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August 15, 1961 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1961-08-15

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M £tr4tgaidDail &
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 15, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: PETER STEINBERGER

"And Your Co-Pilot This Morning"

PENTAGON CHANGES:
McNamara Influences
Men, Organization

'4
I

By HANSON W. BALDWIN
New York Times News Analyst
THE PENTAGON approaches the Berlin crisis in a state of flux.
Sharp changes in methods and personalities, gradual changes in
organization and lesser changes in strategic concepts have marked the
first six months of the Defense Department under Secretary Robert S.
McNamara. Moreover, the changes are continuing. A limited mobiliza-
tion has been decreed. The department has been given the task of guid-

UAR Development Plans
Raise Hope of Peace

PRESIDENT Gamal A. Nasser's plan for the
development of the United Arab Republic
sounds as though the UAR will soon be a par-
adise on earth, and although this is of course
impossible, an improvement in the general con-
ditions of the Arab countries could do much to
aid the cause of peace in the Middle East.
One of the greatest sources of friction be-
tween the UAR countries and Israel, although
not publicly admitted by the Arabs, is the great
difference in standard of living. While the ma-
jority of the citizens of the Arab countries are
living in poverty and squalor, Israel in a few
Loibby Wis
C HALK UP A VICTORY for the China lobby
and a loss for the United States.
The State Department announced last Fri-
day that the United States had suspended
preparations "for recognizing Outer Mongolia, a
Communist satellite located between Russia
and China.
While it claims this decision is a result of
"present world conditions," it is clear that the
State Department bowed to the pressure of the
potent China lobby. Nationalist Chinese Vice-
President Chen Cheng led the attack against
recognizing Outer Mongolia during his recent
visit, fearing an erosion of Nationalist prestige
and future United States recognition of Red
China. His clamorous efforts, with the rest of
the lobby, has now resulted in victory.
AS USUAL, a victory for the China lobby is ar
loss for the United States. A United States
mission in strategically located Outer Mongolia
could provide much intelligence data about the
stresses and strains b:etween the two great
Communist powers which could be used as a
wedge between Russia and China.
The China lobby pressure once again has,
cost the United States an advantage in a vital
part of the world.
-PHILIP SUTIN

short years has built up a society as modern
and progressive as almost any in the West.
All Israeli progress, particularly such devel-
opments as the launching of weather rockets
recently, were a danger to Arab loyalty and
to the Arab leaders, always certain that Israel's
sole aim was to devastate them, a grave mili-
tary threat.
ALTHOUGH the antagonism between the
Arab countries and Israel was initiated by
the Arab leaders and the Israeli "threat" is
ridiculous in light of the percentage by which
the UAR population outnumbers that of Israel,
a more equal standard of living might do much
to alleviate tension.
Once the Arab leaders no longer have to ex-
plain the shocking contrast in living conditions
between the countries, Israel could be regarded
as less dangerous. If Nasser's plans could also
include permanent settlement of the Arab ref-
ugees left homeless after the Israeli war of
independence, another great source of hostility
would be eliminated.
WITH MUTUAL GOOD WILL and coopera-
tion, the Middle East could probably be-
come one of the strongest defenses against the
spread of Soviet control, and could eliminate
a great deal of tension for nations continually
forced to choose between support for the Arab
nations and Israel.
There is, of course, the possibility that the
result could be precisely the opposite, with the
competition between Israel and the Arab states
greater than ever and the threat of Arab alli-
ance with the Communist powers a lever to
use in gaining Western support.
NEVERTHELESS, whenever a country is pros-
perous and the standard of living on the
rise, the lure of Communism is considerably
diminished.
If Nasser is sincerely interested in bettering
the lot of the Arab citizens and not simply in
increasing his own strength, there is no end to
the benefit that might result to the whole area
and thus to the entire free world.
-JUDITH OPPENHEIM

SW.Wa V"W#QQ vvcr.

LYSENKO APPOINTMENT:
Threatens Scientific Advance

CCommon Market Needs Support

P RESIDENT KENNEDY'S remarks welcoming
Great Britain's move to join the European
Common Market take appropriate notice of a
historic development. It is one in which the
United States has a vital interest.
But the big remaining question is, What
will the President and the people do to aid such
continuing progress?
Ever since Paul Hoffman went over to man-
age the Marshall Plan Washington has pro-
moted the united Europe concept. It showed
favorable interest in the Schuman-Monet coal
and steel scheme which developed into the
six-nation Common Market. But for some years
American policy appeared rather unsympathet-
ic to the problems which Britain and other Eu-
ropean countries faced in joining the Six.
IN DEFENSE OF THIS POLICY it has been
argued that "it supported the possible." Brit-
ons would have welcomed more manifest under-
standing of their problems. But those problems
-as is now more clearly recognized-were emo-
tional and political as well as economic. In
large measure they had to be worked out by
Britons. It is unlikely that until this was dv.w
any feasible American action would have de-
cisively facilitated closer bonds with the Con-
tinent.
Britain's ties with the Commonwealth went
far beyond trade. Its separation from the main-
land was more than channelwide. For centuries
Britons have had to be concerned about com-
binations on the Continent. But the hard logic
of events-and time to weigh them-has re-

cently brought about a sufficient change in
national attitude to enable Prime Minister
Macmillan to take the big step toward member-
ship in the Common Market.
THIS PROMISES, as Kennedy said, new
strength for the free world. It can be of
tremendous value to the United States. What
can the President and the American people do
to help it? Friendly words are good. American
encouragement of both sides to make essential
compromises may possibly be useful. But the
potential solid aid is economic.
In the end aid is likely to be measured main-
ly in trade. Britain probably has the largest ad-
justments to make. But Common Market mem-
bers, other European free nations and the
Commonwealth peoples face problems in fitting
their national trade to a;pattern of a larger
common interest. So does the United States.
And -efforts it may make to facilitate the over-
all adjustment by opening markets face rising
demands for protection of some domestic pro-
ducers.
YET ALL STATES of the Union are more
prosperous today because the Constitution
barred tariffs between them. All the other com-
mon interests that have built American strength
have had this economic undergirding. What-
ever the hardships, whatever the pressures of
special interest, this basic concept should be
kept in mind in every effort to strengthen the
Atlantic Community and the free world.
-CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR

By MICHAEL OLINICK
Daily Staff Writer
IN ANOTHER desperate attempt
to solve its continuing agricul-
tural problems, the Soviet Union
has turned to the talents of the
highly controversial Trofim D.
Lysenko.
The election of Lysenko to the
presidency of the Soviet Academy
of Agricultural Sciences last week
has been intepreted as the cul-
mination of the famed biologist's
comeback. His return to power,
however, is not based on his con-
tested genetic theory, but on a
hope that he will help increase
agricultural production.
Agriculture remains a key prob-
lem in the Soviet economy. Direc-
tors of agricultural production in
various areas of the Russian plain
have been severely criticized and
fired because they weren't able
to meet grain quotas. Despite Pre-
mier Khrushchev's predictions
that this year will se a record
harvest, troubles still beset the
food production areas as they have
since Stalin's early moves toward
collectivization.
* * *
PROF. LYSENKO, now a robust
63 years old, went into the scien-
tific shadows after Stalin's death
in 1956. He had been president of
the academy - the Soviets' high-
est agricultural research body -
from 1938 til then.
Controversy about Lysenko cen-
ters on his genetic theory that
an organism can, under some cir-
cumstances, translate to the next
generation characteristics acquired
during its lifetime.
The classical genetics school (of
the West) holds, to the contrary,
that new hereditary characteric-
tics can be introduced only by ac-
cidental mutation of the genetic
apparatus consisting of genes and
chromosones.
Lysenko gained prominence
originally because his genetic
theory fits in so well with Com-
munist party doctrine. If Lysen-
ko's conclusions were valid, they
might be applied in Soviet schools
for one generation to condition
certain characteristics - like
loyalty to the state - in future
generations of Russian citizens.
* * * .
STALIN TOOK a personal in-
terest in Lysenko's theory and it
was made the official "line" of
Soviet biology in 1948.
Some of Lysenko's early experi-

ments did produce high yielding
varieties of wheat, barley, cotton
and other crops. His scientific
reputation, however, was dis-
credited-when evidence was pub-
lished in 1954 that material pre-
sented to support the validity of
his theory had been falsified.
Lysenko's supporters, however,
continued to claim that no evi-
dence has been presented to dis-
prove his theories on inherited
characteristics.
* * *
THE IMPORTANCE of agri-
culture to the Russians and the
seriousness of its current problems
imply that high level Soviet of-
ficials-perhaps Khrushchev him-
self-were involved in granting
Lysenko a comeback.
They might not necessarily en-
dorse his genetic beliefs, but then
he was not re-promoted because
of them. The Soviets want him to
produce more crops faster and he
happens to have ability in these
lines.
But the Soviet leaders are well
aware of his basic assumptions
about heredity and development.
First of all, there is a much
greater degree of communication
between Soviet administrators and
scientists than their American
counterparts. The scientific lit-
eracy and sophistication in en-
gineering of the Kremlin leaders
establishes an intimacy between
them and the academicians.
New Hope
"WHAT IS HOPEFUL about the
national movements that
have emerged in modern Africa is
their unembarrassed eclecticism-
their readiness to draw intelligent-
ly at the same time on the West-
ern democratic (including within
this the Marxist) tradition and
their own indigenous resources:
their efforts to assert the moral
worth and dignity of individuals
against the racialists; to push for-
ward the frontiers of liberty
against the representatives of au-
thority and legitimacy; to develop
the idea of common African needs
and interests against the partic-
ularists .
"In doing this they have fol-
lowed in the tracks of earlier rev-
olutionary movements, no doubt;
but they have given old principles
a new application and meaning."
-Thomas Hodgkin

SECONDLY, one can't forget
the enormous amount of publicity
Lysenko's theories received in the
West where they were met with
abusive laughter and scorn. They
formed the basis of the embar-
rasing picture of Soviet sciencewe
had before Sputnik: a technically
backward people, playing with
fantasy and unable to produce
good scientific thinking because
of the authoritarian nature of the
political system.
Though the Russians expend
great sums of money on scientific
research, the bulk goes to research
tied in with national defenses. The'
physical sciences are preferred to
the natural sciences in the Soviet
bid to accelerate economic, devel-
opment through industrialization,
build up military power, and se-
cure political aggrandizement.
THE VAST BULK of routine
scientific investigation is poorly
staffed, inadequately equipped and
badly financed. There is little at-
tention given it by the state. Un-
der these circumstances, Lysenko
may be in a position to bring his
theory into prominence again, es-
pecially if he is also able to in-
crease the amount of crops.
Success in the latter area would
give Lysenko opportunity to in-
crease his prestige in the former.
His genetic beliefs might become
the doctrine of Soviet biology to
the exclusion of all other theories.
There is good reason to believe
Lysenko will do just this. In a
speech before the academy pub-
lished in Izvestia yesterday, Ly-
senko told his fellow, but subordi-
nate, scientists that from now on
they will work along lines of "ma-
terialist biology" laid down during
the Stalinist era.
He admitted his return to prom-
inence would disturb "the quiet
and peaceful" academy, but that
such a situation "cannot continue
for long."
This would mark a backward
step in Soviet progress, both in
actual knowledge lost and in a more
consequential de-liberalizing of
Russian science as a whole.
Though in the short run, these
setbacks could increase United
States' chances in the technologi-
cal race, long-term benefits for
mankind as a whole would be cur-
tailed.
With an ultimately selfish con-
cern, let's hope the Russians keep
a careful eye on Lysenko.

ing civil defense. Thus the ultimate
armed forces seem uncertain at
this time.
To date the change in strategic
concepts is perhaps the most im-
portant, though the least pro-
nounced, of the various changes in
the Pentagon.
* * *
THIS SHIFT started in the Ei-
senhower administration. It has
been away from exclusive depend-
ence on the doctrine of massive
retaliation as a deterrent to ag-
gression. The move is toward a
policy of a wider choice of deter-
rents, with response based on the
peril.
The shift has been accompanied
by an increase in the nation's mili-
tary safety factors, a decrease in
calculated military risks and an
increase in military costs. Nuclear
delivery capability, particularly its
degree of invulnerability to attack,
has been strengthened. At the
same time conventional forces are
being markedly increased.
* r *
CHANGES in organization are
more pronounced than those of
strategy. The steady trend toward
centralization of policy formu-
lation has been accelerated. Mc-
Namara has moved without re-
questing legislation. Instead, he
has taken advantage of the im-
mense powers of his office and of
the Presidency to alter, or to pre-,
pare to alter, major organization-
al structures of the Pentagon.
A Department of Defense intel-
ligence agency is being set up.
Such an agency is bound to limit
and reduce the importance of the
intelligence organizations of the
services..
What amounts to a single serv-
ice of supply is under study.
A functional budget, keyed to
weapons systems, tasks, missions
and program packages has been
developed.
* * ,
MEN AND METHODS have
changed even more than policies
and organization. Washington
calls the new dominating force the
Whiz Kids.
Operational analysts from the
research and development compa-
nies, intellectuals and academi-
cians hold some key jobs. McNa-
mara himself is a graduate of the
"slide rule" school.
This theoretical and analytical
influence is somewhat balanced by
the more pragmatic experience of
Deputy Secretary of Defense Ros-
well L. Gilpatric and by a ew oth-
er old Washington hands
THE SECRETARY himself ex-
emplifies the qualities of the new
men and new methods in the Pen-
tagon. In fact, he has largely se-
lected the men and initiated the
methods.
His intellectual abilities have
greatly impressed congressional
committees.
But the McNamara regime has
revealed major weaknesses, in the
opinion of Pentagon observers.
Some uniformed personnel are
upset. Methods as well as person-
alities are primarily blamed.
McNamara is said to feel that
the blizzard of studies and ques-
tionnaires he ordered in his first
months in office were a mistake.
MANY of the military tend to
feel that the Secretary makes
some decisions too quickly and
then closes his mind to change.
Although military-civilion fric-
tion was sharp at first it has eased
considerably recently.
McNamara's congressional rela-
tions have also improved. At first,
there was a strong feeling among
the staffs of congressional com-
mittees dealing with the Pentagon
that the liaison was inadequate.
While there was admiration for
McNamara's intellect, there were
some misgivings about organiza-
tional changes. There are some
misgivings, although the liaison
has improved.
Copyright, 1961, The New York Times

shape, size and organization of the
CAMPUS:
'OstricW
A musin
'HE Ostrich Has Two Eggsis
if. not cinema, still relatively
good entertainment.
The French comedy concerns
the actions, ravings and muddled
thoughts of a breadwinner who
discovers, despite his bullhead
aversion to discovery, the state of
his family: his elder son is a fash-
ion-made "invert," the younger
son is being kept by a Japanese
countess and his wife is vaguely
suspect.
The film suffers from a fault
which is prevalent among screen
adaptations of formerly successful
plays. That is, it remains a play;,
rather than a film. The direction
of "The Ostrich" was the direc-
tion of a play, failing to take ad-
vantage of the film medium. The
camerawork was the restricted vi-
sion of a relatively astationary spec-
tator, not the work of a m obl,,
omnipresent film machine.
STILL, as a photoplay "The Os-
trich" is amusing. The dialogue is
sharp and epigramatic. The script
is a sub-titlist's holiday, where the
translator, who most often po-
duces a condensed, inferior version
of the original, must cope with a
discreet translation of word-plays,
with the hope that they are iden-
tical in both languages.
ACCURATE and effective trans-
lation makes "The Ostrich" some-
what rare among imports, al-
though that favorable quality is
here the product of necessity. The
film has nothing else to rely on.
Pierre Fresnay, who has the only
major role (the script is a virtual
monologue, with other characters
introduced as events rather than
humans) does well
But the camera work Is indif-
ferent and technically poor, the
editing harmless if weak the sound
and lighting unconvincing.
Still, the film is entertaining. If
there is no "plot" in the cinematic
sense, e v e n t s are introduced
through dialogue (in the dramatic
sense) and so the script rarely
drags.
THE ELDER SON, Lolo, never
seen, is introduced variously a -an
"invert," a "floozy," and a "wom-
an." While the audience wonders
what this prodigy looks like, he is
ditched by his boyfriend, becomes
bedridden with grief and wins a
grand prize of 200,000 francs in
a fashion contest.
Papa Barius, finding his shelt-
ered elder son gone, his energetic
younger son spending the evening
with a Japanese mistress, and his
wife inexplicably out, leaves home
in confusion several times.
* * *
"The Ostrich" is not immortal
comedy, but is successful light en-
tertainment.
-Matthew Stolper
LETTERS
to the
EDITOR
To the Editor:
MY CONGRATULATION to
Peter Steinberger for his very
incisive, perceptive and sophisti-
cated editorial on civil defense
(August 9). It's interesting that
a Michigan undergraduate can see
implications which apparently es-
cape Harvard professors
-Prof. J. David Singer
Mental Health Research
Institute

ti

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Society Prolongs Cold War

i
t

FEIFFER

By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
PRESIDENT KENNEDY used a phrase at his
last news conference which goes deeply to
the fundamentals of the East-West conflict, but
which is often obscured by tactical maneuver-
ing over specific issues.
He referred to the scientific impossibility of
ever being sure that "a nation with a closed so-
ciety" would not violate a nuclear test ban.
IN a more far-reaching fashion the phrase al-
so applies to the political impossibility of ever
knowing what a nation with a closed society will
do about anything. And this involves all the
long, weary years of negotiations which the
West feels it must keep up, not for the real set-
tlement of issues, but to delay crises aid estab-
ils) a propaganda record.

the checks and balances of democratic proc-
esses. And that action is directed toward inter-
national hegemony.
The political leaders in countries which have
not yet arrived at any sort of plateau of na-
tional destiny are not playing with that power
because they misunderstand it. The Soviets
and their Peiping cohorts have been too frank
about their intentions for that.
THESE POLITICAL LEADERS believe they
can gamble for personal and national profit
in the no man's land between the ideological
contestants, and that they will eventually be
saved from enclosure by the Western powers.
This attitude is an open one among some of
these countries.
It has been encouraged by the impression

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