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June 28, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-06-28

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PAGE TWO

THE MICHIGAN it A l l.V

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THE CIVIL WAR:
Medicine Was Nearly Fatalj

American Legion Plans
Miniature Government

EDUCATION:
Ann Arbor School Chosen
For Aerial Television Classes

:

By PETER STEINBERGER
The University's Civil War cen-
tennial program opened yesterday
with a medicalrdescription of a
war "that started as a light-
hearted stunt but ended up with
200,000 more casualties than World
War II."
Richard Shryock, a medical his-
torian, told of field hospital condi-
tions that made most penetrating
wounds fatal, and of doctors who
were sceptical of.traditional meas-
ures( such as bleeding and purg-
ing) but ignorant of European ad-
vances in medicine.
Lack Facilities
Nor were the casualties only the
result of ignorance. Many, who
could have been saved, Shryock
explained, were left on the battle-
fields for two or three days because
of a lack of ambulance facilities.
"At Chancellorsville and the
Wilderness shell fire set the trees
burning, and many wounded were
roasted to death," he noted.
Staffs Inadequate
"The medical staffs were inade-
quate-each surgeon would have
something like 900 cases on his
hands after a battle. Anaethesia
had been discovered just in time,
but although doctors used carbolic
acid on already infected wounds,
they didn't use it to sterilize their
instruments, or soldiers' fresh
Wounds."
This was because the theory that
bacteria spread disease was "out-
moded" at that time, and doctors
thought that miasmas coming
from filth spread the diseases
through air, Shryock explained.
"More soldiers died from diseases
during the war than from wounds.
Notes Needs
In Community
Development
By DAVID MARCUS
The multiplicity of skills nec-
essary to grasp the total picture
incommunity development make
interdisciplinary work indispens-
able, Prof. Richard L. Park of the
political science department said
yesterday.
Lecturing after an informal pa-
per bag luncheon attended main-
ly by foreign students who are
participating in a two-week sem-
inar on community development at
the University this summer, Park
cited problems encountered by
those who utilize only limited
viewpoints in community plan-
ning.
He noted, for example, land rec-
lamation projects in India that
had lowered water tables in other
areas thus causing hardship.
He also pointed out a crop di-
versification in a mountainous un-
derdeveloped area that had been
growing rice. The new crops were
successful, but new roads had to
be built to market them.
He cited the problems of the
Calcutta area as a sample of the
need for interdisciplinary skills on
a broad scale.
"The city has only 38 per cent
of the water supply it needs; the
population is mushrooming unbe-
lievably; only 7 per cent of the
people live in housing which even
meets minimal standards," he
said.
It is a problem combining tech-
nical and social skills on which
government workers, sociologists,
economists, social workers and
technicians will have to cooperate.
He noted a conflict between
'whether economic development
should be tied to social develop-
ment or whether economic devel-
opment alone will give the com-
munities the necessary "shot in the
arm to bring about social im-
provements rapidly through in-

creased wealth.
Another aspect of the commu-
nity development problems are the
difficulties encountered by social
field workers to which they are
unable to devote enough time. He
cited an Indian Planning, Re-
search and Action Center which
sends workers out in the field to
find the answers to these ques-
tions as a possible solution..

Servicemen were five times as
likely to become sick-or to die
from an infection-than the civil-
ians.
Corps Proud
"But the Medical Corps was
proud, and they had a right to be,
because bad as the troops' health
was, it had been much worse in
previous wars. The great change
came after the Civil War-there
was only one-fourth of the Civil
War mortality rate among World
War I soldiers."
The troops from rural areas got
sick more often than urban troops,
as did Southerners, generally, and
Negroes. On the basis of the health
records of the Negro troops, Shry-
ock said, Army physicians were
Peace Corps
Takes Five
From State
The Peace Corps has selected
five Michigan residents for train-
ing prior to possible assignments
in Tanganyika and Colombia.
Frederick Y. McClusky, a resi-
dent of Ann Arbor, began his
training at Rutgers University this
week for service in Colombia His
father is Prof. Howard McCluskey
of the education school. The Peace
Corps volunteer studied psychology
at Oberlin College.
Ray C. Haselby, a University
alumnus, is also scheduled for
training prior to Colombian as-
signment. He is a Detroit resident.
Three Michigan men will be
trained to assist I anganyikans in
surveying and building secondary
roads. Don Roger Preston of Battle
Creek will receive training at Tex-
as Western College, El Pa.. He
is a graduate of the Michigan Col-
lege of Mining and Technology
at Houghton with a degree in
forestry and surveying engineer-
ing.
Charles H. Barton of Traverse
City has studied at the University
and at Noithwest Michigan Col-
lege at Traverse City. He has
worked for the Forest Service in
Minnesota and California. Also
being trained in 'exas is Charles
J. Lester of Roscommon, who has
a degree in geology from Michigan
State University and who has
worked as a soil analyst.
Forty trainees are competing
for the 28 available assignments
to Tanganyika. Of the 80 being
trained for service in Colombia.
a limited number will also be sent.
Those who do riot leave with the
first contingenst will be placed
on a reserved list.
City To Widen
Five Blocks
Of State Street
Work has begun to widen five
blocks of State Street from Mon-
roe to Dewey streets.
At present, workers are moving
trees and utility polls to allow
the Ann Arbor Public Works Com-
mission project to add between
five and eight to the street. This
will mean an additional lane in
each direction.
Total cost of the project will
be $72,000. The University is not
contributing to the widening as
such, but will pay $6,000 for con-
struction of sidewalks on parts of
the project that border University
property.
Eckstein Talks
On Red China
Prof. Alexander Eckstein of the

economics department of the Uni-
versity of Rochester will deliver
an address entitled "Economic De-
velopments in Communist China"
at 4 p.m. today in Aud. A Angell
Hall.
His talk is the first in a lecture
series on Communist China.

predicting the eventual extinction
of all American Negroes out of
biological insufficiency.
"The Army physicians concen-
trated on specific diseases rather
than the 'general state of the
patient'," Shryock said. "This new
approach was good in some ways,
but doctors got more interested in
diseases than in patients.
"There was little that was basi-
cally new in medicine that came
out of the war. This is the case in
most wars-it's the applied aspects
that advance.
New Discoveries
"Some doctors had found out in
the Napoleonic wars that maggots
in wounds cleaned out the dead
tissue and lessened infection, and
some doctors found the same thing
out in the Civil War. But these dis-
coveries are used only by the im-
mediate discoverers, and then for-
gotten, the Civil War discovery
about maggots was never generally
known, and gradually it was for-
gotten, only to be re-discovered
in France in World War I."
Shryock also pointed out that
although the North suffered more
casualties than the South, only
the South is bitter about the Civil
War.
"It's the loss of personal prop-
erty, and not of lives, that deter-
mines whether people are bitter
about war. My own family (in the
North) was, but it had its home
burnt by Confederates. And the
Southerners, who do the remem-
bering now, lost their property and
power.
Strohmeyer
Starts Study
Of Downtown
The joint City Council-Chamber
of Commerce study of the cen-
tral business district and develop-
ment of a master plan began shap-
ing up Monday when the new pro-
ject supervisor began his duties.
Donald K. Strohmeyer, a Kan-
sas State University instructor,
will head the $42,500 study. Stroh-
meyer holds a bachelor's and mas-
ter's degree from Kansas State
and has varied experience in
architecture and city planning.
Then central business district
study will be financed by the
chamber of commerce and the
council. The council voted several
weeks ago to participate in the
study and appropriated $7,000 to
get it rolling.
The study will lead to a master
plan for the business area that
will tell the city and private busi-
ness what must be done to re-
vitalize the core of Ann Arbor.
Various preliminary studies and
surveys have already been made
in preparation for the big push
on the project that is expected to
take a year.
Strohmeyer will work full-time
under the supervision of City
Planning Director Robert M.
Leary. As more money become
available-the council will match
funds raised by the chamber-
Strohmeyer will get temporary
help.
* ~di

By RUTH EVENHUIS
Over 350 high school juniors are
participating in the American Le-
gion sponsored workshop in gov-
ernment this week at the Univer-
sity.
Prof. Norman C. Thomas of the
political science department is the
Wolverine Girls' State govern-
ment instructor.
The girls conduct a miniature
government on the local, county,
and state level. Their days are
used for organizing and running
this government, while evenings
are devoted to speakers on various
aspects of government.
Eighteen cities, six counties and
two political parties are the or-
ganizational framework within
which the girls conduct election
campaigns for such offices as
county sheriff, treasurer and drain
commissioner.
Campaign Intensively
Upon the election of city and
county officials, intensely parti-
san campaigning begins for the
election of the governor. The two
parties, "nationalists" and "fed-
eralists," conduct nominating
conventions during which "com-
mitteewomen" and supporters of
the candidates for the party's
nomination make "deals" and
"noise" respectively.
Each party nominates a girl for
lieutenant governor and for gov-
ernor.
Governors and lieutenant gov-
ernors are elected toward the end
of the nine day session in an
eelction in which the Girls' State
citizens learn the use of voting
machines.
Plan Mock Trial
Judicial and legislative activi-
ties are carried on simultaneously.
The various city, county and state
judges plan and execute a mock
trial. The members of the legis-

lature organize themselves into
standing committees (Appropria-
tions, Labor, Education, etc.) and
form party alignments around
elected majority and minority
leaders.
Speakers have included Mrs.
Wilber M. Brucker, wife of the
former Secretary of the Army,
Mrs. Grace Marckwardt, Demo-
cratic State Central Committee
member, Mrs. Elly Peterson, vice-
chairman of the Republican State
Central Committee, Ann Arbor
Mayor Cecil O. Creal, and Michi-
gan Supreme Court Justice Theo-
dore Souris.
Wolverine Girls' State has been
conducted annually since 1941 by
the Women's Auxiliary of the
American Legion. Mrs. Clinton F.
Smith is president of the 1961
Girls' State.
The workshop in government,
according to Mrs. Smith, is "to
provide citizenship training for
these high school juniors; to af-
ford them an opportunity to live
together as self-governing citi-
zens; to inform them properly of
the duties, privileges, rights and
responsibilities of American citi-
zenship in order that they may
participate in the function of their
own state government."
Kathleen Sweeney -- who lives
within sight of the State Capitol
Building-was elected as governor
of Wolverine Girls State.
Miss Sweeney won the post in
balloting for the 20th annual Girls'
State at the University. She heads
an administrative board made up
of Lieutenant Governor Pat Sweet-
land of East Lansing; Secretary of
State Mary Koch of South Haven;
Auditor General Susan Weidelman
of Allen park; Attorney General
Janet Cesario of Adrian, and
Treasurer Geneva Tarrant of De-
troit.

^,

By SHARON MUSKOVITZ
Beginning in September, Ann
Arbor, along with several other
cities throughout the country, will
use the facilities of television as
a medium of instruction.
Telecasts will originate from air-
planes instead of from television
centers on the ground. The main
reason for this new approacn is
the technical difference involved.
A signal sent from the air covers
more than twice the area of a
signal sent from the ground.
Ann Arbor Superintendent of
Schools, Jack Elzay, said, the
Wines Elementary School has oeen
chosen as a pilot school for thej
program. The program covers
elementary, secondary and col-
lege levels of education but will
only be used on the elementary
level in Ann Arbor.
Fields Vary
"One classroom at each grade
level will receive instruction in
various fields including arithmetic.
music, science, Spanish, and
French," he said. "The program
will operate four days a week and
will be seen on special channels.
These channels may be brought
into private homes with the use
of special attachments to regular
television sets.
"The Wines School was picked
because it was thought that she
same teachers would remain there
for at least two years therefore
assuring a careful evaluation of
the program," Elzay said.
He explained this program will

enable more students to receive
the benefits of gifted teachers and
celebrities in various fields who
could not personally reach each
classroom. Students can also re-
ceive educational experiences im-
possible to manipulate on a small
class level. Trips can be made to
all parts of the country at the
flick of a switch.
A three week trial program was
used last semester to test the ef-
fectiveness of the broadcast un-
der all weather conditions.
Elzay said, the strength of the
signal proved to be excellent. No
test has yet been made on the ef-
fectiveness of the program itself.
The Superintendent assured
that, "The Ann Arbor Punlic
School system does nott consider

this a replacement of the teacher.
It is only being used as a supple-
ment to the regular subject matter
giving new approaches and in-
formation. It is to be considered
as another audial-visual aid of
instruction.
Instruction Pattern
"It must also be determined
whether or not the content of the
pattern of instruction as it is
presented on the air fits the con-
tent in our pattern of instruction."
Every school system using the
program was allowed to submit the
names of capable teachers. These
names were then presented to a
screening panel which made the
sisted of educators from various
parts of the area receiving the
broadcasts.

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pagan powers
collaborate in a divine
rebirth, the continuous
nativity of love."

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