MAY BRING PEACE
See Page 2
Yl r e
Continuing fair today
Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXI, No. 33S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, AUGUST 15, 1961 FIVE CENTS
Only Fine Points Remain Unsettled;
U.S. To Spend $1 Billion by March
PUNTA DEL ESTE, Uruguay ?) - Delegates were reported in
general agreement yesterday on all the main points of a new charter
intended to swing Latin America into a 10-year, $20 billion march
only word polishing remained, with the delegates debating such
fine points as to whether to call their document the charter, or
declaration or act of Punta del Este. With the historic significance
. . no benefits
WASHINGTON OP) - A legal
showdown faded away yesterday
to clear the way for Eastern Air
Lines to recover a large airplane
from Havana. today while Cuba
regains a small boat from Key
A Miami creditor of the Cuban
government announced last night
he was withdrawing a claim
against the Cuban naval patrol
boat "in an effort to demonstrate
A Miami advertising agency ob-
tained a writ of attachment after
Cuban refugees brought the vessel
to Key West. The court order was
based on a $429,000 judgment the
company holds against the Cuban
government for services rendered.
The company gave up its claim
without a request from the State
Department to do so. Charles R.
Ashmann, attorney for the firm,
had said he's insist on holding the
boat unless the government asked
Even before the company bowed
out, the State Department was
confident the return of the boat
would go through because govern-
ment lawyers were sure the writ
against the vessel was inalvid on
at least two grounds.
This exchange - which the de-
partment insists is not a "swap"
-would restore to the airline a
$3.2 million Electra turboprop
plane which was hijacked from a
Miami-Tampa run on July 24.
And it would give back to Fidel
Castro's government a 40-foot,
$50,000 naval patrol boat sailed
to Key West July 29 by three Cu-
bans escaping from his regime.
Neither the Cuban-born, natur-
alized United States citizen who
hijacked the plane at gunpoint,
nor the Cubans who took the boat
are involved in the transaction.
The deal grew out of an exchange
of notes between the Cuban and
United States government-routed
via the Swiss since there are no
diplomatic relations between the
The department has not made
any request, taking the position
I that the court order is invalid be-
cause writs of this type can not
be applied against naval vessels.
This immunity has applied in the
United States since 1812, gov-
ernment legal experts say.
French in UN
UNITED NATIONS (P) - Tu-
nisia's Ambassador Mongi Slim ac-
of the Magna Charta, the World
War II Atlantic Charter, and the
United Nations charter in mind,
many delegates were reported
leaning to the first choice.
Aurelio Pastori of Uruguay,
secretary-general of the Inter-
American Economic and Social
Conference, reported that the
final document should be ready
for final action, today or tomorrow.
The 12-day conference is sche-'
duled to come to an end tomorrow
with formal signing of the docu-
Whether two doubtful nations,
Cuba and the host country Uru-
guay, would sign remained un-
United States delegates worked
in private with several Latin
American delegations last night in
shaping an extra declaration, one
that would take a slap at Fidel
Castro's Cuba. The Peruvian dele-.
gate had suggested writing a di-
gested, condensed version of the
It was understood that a num-
ber of countries would refuse to
sign the separate declaration if it
contained political statements.
Fidel Castro's delegate, Ernesto
(Che) Guevara, who has been
trying unsuccessfully to weave
Castro-line phraseology into the
document, started his main con-
ference speech by ridiculing Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy's ambitious
"alliance for progress" plan as a
scheme for giving technical advice
on how to dig "latrines." He ended
it by saying Cuba wants to be a
part of hemispheric progress.
Guevara's signature would not
assure Cuba of a share of the $20-
billion development funds expected
to be pumped into Latin America
by the United States, private in-
vestors and European countries
and Japan. The money will be
channeled through the Inter-
American Development Bank, an
institution Cuba has not joined.
Signing by Uruguay, smallest
country on the South American
continent, also is uncertain. Uru-
guay has been objecting that the
draft declaration falls consider-
ably short in pinpointing its aims.
But it may sign up in the end.
Written into the draft over the
weekend to win the support of
such objectors as Uruguay was a
specific pledge by the United
States to pour $1 billion into Latin
America's most depressed areas by
next March 1.
WASHINGTON (P)-The Senate
spent all of yesterday vainly seek-
ing an acceptable pattern for con-
gressional supervision of President
John F. Kennedy's treasury-fi-
nanced, long-term foreign aid
The effort will be resumed today
to find a means to satisfy Congress
members that they have a real
measure of control and still pre-
serve the administration's freedom
With the senators enmeshed in
long, legalistic discussions, the
House began its debate of Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy's overseas
House fire quickly centered on
the President's request for author-
ity to make up to $8.8 billion in
development loans over a five-year
period with money provided large-
ly by Treasury borrowings, with-
out annual congressional appro-
Approved Last Week
The Senate last week approved
of this in principle but did not
agree on the duration of the pro-
gram or the total to be provided.
Part of the administration's sur-
prising 56-39 margin in the Fri-
day test traced to an assurance
by Chairman J. William Fulbright
(D-Ark) of the Senate Foreign Re-
lations Committee, that he would
go along with an amendment to
give the Appropriations and For-
eign Relations Committees of Con-
gress a chance to look over, in
advance, any loans over $10 mil-
lion. Veto power was not to be
provided but committees could
bring pressure to bear if they dis-
approved a loan.
Yesterday brought a flood of
amendments to this end, most of
them unacceptable to one side or
the other. Most'of them precipi-
tated some degree of technical,
Open House Debate
Opening the House debate,
Chairman Thomas E. Morgan (D-
Pa) defended his Foreign Affairs
Committee's version of the meas-
ure, providing the long-range prin-
Morgan told the House that
"unless you are ready to abandon
the cold war, you have to provide
some kind of foreign aid, and this
program provides the weapon we
need to fight."
Rep. Howard W. Smith (D-Va)
told the House that its approval
of the long-term authority, "will
be the last foreign aid function
you will perform until they (aid
officials) come back and ask for
Rep. Clarence Brown (R-Ohio)
objected that the bill "carries
more authority and more spend-
ing" than any earlier aid program.
He described the Treasury borrow-
ing feature "peculiar" and unnec-
American aid representatives
were described by Rep. W. R.
Gross (R-Iowa) as men of "soft
hearts and heads to match."
WASHINGTON () - President
John F. Kennedy conferred with
his ambassador to Moscow and
then called in Secretary of State
Dean Rusk yesterday as tension
mounted over Berlin.
Kennedy met with Rusk in the
White House living quarters after
receiving a firsthand report on
conditions in Moscow from Am-
bassador Llewellyn Thompson.
It was learned afterward that
Kennedy did not give Thompson
a personal.message for Soviet Pre-
Representatives of the four
Western powers agreed at another
conference growing out of develop-
ments in Germany that "some sort
of countermeasures have to be
taken" in retaliation for the Com-
munist ban on traffic from east
to West Berlin.,
German Ambassador Wilhelm
Grewe told newsmen after the
hour and a half meeting that the
diplomats decided to recommend
that their governments join in re-
taliatory action of some kind.
Attending the meeting with1
Grewe were Foy D. Kohler, as-
sistant United States secretary of
state, and Embassy counsellors1
Lord Hood of Britain and Claude1
Lebel of France.
Counter measures the West may
take in response to CommunistI
actions over the weekend report-l
edly were considered at these twot
meetings. What form these Allied<
counter measures might take was<
not immediately known but of-
ficials said a number of possibili-
ties were under discussion. Not
decisions have been made as yet.
Both Rusk and Thompson spent
about an hour at the White House
in their separate meetings with
Thompson, who left last night to
rejoin his family in Germany, said
no date was set for his return to
his post in Moscow.
Kennedy and Rusk were provid-
ed at their conference with a pa-
per prepared for them by the Unit-
ed States Joint Chiefs of Staff
evaluating the military situation,
in and around Berlin.
Note Soviet Force
This report, informants said,
confirmed that at least two So-
viet divisions are now on the edge
of Berlin. It also stressed that
there was no interference with Al-j
lied access to West Berlin - at
least not thus far.
Also before Kennedy was a re-
port from United States diplomat-
ic sources speculating on the pos-
sible motives behind Soviet Pre-
mier Khrushchev's moves.
Khrushchev, these authorities
believe, is becoming increasingly
frustrated by the West's unwill-1
ingness to yield to his Berlin de-
mands, and to recognize what thei
Russian believes to be a new world
ABOUT FACE-East German soldie
that no unwarranted travelling goesc
refugee flow that once sent one East
tirely stopped up.
LONDON (A') - Britain and the
other Western allies last night pre- rep
pared tough protests to Russia bee
against stoppage of passage from rep
East to West Berlin, but author- cou
ized sources cautioned against any co
perilous reprisals countering Com- o
munist East Germany's moves.
In a play-it-cool mood, Prime r
Minister Harold Macmillan left tar
London for a grouse-shooting va- cat
cation on the Yorkshire moors no
after spending a few hours at his tia
The British Foreign Office said Z
various counter-measures against th
the Communists certainly will be ris:
considered by the Allies but he did for
not spell them out. Th
But privately officials advised du
Mexico Asks 1ev
Soviets Set New Restraints
of Containment Cycles, Cars
.. To Require
Beginning at Once,
To 'Hostile' Drivers
BERLIN M) - Communist East
Germany, increasing its restric-
.,:, h..T.tions on free movement in this
divided city, decreed today that
West Berliners coming into East
Berlin by car or motorcycle must
obtain special entry permits for
The East German Interior Min-
istry charged in issuing the order
that West Berliners had used their
vehicles "to aid Western espionage
agents in hostile acts against the
German Democratic Republic
-AP wirephoto (East Germany)."
rs at the Brandenburg Gate man an armored car and see to it The decree, announced by the
on between Berlin's eastern zone and its western sectors. The East German news agency ADN
German into West Berlin every minute has now been almost en- was the frst rlier tmeasure
against Ws elnersinmte cur
rent crisis, touched off Sunday by
anti-refugee orders that ban East
a + Germans from crossing into West
ponds with Caution Berlin.
Up to now West Berlin citizens
had been able to drive into East
Berlin without even having to
orters that Britain never has ably will be followed by govern- show their vehicle registration pa-
en enthusiastic for any sort of mental protests to the Russians. pers. There was no word in the
)risals. Britain feels actions and Western Europe's newspaper announcement about cars of the
inter-actions, provocations and editors disagreed among them- three Western allies, tourists or
unter-provacations can only selves whether this was the right West Germans.
owball to produce runaway and time for the United States, Brit- The decree became effective im-
ssible disastrous results. ain, France and West Germany to mediately, but it didn't indicate
Macmillan and Foreign Secre- approach the Soviet Union for an how and where the new permits
y Lord Home, who also is va- East-West summit conference. would be issued.
ioning, are convinced there is Some said Khrushchev started the Repulse Westerners
neasonable alternative to nego- trouble and should make the first The announcement came after
ting a Berlin settlement with overture. Communist troops armed with
Russians. Communist newspapers sought machineguns and bayonets slam-
rhe word was that theand to assure their readers that the med the Brandenburg Gate shut
Thentire casiet they Berlin crisis was not a threat to in the faces of thousands of angry
i tensions have added a new peace. They claimed the flight of West Berliners.
ing to Ae ans f n- East Germans to the West was The abrupt closing the the main
gency to Allied plans for in- provoked by Western agents. crossing point between East and
rmal talks with the Russians West Berlin set off stone-throw-
ese would be designed to pro- ing by the Wesern demonstrators
ce an acceptable framework of and retaliatory tear-gassing by the
gotiation-- even at the summit N avy Prolongs Redst
el. At the height of the outburst at
Talks Start SoonD uty of 26 800 Brandenburg Gate, West German
These informal talks are ex- police stepped in and pushed the
cted to begin in Moscow this West Berlin demonstrators back
ek. In Next M onths more than a mile to minimize
As of now the big difficulty chances of a close-quarters battle.
eseen relates to what should be WASHINGTON (P) - The Navy Gas Feedback
e subject of negotiation. The announced yesterday it will freeze Some of the tear gas blew back
est sees no basis of agreement on on continued active duty about on the Communist troops enfor-
all-German peace pact as yet. 26,800 enlisted men and officers ing the anti-refugee orders that
d there is as little chance of who otherwise would be leaving bar East Germans from crossing
Berlin settlement on the terms service. into West Berlin.
vanced by Soviet Premier These men will be held on duty The Brandenburg Gate-symbol
rushchev. Weeks of painstaking for periods varying from six of divided Germany - was one
ploration seem, then, to lie months to a year. of 13 crossing points left open by
ead before East and West can The order is part of the military the Communist clampdown orders
ree on what to discuss. buildup program and is designed issued Sunday.
On the immediate issue - the to help the Navy expand toward Through the night the Reds had
rlin border situation and its a new authorized strength of 657,- 25 soldiers of the East German
endant human problems - the 00 from a present level of about People's Army standing in front
ies are quite united in their 626,000. of the gate, some with fixed bay-
olve to protest. Involuntary Duty onets, some with submachine-guns.
Draft Protest The involuntary extension of Adenauer's Suggestion
active duty applies to both regular Adenauer meanwhile had a pro-
American, British and French and reserve personnel. It will af- posal to stop the Reds.
nmmandants in West Berlin have fect about 80 officers and 1,600 He said the Western powers are
afted a strong written complaint enlisted men whose present tours considering economic sanctions
the approval of their govern- of duty would begin to expire next against the Communist countries
nts and they intend handing it month. -even a total embargo on East-
their Soviet opposite number. During October, about 400 of- West trade.
will brandthe East German ficers and 2,800 enlisted men will Adenauer spoke to thousands of
sure of East Berlin's borders be affected. political supporters, standing in
illegal. And it will ask Russia The total over these and suc- a pouring rain in the Bavarian
call off the closure. ceeding months will involve 24,000 town of Regensburg. At 85, he is
This on-the-spot action prob- men and 2,800 officers. running for another four-year
One-Third Involved term in the Sept. 17 national elec-
The total of men involved will tion.
sks UN Seat represent about 30 per cent of the There was rain in Rerlin, too,
officers and enlisted men who had and it calmed some of the more
orbeen scheduled to leave active duty eager of the demonstrators there.
'or~ ednext month and about 90 per cent West Berlin police had to use
of officers and 30 per cent of en- their clubs to hold back a group
TOYKO (R) - President Kwame listed men in subsequent months of about 150 youngsters who tried
rumah of Ghana said in Peiping through next June 30. once- again in the early evening
terday that Ghana had always The Navy said the figures could hours to break through toward
)ported the view that Red China change somewhat because of men the Brandenburg Gate.
)uld be admitted to the United who volunteer to stay on active
tions, the New China News duty. Some of those frozen in duty
ency reported. will begin to become eligible for Lysenko Asks
It does not make sense to us release next March.
it over 600 million people should Retirements specified by law, '
excluded from the United Na- such as age limits, will be con-
ns," he added at a state ban- tinued.
et welcoming him to China. More Ships MOSCOW QP) - Tronfim D. Ly-
Eisenhower Supports Move
To Start Disarmament Unit
WASHINGTON 0") - The administration has the support of
former President Dwight D. Eisenhower in its move to set up a
United States disarmament agency, it was disclosed yesterday.
"I heartily concur in your purpose," Eisenhower said in a letter
read to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee yesterday by John
J. McCloy, President John F. Kennedy's top disarmament adviser.
McCloy and Secretary of State Dean Rusk testified before the
committtee, appealing amid the Berlin crisis for the disarmament
agency as a "task force" with
scientific know-how in a touchy DIAG DISPLAY:
The Berlin crisis points up theP
urgency of the disarmament task,
The proposed agency would in-
clude experts from State and De-
fense, Departments and the Atomic
Energy Commishion, Rusk noted.
He said its director would be re-
sponsible to the Secretary of State.
Such a separate disarmament
agency is needed, Rusk maintain-.
ed, because its functions would go
beyond those normally within the
province of the State Department
and would include scientific re-
search in which the department
has no experience.
Sincere Khrushchev ; x
Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo)
MEXICO CITY (R) - Mexico
asked Cuba last night to return
Charles Albert Cadon to face trial
for hijacking a Pan American
World Airways DC-8 jet liner over
Mexican territory last Wednesday
and forcing .the pilot to land the
plane in Havana.
The Foreign Ministry said in a
statement that it advised the Mex-
ican ambassadorin Havana to
seek the extradiction of the 25-
year-old Frenchman who took
command of the plane at gun-
point shortly after it left Mexico
City bound for Guatemala and
points south with 81 persons
Mexico and Cuba have a crimi-
nal extradition treaty, and it is
believed here Cuba will return
Cadon to Mexico rather than to
the United States, which also
wants the sometime New York
painter and waiter.