"I'm Over-Insured Already!"
t! 11rMtr tta BaOtt
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
'Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
'truth Wil Prevail"
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MicH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Dail y ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This mus t be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 5, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: RUTH EVENUIS
Attenpts 'Thouwjht Control'
"We're working on thought control latest additions to its welfare department is
right now. We feel the greatest barrier to a former deputy sheriff who was a military
reducing cases is the thought barrier; that police officer. The present acting welfare
is, most of those, involved in social work commissioner-named last week-is a former
are not aware of where they're going to physical training instructor.
end up in the long run. 'For an answer to the former, we must return
"The general direction of this is rather to Mitchell's words: "Social workers feel a
socialistic." responsibility to the people. We feel the people
-Joseph Mitchell have a responsibility to society."
City Manager What Mitchell is trying to say here is clear.
Newburgh, New York He accepts only half of the old Socialist dic-
THE LATEST MOVE out of Newburgh is that tum. "From each according to his ability" is
peculiar agent of the Orwellian mind which what Mitchell believes. The social workers, he
frightens and chills all us good, free thinking says, accept the second half: "To each accord-
Americans: thought control. ing to his need." And he does not.
Mitchell's plan, however, does not involve
gleaming probes sunk deep into the brain HIS WORDING of the statement, however,
through which electronic impulses direct our betrays an ill-conceived and inconsistent
thought and action. His process is a more concept of society. What is a society? There
subtle one, less apparent and more, innocent seems no way of defining this generic term
to the public eye-and thus more dangerous. without stating that it is basically a group of
The newest Newburgh scheme involves re- individuals. To have a responsibility to society
placement of present welfare personnel by means to have responsibility to an aggregation
those who are "philosophically attuned to our of individuals.
feelings," Mitchell explains. No one will be To bear the obligation of maintaining a
fired, so public alarm won't be raised. "But healthy society, for example, one has to insure
there will be attrition." that ,the individuals, as individuals, do not
starve and are properly clothed and housed.
MITCHELL CON 'ESSES that he has fore- This means a responsibility to those who need
saken the idea of reorienting professional food, clothes and shelter.
case workers. He tried for six months and If you have a responsibility to a group, you
failed. So his solution, now, is to get people who obviously must have a responsibility to each
think as he does. unit that, in sum, makes up the group.
The first thing Mitchell will try is to re-
verse the trend away from hiring degree-hold- HIS ANALYSIS, which Mitchell would have
ing caseworkers: This will be done, he says, to concede, means each individual is re-
to insure a reduction in the city's welfare nrlnsible for each other individual. If we take
rolls. this ecuation, and accept Mitchell's (that the
Why this particular aversion to those who individual has resnonsibility for the society)-
have gone to college and specifically studied vwhich is sunrin un one side of the euation
both the theoretical and practical aspects of -we are entitled to sum up the other side.
social work, those who are, in, a sense, "guar- '0h111 the statements that society has resoonsi-
anteed" to possess a certain level of intelli- bhuit. to the individual and that the individual
gence, those who have had expert instruction? 1 ,'ren'nrihiity to society are the same
If Mitebll cannot acrent the outcome of his
AS MITCHELL ANSWERS THIS, he claims Painintions he mast rlepct them. And if he
the "college trained social worker has been does reect then, he is left with a siet in
exposed to the whole equalitarian concept "hlip ansh individual is deditead to himself
which is being taught in the social schools." Pl n* and h'ava no renonihilitu to anvone.
His objection, then, to the people now in- else,. Tf this is true. how cn Tfithll ask his
valved in administering the welfare program rip.'r e}r ndit1Ancu to # o'ent the laws ad
seems to be an objection to the "equalitarian rules he siiedels in mkino? How can the
concept." But 'sucha concept is the basis of --P fzrnrtion?
our nation-or so our Declaration of Inde- , Une'r 'ploeh cireninmt oras it is elsr that itt
pendence, Constitution and political philosoph- ^nnt. Tf Mitchell n, tc his itv to function
ers tell us. Just what is there in this concept 1'1 olnt7-, he had bffar revie his thounht
which repels Mitchell and what kind of people and nrpq ntion and not tr to srround him-
can he find as allies? self with associats nipe thinking is as
For an answer to the latter question, we warped and muddled as his own.
must observe his actions. One of Newburgh's -MICHAEL OLINICR
Bourguiba Seeks Leadership
HABIB BOURGIBA has struck quickly and In so doing, Bourgiba has conveniently ral-
at the right time, not only to regain Bizerte lied the rest of the Middle East to his cause.
from the French but also to enhance his The pseudo-dictator of Tunisia has en-
prestige and power among the Middle Eastern hanced his prestige in this impotant sector of
nations. the world, and may mean to use it to another
It is obvious that Bourgiba is making very end: the union of Tunisia and Free Algeria,
little effort to gain Bizerte by true democratic which he hopes will occur eventually.
processes, but there is another issue at stake
that warrants such procedure. 11F BOURGIBA becomes impatient with the
Bourgiba has long awaited the chance to France-Algeria negotiations, he may again
prove himself -as strong and capable a leader resort to questionable procedures to gain his
as perhaps the UAR's Nasser, or Tito of Yugo- ends. He could seek a mutual defense pact with
slavia, and is taking advantage of the world Algeria against France.
situation at present to advance these goals. Such personal-power struggle brushfires in
Arab states, touched off by their emerging in-
HE HAS MANAGED so far to bring France dependence, may burst into a full-scale con-
and Charles de Gaulle into negotiation and flagration.
has also succeeded in creating an extremely And while Habib Bourgiba is playing with
awkward situation for the United States in fire, the whole cold-war arsenal may explode.
the United Nations. -EARL POLE
Nation Wastes Human Resources
TALKS TO FANFANI:
" s 1^
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
From Soviet Bark
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
THE SOVIET UNION has backed down from its most dangerous
demands regarding Berlin.
There are indications that the Kennedy policy is working and
will continue to work if there is no flinching.
The oft-repeated demand that the Western powers get out of
Berlin is missing from Nikita Khrushchev's latest contribution to
the furor he began nearly three years ago. It wasn't going to happen
and it isn't going to happen. Khrushchev still insists that he will
sign a treaty with the East German puppets giving them, in theory,
By PRESTON GLOVER
Associated Press News Analyst
MOSCOW (P) - In hard talks
Thursday and softer messages
published yesterday, Premier Ni-
kita Khrushchev sought to im-
press the West with an idea that
any attempt to force the issue on
Berlin would likely lead to a shoot-
Further details of the Soviet
premier's talk with Premier Amin-
tore Fanfani of Italy came out
during the day, and the reports
were grim and foreboding.
Evidently he told the Italian
premier without mincing words
that, if the Allies tried an airlift
into Berlin as part of the current
dispute, the planes would be shot
down and the shooting would de-
velop quickly into nuclear war.
There would be no air bridge
such as that which in 1948-49
saved West Berlin from capitulat-
ing to a Russian blockade.
** * *
AT THE SAME TIME Khrush-
chev made it plain that he is pre-
pared to negotiate. But neither in
his talks with Fanfani nor in the
reply messages to the Western
powers did he indicate he was will-
ing to settle on any terms but his
Discussion of Ke nedy came up
Thursday while Khrushchev was
outlining his reaction to the Unit-
ed States position on Germany.
He told Fanfani, the informant
said, that he was angered by the
recent speech by the President and
would reply to it in a speech soon.
No date was set, but it is expected
After expressing- anger about
what he considered the excessive
belligerence of Kennedy's speech,
Khrushchev observed (the spokes-
man said), that he agreed more
nearly with the positions taken by
Senators Fulbright and Mansfield
of the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee. Both senators have
taken positions apparently deem-
ed less positive than Kennedy's.
* * *
YET later in his talks, Khrush-
chev indicated he felt that Ful-
bright and Mansfield represented
about 80 per cent of Kennedy's
Then why not approach the ne-
gotiations with that in mind, Fan-
fani suggested. It was then that
Khrushchev insisted that Kenne-
dy was more complex than the late
Secretary of State John Foster
He added that in the United
States everybody shouts and the
man who shouts loudest wins.
Kennedy, he reportedly told Fan-
fani, then listens to the loudest.
He told Fanfani that the se-
curity of Berlin can be covered
by agreements. If it wants to re-
main a capitalistic city, he said, it
can-but not on the basis of oc-
cupation rights. These are the
rights which the Allies insist re-
main valid. Khrushchev said that,
under a new status agreement,
Allied troops could be left in West
Berlin, together with Russian
troops and troops of. the United
Abruptly changing the subject
at, one point, the informant re-
lated, Khrushchev told Fanfani
that such countries as Italy, with
bases for American rockets, would
be "our hostages." This descrip-
tion also fitted England.
* * *
HE BLUNTLY TOLD Fanfani
that, if the subject of German
reunification or self-determina-
tion through elections was brought
up, Russia would walk out of the
conference. The Allies have insist-
ed that a peace treaty must be
based on reunification through su-
pervised elections. Khrushchev
said he would not go for that but
would consider some form of fed-
eration as a negotiable subject.
Then, coldly, he asked Fanfani
if he was not afraid that, if Ger-
many were reunited, he might
find Chancellor Adenauer or one
of his successors sitting at this
same table in the Kremlin "talk-
ing to us."
He suggested that the German
and Russian economies were com-
plementary. He said Russia had
large bodies of raw materials and
in turn needed German machin-
control of Western access to Ber-
lin. But that has never been in
itself the dangerous point.
The Communists could make
such a transfer of control dan-
gerous by the methods followed
in attempts to apply it. The Soviet
attitude of today suggests strongly
that such attempts will not be
permitted to involve a risk of war.
The Kennedy policy of beefing
up the Western military posture
to convince the Reds they cannot
push the Allies out of Berlin is
designed to eliminate just that
CURRENT EMPHASIS is thus
returned to a situation nottso
greatly different, and not much
more fraught with physical dan-
ger, than the one which preceded
the Geneva conference of 1955.
The chief remaining danger,
and at the moment not a seem-
ingly great one, is that something
will happen to Allied unity in the
face of pressure, resulting in nego-
tiated agreements weakening the
Western position in B e rlin.
Khrushchev is asking the British,
the great temporizers, to make
their own suggestions with just
this purpose in mind.
This didn't happen after Com-
munist attempts to blockade Ber-
lin and Vienna in 1948.
THE SOVIET GOVERNMENT
has just announced an ambitious
new domestic development pro-
gram, with the simultaneous ad-
mission that it can be achieved
only through a period of peace.
To risk the hope of that achieve-
ment on adventures which, even if
successful, would not guarantee
the world victory of Communism,
would be for the Moscow rulers
to risk their entire hold on the
Soviet people and on, the Com-
munist world movement and even
their very lives.
Containment, when vigorous
enough, still works - at least for
"THE COMMUNITY is already
in the process of dissolution
where each man begins to eye
his neighbor as a possible enemy,
where nonconformity with the ac-
cepted creed, political as well as
religious, is a mark of disaffec-
tion; where denunciation without
specification or backing takes the
place of evidence; where ortho-
doxy chokes the freedom of dis-
sent; where faith in the eventual
supremacy of reason has become
so timid that we dare not enter
our convictions in the open lists,
to win or lose . .."
-Justice Learned Hand
By JOHN GRIFFIN
Associated Press News Analyst
JUONG PHI, South Viet Nam OP)
-South Viet Nam's strategical-
ly placed racial minorities are be-
ing courted, cajoled and carefully
watched by both sides in this na-
tion's civil war with Communist
A look at the map shows the
About a quarter-million, primi-
tive tribesmen live in the vast
mountain and upland region in
the inland center of South Viet
Nam. This is the area near the
southern end of Laos which has
been increasingly used as a high-
way for infiltration by the Com-
munists from North Viet Nam.
*; * *
THE COMMUNIST rebels have
been actively courting the moun-
tain tribes. And they have also
been working hard-with some
striking results-here far to the
south close to the Cambodian bor-
der. The government is moving
to counter this.
Some 400,000 persons of Cam-
bodian origin, a group with a dif-
ferent language and different
customs than Vietnamese, live
near here and elsewhere in the
far south. This particular region
shows the Communist Viet Cong,
using agents of Cambodian an-
cestry, have in the past made mil-
itary and political headway.
It is called That Son (Seven
Mountains) and is named for a
series of steep wooded hills that
rise to 700 feet abruptly from the
surrounding rice fields.
* * *
THE BORDER with neutralist
Cambodia is only a few miles
away, and military authorities say
the Viet Cong use it as a sanctu-
ary to avoid government troops.
Until recently the Viet Cong
had effective, control over many
villages, such as this one at the
base of the seven mountains.
Troops could come in, but when
they left the Viet Cong came
Politically, the Viet Cong plays,
on the Cambodian minorities"
complaints about neglect and bad
treatment from Vietnamese au-
thorities. Its success at using this,
plus firm persuasion, was demon-
strated several months ago when
several hundred persons from this
area fled across the' border ask-
ing protection from Cambodia.
PAWN IN COLD WAR:
Mongolia Re-Enters Historical Stream
THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIA-
tion, through its Michigan office, has just
released a statement noting the rise in high
school dropouts. These are young people of 16
and 17 years who do not complete their sec-
ondary education after they have reached the
minimum age requirement.
Approximately one million boys and girls are
in this category now and within ten years the
number will rise to 7.5 million. The situation is
definitely one to cause concern and cries out
The NEA states the problem, then lists the
reasons that are generally known - lack of
ability, desire for money in industry, lack of
familial guidance, marriage. Nothing original
or perceptive appears in. the document; it
merely repeats those facts which are common
knowledge. As a reme'dy the educators suggest,
in essence, working with school authorities in
solving the problem. Support for remedial
reading and adult education courses are also
among their, suggested concrete solutions for
the problem. These ideas should not be dis-
missed with a casual "I know that" attitude;
they may help.
preparatory work. These solutions are offered
and their validity appears sound.
However the real loss to society from high
school dropouts is overlooked by the release -
that is, the loss of those who are capable of
doing high school work, who are above-average,
in intelligence and who still drop out. The
problem of stimulation - stimulation through
more than just a raising of academic stan-
dards -- is raised.
From all the studies, surveys and analyses of
the dropout dilemma the NEA must have some
ideas on the sugject, some means to attempt a
remedy. This is the gravest problem in terms
of natural resource waste, whether it be on
the college or high school level. It. is an area
which needs expert study, if such study has
not been undertaken or has proven inconclu-
THE PROBLEM of wasted talent has been
particularly stressed on the college level. It
is time some attention was drawn to the waste
in high schools, instead of concentrating all
efforts at the more advanced level.
The situation is complex and it should not
By TOM HENSHAW
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
A DESOLATE, backward land
that once ruled most of the
known world is returning to the
mainstream of history as a stra-
tegic pawn in the Cold War.
It's called the Mongolian Peo-
ple's Republic or Outer Mongolia.
The Red-ruled land, with its
620,000 square miles and nearly
a million people, sprawls over
mountain, desert and high pasture
squarely between the two Com-
munist monoliths, China and the
Soviet Union (see map).
Mongolia,ruled for centuries by
the Chinese, became the Soviet's
oldest satellite in the early 1920s.
It's a point of potential friction
between Moscow and Peiping.
There are indications that the
United States is seeking to exploit
the sore point by considering rec-
ognition of the Mongolian govern-
ment over the vehement objection
of Nationalist China.
Recently, the Soviets used Mon-
golia to snub their Chinese ally.
Mikhail Suslov, a secretary of
the Soviet party, headed a Russian
delegation to the 14th anniversary
celebration of the Mongolian par-
ty. Not a single Russian went to
the Chinese party's 40th observ-
ZHAMSARAUFIN Sambu, leader
of Mongolia, has announced sup-
port of peaceful co-existence with
the West, a position the Red
Chinese claim is untenable. The
Mongolians also have just sided
with Russia in its documental de-
tains of India and along the rivers
of south China.
His descendants-Marco Polo's
Kublai Khan was one-were em-
perors of China and India; they
dominated the Middle East and.
fossils, including dinosaur eggs
laid by monster reptiles millions of
With the exception of Ulan Ba-
tor, Outer Mongolia has changed
little since the days of Ghengis
munists have made great efforts to
lift Outer Mongolia into the 20th
* * *
SOVIET architecture and motor
vehicles dominate the capital, Ulan
and isolation makes industry im-
Outer Monoglia may be rich in
mineral deposits but as yet only
coal and gold mines have been
developed, although there have