d
as the Congress of Ra
operation in the case of the House Un- ost of the Freedom
American Activities Committee. Though -HUAC mot of the reledo
continues to violate the provisions of the that our theoretical b
Constitution regarding freedom of speech and hide gross inequalities
association and the right to a just trial, Con-
gress continues-to suport it by an overwhelm- CORE, of course, ha
ing majority. Communist party. It
voted to the legitimat
This can be attributed to the committee's is wrong with at leas
highly efffective campaign to discredit its L
opponents. The committee believes-and has Let us suppose, hot
convinced most others-that the campaign to dom Rides were spa
reform or abolish it are machinations of the ommunist. Does th
international Communist conspiracy. are ? dpr
After large numbers of college students fuere tcourse not.
demonstrated at the HUAC hearings in San f protest merly
Francisco, the committee helped sponsor a not ultimately commi
45-minute motion picture--the controversial of our theoretical, a
"Operation Abolition"-which underhandedly ofcabeliefs.ro wmm
tries to show that Communists dominated and iabees.
manipulated the students. WE MUST RECOG
mands for Consti
T IS NOT too difficult to foresee a similar seek to defend and g
film "documenting" the Communist in- may be interestingt
fluence on the Freedom Riders: well known Communists mixed u
Red agents boarding buses (it doesn't matter civil liberties, but soa
where they are going), shifty-eyed students of all political leaning
with criminal records (truancy from school) The Freedom Rider
sitting at a lunch counter, loyal Americans drawing attention tot
beating the Communist and Communist dupes tention to the problem
with fists and pipes. The film will no doubt do not ask us to appr(
carry the name of a patriotic group, the voice to dedicate ourselves
of a charming young man and the support and others of major
of millions. well being.
Ridiculous as highway patrolman Birdsong's This is where our p
charges and possible attempts to popularize
D ormitory L*iin

monstrate two essential
to admit our society has
er conception of the value
e subversive, treasonous
ting aspects of our politi-
rMic character, we claim
dicated American could
there is nothing wrong
is going on here and, if
ituation will correct itself
public concern.
of this position can be
e to the last century of
he position of the Negro
as but one example) did
ntly from 1850 to 1950.
ordered by the courts and
ent resistors evolved. the
freedom rides, were any
tified.
demands of such groups
acial Equality (which led
Rides) take the appear-
ecause they demonstrate
beliefs in equalitarianism
s.
as no connection with the
is an organization de-
e cause of righting what
t one part of society.
wever, that all the Free-
nsored and directed by
is meanhthat the rides
blem which ,isn't really
There is no gain in re-
denying the valicity of
because their source is
tted to the continuation
well as practical, poli-
-NIZE the validity of 'de-
tutional rights and must
uarantee these rights. It
to note that there are
p in the campaigns for
are a lot of other people
s and backgrounds.
s are not concerned with
theihselves, but only at-
n of discrimination. They
ove their biographies, but
to solving this problem
concern to our ethical
roper concern should lie.
-MICHAEL OLINICK

SHORTAGE, CROWDING:
Hawaiian Land Problems

By PAT GOLDEN
Associate City Editor
Special To The Daily
HONOLULU - Poor land use
caused by vast private hold-
ings is a major problem for the
state of Hawaii, Prof. John Stark-
er of the University of Hawaii
said recently.
Before its colonization period in
the nineteenth century, Hawaii
was owned entirely by its royal
family. Western missionaries then
brought in the concept of land,
ownership and bought up huge
tracts of land.
"There's a saying around here
that the missionaries came to do
good and did well," Prbf. Starker,
who also appears on radio and
television daily as a news analyst,
commented.
These holdings are now family
estates, and the families refuse to
sell any acreage.
A second kind of private holding
is the huge territory owned by the
United States armednservices.
Much, of this is no longer used
at all, but the government will
not give it up. The lack of land
available for use creates unneces-
sary shortages of food, jobs and
living space.
Although Hawaiian land is high-
ly productive, 30 per cent of the
state's food must be imported from
the mainland.Feed corn does not
grow well, so beef is imported from
the mainland along with lamb.
"If we stopped raising so much
sugar cane-which takes 18 to
24 months to grow-we could get
five crops a year out of this land,"
Prof. Starker said. He hopes more
land can be converted to small
truck farms, which will supply
more of the islands' food needs.
"Right now we're using most of
our land to produce exports so we
can import food that could easily
be grown on the islands. We could
grow enough to supply ourselves
and still export."
* * * -
FARM LABORERS in Hawaii
receive more than double the pay
that mainland laborers earn. Con-
sequently cane and pineapple
plantation owners are rapidly
mechanizing their farms to over-
come high overhead. Prof. Stark-

er claims that diverting much of
the low-profit cane land into need-
ed vegetables would also create a
greater demand for labor.
The land in estates severely
limits available building proper-
ty in Hawaii resulting in extreme-
ly high real estate prices.
Honolulu is one of the few ci-
ties in the world where land is
sold by the square foot instead of
the front-foot. Valuable land, near
Waikiki Beach, for instance, sells
at $60 per square foot.
Most homes are built on leased
land belonging to the estates.
Land developers, too, lease prop-
erty for house building.
Advertising
Freedom
"-. -AND how to advertise free-
freedom? Well, some may
say there is the obvious freedom
of the American bargain base-
ment-the freedom to choose what
money will not always buy in the
Soviet Union. Recent visitors to
Russia say this is something that
Soviet tourists in America could
understand. Soviet tourist offi-
cials seem to think they would
also appreciate the officient ho-
tels and the 'speedy, silent ele-
vators.
"But all such things are only
material by-products of the Amer-
ican dream." Cannot the real-
the moral-revolution of one peo-
ple be explained to another rev-
olutionary people in terms more
discriminating and eloquent than
these?
"Little by little perhaps, in
shared responses to natural gran-
deur, to art, to music. And to
ideas, when these can be savored
in the environment that helped
give them birth and was in turn
changed by them. In such unad-
vertised, unexpected disclosures,
the story will at last be told across
political curtains and chasms of
national experience. Meanwhile a
word about elevators may do no
harm."
-Christian Science Monitor

Henry Kaiser is presently drain-
ing a lake on Oaku for a housing
development, but even for a proj-
ect of this size land is leased from
an estate.
* * *
PROF. STARKER noted that
one solution to the housing prob-
lem is to build man-made islands
near the Hawaiian group. One is
now in the planning stage.
"Hawaii is a pioneer in state
planning. We now have a 20-year
master plan, which is really look-
ing to the future."
Statehood also offers help in
the land problem. As a terri-
tory, Hawaii did not have a voice
in the administration of military
units in the area. Now its con-
gressmen can improve matters.
"When we were a territory the
Army wouldn't buy any local pro-
duce. They shipped it all over
from the mainland. We grow the
best lettuce you can buy, but the
Army insisted on shipping lettuce
in refrigerated boats and planes.
"When we received our state-
hood, our senators spoke up and
now they're buying local produce
for the Army."
He hopes Hawaiian congressmen
can induce the government to re-
lease some -of its land holdings
for more profitable use.
Prof. Starker sees breaking the
wills of the old estates as the
basic solution to the land prob-
lem, however. The issue has gone
to court several years in the past
with little success. The court
fights will continue until the es-
tate lands are freed for public
use, he claims.
War?
"NO RIGHT-MINDED American
wants to see this country en-
gaged in a full-scale war, but when
our enemy is determined and com-
mitted to world domination, when
each month brings a new crisis
and a new expansion of the Com-
munist empire, it becomes obvious
that unless we are ready to stand
firm and to take the risk of war,
we have no alternative but ulti-
mate surrender."
-Sen. Barry Goldwater

freedom of West Berlin. And the
Soviet government has not said
that it will support the East Ger-
man government in a blockade or
in the occupation of West Berlin.
Thus far, both sides have been
both firm and cautious, vehement
that they will not surrender their
vital interests and careful not
to close the doors to negotiations.
The doors would be closed if
Khrushchev declared that the Al-
lies must evacuate West Berlin.
The doors would be closed if we
refused to discuss West Berlin.
But these doors, which are the
critical ones, have not been clos-
ed. That is what, Mayor Willy
Brandt of West Berlin seems to
have meant when he said the
other day that the situation is
very dangerous but that it may
not be as dramatic as some sup-
pose.
* * *
THE BASIC AMERICAN posi-
tion has always been that the
problem of Berlin can be solved
definitively only if the West Ger-
mans are reunited and the whole
of Berlin becomes the capital of
Germany.
But, unhappily, there is no vis-
ible chance of reuniting the two
Germanys. They have been divid-
ed for fifteen years, and in that
time almost allof Europe on both
sides of the Iron Curtain has ac-
quired vested .interests which op-
pose the reunion of Germany.
There are, of course, the Soviet
Union and all its satellites, es-
pecially Poland and Czechoslova-
kia, which would regard one Ger-
many of 80 million people, armed
by and allied with the United
States, as a mortal danger. But
they are not alone. The truth is
that France and Britain are de-
cided as a matter of undeclared
national policy to prevent the uni-
fication of the two Germanys.
The flourishing idea of "European
unity" hashas one of its cardinal
purposes that cementing of West
Germany into Western Europe in
order to obviate the danger of an
independent, united, armed and
venturesome Germany.
* * *
BECAUSE the Soviet Union will
not permit the reunification of
Germany, because it has in this
unavowed support of almost all
of Western Europe, including a
very large section of Western
Germans, there is no prospect of
solving the Berlin problem accord-
ing to the classic American form-
ula.
This is the setting in which the
problem of West Berlin is posed
today. There are some who say
that there would be no problem
if Khrushchev had not deliberately
and unnecessarily created one. I
am afraid they' have not fully
understood the problem. For while
the Communists do not like the
status quo 'in Berlin-showplace,
propaganda, espionage and es-
cape hatch-the West also has a
good deal to worry about.
It would be a wiser policy, it
seems to me, to recognize the fact
that for the indefinite future the
two Germanys will not "reunite,
and to insist as a matter of posi-
tive Western policy, not as a
shamefaced concession to the So-
viets, our new guarantees to meet
this new situation, guarantees un-
der which West Berlin can live
confidently and in freedom until
the day, now so remote, when it
will again be the capital of Ger-
many.
I am convinced that the failure
by the President to take such a
positive line will mean that he has
surrendered the initiative in Ger-
man affairs to Khrushchev.
(c) 1961 New York Herald Tribune, Inc.

RED CHINA:
Laos

Hope
By CARL HARTMAN
Associated Press News Analyst
HIGHLY PLACED AMERICAN
officials hope the ideological
clash between the Soviet Union
and Red China may save Laos
from being sucked in to the Com-
munist sphere - at least for a
while.
Under the surface, and some-
times above it, the two biggest
Communist powers jockey for posi-
tion.
Red China wants more in-
fluence in Communist bloc coun-
cils. It might be strengthened if
Communism took over Laos en-
tirely. These American sources say
Moscow would not take kindly to
such expansion of Chinese in-
fluence in Southeast Asia.
A big push by pro-Communist
troops in Laos was halted by a
cease-fire May 3, though there
have been many violations. For
the moment, the Laotian adminis-
trative and royal capitals-Vien-
tiane and Luang Prabang - are
no longer threatened.
* * *
THE CEASE-FIRE, both the
Soviet Union and Red China join-
ed western and neutral powers at
the conference in Geneva. All the
participants say ,they want to help
make Laos neutral. Although each
has different ideas about why and
how this should be done, optimists
see some chance they will agree
to do it.
The Russians have taken the
lead in supporting the pro-Com-
munists rebels in Laos, though
China is much closer to the
scene. Russian planes have run
an airlift to the fighting fronts.
Possibily the Russians are try-
ing to buy influence within the
Communist bloc as a whole. In the
same way, Red China has been
using special economic aid to for-
tify its influence far from home
in Albania.
S* * *
MOSCOW SEMS in no great
hurry to communize Laos. Several
reasons have been suggested. The
Russians are said to want to
avoid:
1) A spectacular success in an
area more vital to China than to
Russia, and thus prevent Chinese
expansion.
2) Trouble in Southeast Asia
while concentrating on Berlin.
3) Frightening other Asian
countries, particularly India, in-
to closer cooperation with the
West.
4) Unnecessary effort, on the
assumption that Laos is bound to
go Communist anyhow sometime,
THE REASONING as to Red
China is this:
If the Peiping regime is to push
forward in Southeast Asia, a prime
aim will be to get the 300 Ameri-
can military advisers out of Laos.
As long as the Americans are
there, Washington will take a
lively interest in the country. The
easiest way to get rid of them is
to take up the United States of-
fer to withdraw if Laos is made
neutral.
The Chinese Communists are
also looking for international re-
spectability and diplomac:c recog-
nition by as many non-Communist
countries as possible. They rarely
get a chance to attend an inter-
national conference with the
United States and other western
nations. Relatively, this has put
them on their good behavior.

4

THE UNIVERSITY'S PLANS to construct an
11-building co-op project might work out
very well if they could be run in a manner
more adult than most of the present Univer-
sity housing.
There are two main reasons sophomores
storm out of the dorms into sororities, co-ps
and Cambridge Hall in numbers as vast as
will be permitted.
One reason is to be with friends in other
places, (sororities or Martha Cook for ex-
ample). The other is twofold: to cut down
expenses and to be able to breathe freely.
It is obvious that you save money living
in a co-op. You get a little more freedom, but
not enough more.
Restrictions on personal. freedom may be
necessary to the freshman woman in the
dormitory system. Her mother wants to know
that she is being fed three square (if starchy)
meals per day, reporting on her destination
before leaving the building for an evening and
being shut safely indoors at 11 p.m. every
night.
AFTER THE FRESHMAN YEAR, however,
these precautions are not only unnecessary
but an insult to the girl's intelligence, in-
tegrity and maturity. By the time she is 18
or 19 years old she can be expected to decide
for herself what time she wants to come in,
when and 'what she wants to eat and where
she wants to go. As long as she is obeying
University rules and passing her courses her
living habits are no concern of anyone but
herself.
With the present residence hall structure,
it is impossible to allow sophomore, junior and
senior women the freedom denied freshmen.
If doors must be locked by 12 p.m. upper-
C; r . rigl
Editorial Staff
MICHAEL BURNS ............ ..........Co-Editor
SUSAN FARRELL..........................Co-Editor
:DAVE KIMBALL ....................... Sports Editor
RUTH EVENHUIS.....................Night Editor
MTC-AINIT OT .TNT .....__Niht ditn.r

classmen must be in by 12 p.m. regardless of
whatever they may have to do.
The rules that all men must be out of the
building at 11 p.m. must be adhered to by
upperclassmen as well as freshmen. They must
join the crowd clinging to one another on
front porches to prolong their goodnights while
an army of counselors, resident advisors and
house mothers man their stations, ready their
clipboards and synchronize their watches for
the countdown.
In the interests of inculcating good manners
in freshmen women (who have all presumably
grown up totally without the guiding hand of
socially acceptable parents) upperclassmen-
who know the rules of dress but choose to
ignore them in favor of comfort and under
the assumption that in a country where one
is guaranteed unconditional freedom to think
and speak as one pleases, one is also free
to dress as one pleases-must join in the nui-
sance of parading down to sitdown dinners
behind the housemother three times a week
correctly dressed in all ways including stock-
ings and "dressy flats" on Sundays.
MAYBE A YEAR of this sort of nonsense is
healthy for freshmen. One can stand al-
most anything if one knows it will all be over
at the end of a year.
But there is no need to make upperclassmen
go through the same rigamarole. Most people
don't like to study in school clothes and it
is a horrible waste of time to have to change
every time you want to eat.
It is annoying to have to pay for meals
you miss unavoidably if you want to work
on any sort of student activity or project on
campus. It is the duty of the University to
see that students live under conditions that
allow them to study and live under the
schedule that best fits their needs. This means
giving them the freedom to come and go as
they please.
If the new co-op project and other to follow
are set up intelligently they could be a great
service. If the girls are given keys and allowed
to stay out as late as they choose, if they are
given common kitchen facilities but allowed
tn nok for themselve s-and if thav raun-

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