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July 16, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1963-07-16

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Snvty-Third Year
Truth Wil Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Albany Negroes Press for Ri ghts

. 1

TUESDAY, JULY 16, 1963


Good Times May Obscure
Fiscal Reform Needs

POLITICING for state fiscal reform is now
beginning in earnest, but it should not be
allowed to obscure the need for the overhaul-
ing of Michigan's tax structure with a state
income tax as its base.
Gov. George Romney has called in all GOP
legislators and is scheduling extra conferences
with the leadership and with the taxation com-
mittees of both houses. He has also confered
with the leaders of the influential segments
of the state's citizenry and has sent mild
feelers to the Democrats.
Nothing tangible has come from these ses-
sions as the governor is trying to instinctively
feel his way to the best tax package that
stands a chance of passage. He has sent up
eight trial balloons. But none have soared and
none have crashed to earth.
Probably the general shape of the tax pack-
age will be determined in the next three weeks
as the governor winds up his conferences with
key legislative leaders.
TH US FAR, the governor has made a good
case for fiscal reform. A projected budget
prepared by Controller Glenn S. Allen shows
that even if the state stagnates, it will be still
in the red. Not only that, it indicated that the
state has to extend services, no matter the
size of its tax base. Under his projections,
higher education spending for the 10 colleges
and universities and the 20-odd partially state-
supported junior colleges would only increase
$10 million next year-just enough to -provide
for a little added enrollment. Mental health, in
poorer economic shape than higher education,
would only get $1 million more.
Allen further points up the need for in-
creased state spending by his 11-point expand-
ed services list and by marking the critical
areas of higher education and mental health
as the first cut when revenue fails.
DESPITE THESE dire warnings a pleasing
mirage hovers over the state. The auto-
mobile industry has put two good years back to
back and the resulting increased tax-especial-

ly sales tax-collections have cut the state
deficit by nearly two-thirds. Another good year
would substantially cut this deficit or wipe it
out completely.
BUT-a balanced budget depends on con-
tinued high prosperity and on curtailed state
services. Let business lag, let unemployment
rise, let the Legislature properly provide for
mental health and higher education, and the
same old deficit will reappear.
The opponents of fiscal reform are playing
on the current rose-tinted atmosphere to lull
the public asleep. The public has ashort poli-
tical memory, especially for governments-
like state government--it is not interested in.
Nor does it like to pay additional taxes. Cur-
rent federal, state and local taxes are enough
of a burden.
UT THE STATE'S good fiscal times rests"
on a fragile base. Its leaders recognize
new revenue is needed just to keep the state
going, let alone provide for necessary services.
But a number of legislators do not. Sen. Clyde
Geerlings (R-Holland) opposes a state income
tax and said he will vote against it in the
Senate taxation committee. He is its chair-
man and can stall fiscal reform in his, com-
mittee. Several house leaders are only' luke-
warm about a necessary income tax.
The problem is further complicated by
money-hungry school boards and city councils
who see an income tax as a way to free them-
selves from a declining property tax base. Like
the state; their needs are outstripping their
tax base.
So, some formula for aiding them and the
state government at the same time must be
devised. The new revenue must reach more
units of government.
Most of Romney's eight plans-t-seven fea-
ture a state income tax-will do the job. It
is up to the governor and his legislative lead-
ers to pick the best plan and then sell it to
the state. --PHILIP SUTIN

(Fourth in a Seven-Part Series)
BEFORE 1961 very little had
happened in Albany, Ga..
There had been few sit-ins and
fewer "freedom marches." It look-
ed as though there would continue
to be few. The integration move-
ment which had been upsetting
other Southern communities had
not yet arrived. But then things
started jumping.
On Nov. 1, 1961-the day the
Interstate Commerce Commission
prohibited terminal segregation-
the local Student Non-Violent Co-
ordinating Committee tested the
Trailways bus terminal. A group
of Negro students .were turned
away. A few days later five Albany
State students were arrested for
trying to use the resturant in the
Then the Albany Movement was
formed. SNCC, the National Asso-
ciation for the Advancement of
Colored People, a coalition of col-
ored ministers, and various other
Negro organizations combined to
lend their efforts to the problem.
* * *
IN THE WEEKS that followed
the ICC ruling was ignored a
third time and eight SNCC work-
ers, both Negro and white, were
arrested for "obstructing traffic,
disorderly conduct, and failure to
obey an officer." This seemed to
ignite the fuse. Albany has never
and will never be the same.
During the few weeks before
Christmas the mass demonstra-'
tions that aroused the nation took

place. The movement organized
mass protest meetings followed by
marches into the downtown area.
Hundreds of marchers were ar-
rested. The Rev. Martin Luther
King and Rev. Ralph Abernathy
spoke at a meeting at Shiloh Bap-
tist Church. Later they led a
march downtown. They were not
arrested but the number of ar-
rests totalled 737. Police Chief
Laurie Pritchett negotiated with
the Negro leaders and agreed to
release people on the signing of
property bonds and a hearing for
Negro demands at an early busi-
ness meeting of the city commis-
* * *
IN JULY of the next year King
and Abernathy were found guilty
of leading the December demon-
strations and sentenced by Re-
corders Court to 45 days in jail
or $178. Both King and Amernathy
decided they would go to jail. An
immediate furor was aroused in
Washington. Nobody seems to
know how but the next day both
King and Abernathy were released.
There followed a period of in-
tense demonstrations ranging
from attempts to integrate the
library, lunch-counters, the bus
terminal, to attempts to use the
city's public recreational facili-
ties. All trials resulted in jailings.
All those taking part in protest
marches were also jailed.
Mrs. Slater King, wife of the
then vice-president of the move-
ment, was kicked and hit on the
side of the head while attempting
to bring food to her daughter who

English Town Shak en
By Kennedy Visit

had been jailed outside of town
for demonstrating. She lost con-
sciousness but was left lying on
the ground until she revived and
drove back to town herself since
there was no one else except her
three smaller children with her.
She was six months pregnant at
the time.
* * *
A NUMBER of similar incidents
followed including the sheriff's
department's beating of the Negro
lawyer C. B. King. King has been
the legal backbone of the move-
ment since its beginning. He was
attempting to check up on the
condition of a SNCC worker who
had been arrested and beaten in
jail when he was hit over the
head with a walking stick. The
walking stick broke.
By August the total number of
arrests since the December dem-
onstrations had surpassed 1100.
On August 15 the movement
finall met the city commission and
1) Compliance wit hthe ICC rul-
ing on bus terminal desegregation;
2) A refund of the cash bonds
of those arrested and acceptance
of tax receipts;
3) Assurance that the city would
desist from interfering with peace-
ful protest; and
4) Assurance that the city's
buses would be desegregated if
they were operated again.
These were refused or perhaps
not even considered.
* * *
THERE WAS an air of discour-
agement over the city.
Things quieted down for awhile.
The movement concentrated on
voter registration. The community
settled down for a respite between
Although the voter registration
drive was fairly successful, since
tampering with voter registration
attempts is a federal offense and
the most ardent segregationist has
by now come to realize that he
may get his fingers burned, this
year the movement has once again
decided to move into the streets.
Impatience with the slowness of
the progress is beginning to be
felt and the people want to see
something they can grasp as an
improvement in their position.
The people who make up the
Albany Movement are not just
young people and a handful of
leaders. Much of the hard core of
the movement's support comes
from the women of the commun-
ity. The women, because they are
the ones who can still get jobs,
are often a family's primary
source of support. It is the Negro
women who are Albany's maids
and cooks. There is no segrega-
tion in housework and it is vir-
tually the only common job avail-
able to the Negro. Most of the
jobs for men are segregated and
with the increase in racial agita-
tion in Albany, intend to remain
so. This means that in a majority
of cases the head of the house-
hold is the woman. The husband
has been reduced to a figurehead
whose only solution to his pre-
dicament is to sit on the front
porch all day or leave town. Many
have chosen the latter course of
Among the men that have jobs
and remain in Albany there are
many who are afraid to take part
in demonstrations for fear their
tempers and emotions will get the
best of them.
* * *
ALBANY NEGRO society is not
a normal one. The wives come to
the weekly SNCC mass meetings.
They bring their children with
them. The Shiloh Baptist Church
is filled with singing female voices
with only a handful of male ones

sprinkled in. The wives march.
The children march too. Boys
march but the men do not. Man-
hood loses something when it is
left jobless and tired on a hot
front porch. There are so many
wrong things growing out of seg-
regation-the undermining of a
people's self respect can take place
in a thousand, different ways.
It is not all women who devote
their time and energy to the move-
ment. The greatest bulk of un-
tiring support comes from three
families in Albany, the Christians,
the Gains and the Jenks. Each of
these families have marched, dem-
onstrated in sit-ins and been sent
to jail. Mrs. Christian and Mrs.
Gains have both seen their daugh-
ters dragged off to jail more than
half a dozen times. Jo-Ann Chris-
tian has been in jail 17 times. She
is fifteen. His ten year old sister
has been in jail seven times. Their
mother has been jailed. Even Mrs.
Gain's two year old daughter
Peaches has been booked for pa-
rading without a permit.
It is hard to understand how a
mother could stand to see her
children go through more than
once the horrible experience that
is the Albany jail. Jo-Ann was
beaten the last time she was ar-
rested and the community has still
not forgotten. An officer banged
her head against the cell door re-
peatedly later justifying his ac-
tio& on the grounds that she had
kicked a police officer. She was
dragged into her cell and beaten
first, however.
* * *
SINCE JO-ANN was released
Mrs. Christian says she has been
unable to feel at rest. Although
she vows she and her family will
continue their support of the
movement she is visibly tired.
Gains and Christian too have to
watch their children being push-
ed and shoved into paddy wagons
by six foot police officers who
pride themselves in their ruthless-
The police, as a matter of fact,
have it in for the two families.
They are tired of arresting a
Christian or a Gains and have
threatened that if they are fore-
ed to do so again things will not
be pleasant. Very few parents can
possibly conceive of the courage
it takes to welcome their fifteen-
year old daughter home from two
weeks in jail after she has been
beaten and refused to eat in pro-
test for the entire duration of her
* * *
OF THE OTHER families in the
movement there is not a great
deal to be said. Not because they
are not as active as the Christian's
and the Gains but because there
is a tendency to hesitate before
chiding mothers and their child-
ren for not willfully entering and
re-entering a foul smelling dank
cell again and again for the priv-
ilege of being treated with the
respect society offers jailers.
Still, there are many families in
Albany who have had dealings
with the jail. Some of them re-
turn for a second or third en-
counter. Some stay away after the
first time. It is a mark of pride to
have been jailed. People say "have
you been in jail" or ask "did they
let so and so out yet" with as
much casualness as you would ask
about the weather. But how many
times can the experience be en-
dured by the same person.
People in Albany are getting
tired. There have been very few
tangible results of their struggle
with injustice. The library has
been integrated but all the chairs
have been removed. Few Negroes
dare enter the supposedly integrat-
ed bus terminal. The accomplish-

Thurmond's Outburst
Deserves Senate Censure

or even vituperative when it comes to
speaking against civil rights is nothing new.
But when such an individual becomes so
choked up with his own bias that he all but
calls the secretary of state a card-carrying
Communist, then it is time for his fellow
legislators to "view with alarm" the implica-
tions of such a rash outburst.,
The case in point: Strom Thurmond, a
Dixiecrat all the way, the senior senator from
the sovereign state of South Carolina and a
prominent thorn in the side of every person
who desires equal opportunities for the Negro
in this country. It is quite understandable that
any spokesman for the narrow-minded South-
ern segregationists would be just as narrow-
minded himself, although there is little doubt
that Thurmond's actions do not stem merely
from a desire to stay in the good graces of
his constituents. But the slanderous state-'
ments the senator chose to make in the Senate
caucus room a few days ago are a discredit
to the Senate and to the nation.
IE OCCASION was a Senate Commerce
Committee hearing dealing with the con-
troversial "public accommodations" clause of
President . John F. Kennedy's proposed civil
rights package. Speaking before the commit-
tee, Secretary of State Dean Rusk had noted
that the Communists "clearly regard racial
discrimination in the United States as one of
their most valuable assets." This fired up
Thurmond, who caused the audience to gasp.
in horror of asking the secretary of state
whether his own statements before the com-
mittee were not "tacit support and approval
of this Communist line." It is to Rusk's credit
that he did not lose his temper when slandered
in such an open attack, although there was
no doubt among the assembled spectators, as
well as the other committee members, that he
was visibly shaken by the remark.
When Rusk asserted in return that he hoped
"no committee of the .Congress would ever
take the view that a secretary of state can't
come before it without having it said he is
supporting a Communist line,' all of the
members of the committee joined the audience
in vigorous and prolonged applause. All of
them, that is, except Thurmond, who was so
angry that' he turned upon his fellow com-
mittee members and demanded that the "dem-
onstration" cease, calling down the wrath of
Thurmond upon the "civil righters and left-
wingers" in the audience. Whether Thurmond
would have been so eager to enforce the Sen-
ate rule prohibiting demonstrations by specta-
tors if they had applauded one of his wittier
comments remains to be seen. Sen. Thurmond
should have been censured for such an unfor-
givable attack upon the secretary of state, but
he was not. Instead, he was free to shove his

way' out of the chamber and go on his merry
IT IS SIGNIFICANT to note that the only
people who commended him on his remarks'
were a lone group of Goldwater supporters.
For their part, the other members of the
committee were too busy to notice as they
crowded about Rusk. Perhaps they thought
Thurmond's temper had been acting up and
paid the episode no further attention. But
I would not be surprised if many - of those
assembled were reminded of the last time
Robert Welch, head of the John Birch Society,
referred to Dwight Eisenhower and Earl War-
"ren as "card-carrying Communists." Or perhaps
they thought back to 1953 and a former mem-
ber of the Senate, the late Joseph R. McCarthy.
Perhaps the far Left and the far Right are
not so widely separated after all.
LIKE THE ASIAN FLU a few years back, a
tide of Goldwater brand conservatism is
currently sweeping the country, striking down
all who are susceptible to this crippling disease.
Although its presence has been noted
throughout the nation, this malady has struck
with devastating effect in the South, where
at last count nearly half of the population had
been afflicted. It is also prevalent among col-
lege students, usually affecting those with an
unhappy childhood.
The epidemic has arrived more than a year
early, despite previous predictions that it would
begin in mid-July of 1964 in San Francisco.
In the interest of public safety we take this
opportunity to inform as many as possible
about the disease in order to prevent further
THE SYMPTOMS of Goldwateritis are easily
recognized; victim begins to see things:
Communists under his bed, for example; vic-
tim may express strange desires, may want to
return to the "good old days"; a slight swell-
ing of victim's head might be. noted, probably
due to optimism about Republican chances in
,64; victim will become violent at mention of
certain words-Supreme Court, Kennedy, Rock-
efeller, etc.; victim is given to scurrilous name-
calling and may accuse everyone of being
Communist, or if his attack is more severe he
may call them socialists, liberals or even
moderates (very severe case).
If emergency treatment is required, follow
this procedure: strip the afflicted person of
his John Birch Society card and all Goldwater
buttons, remove his Goldwater t-shirt to allow
him to cool down and keep him away from
all liberasnd oathers upon whom he might

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Jeffrey Shero
is a reporter for the Daily Texan,
the student newspaper at the
'University of Texas. This summer
he is travelling in Europe. His
article is reprinted from the Sum-
mer Texan.
EXCEPT FOR those confined to
bed, President Kennedy's visit
was a heady time for the resi-
dents of the hamlets near Prime
Minister Mcmilla'n's estate in
Birch Grove.
Droves of Secret Service men
arrived in advance, filling the
local inns, poking about farm
cottages, and tramping through
every field and thicket in search
of suspicious activity. A link with
Washington was established in the
only hotel in the vicinity.
The villagers enjoyed; however,
the man who had been stationed
in the cricket field near the Prime
Minister's house. His farming dis-
guise was complete with a mid-
western straw hat and a black
cigar planted firmly between his
teeth. Long-handled scythe in
hand, he stalked about looking for
an occasional weed which he
would attack with a vigor danger-
ous to any nearby mole.
* * * . ,
ON THE DAY of the President's
arrival, a crowd of 200 gathered
before the Prime Minister's gates.
Curious spectators shielded them-
selves from the cold rain with
black umbrellas; the more than
100 peace protesters used their
plastic-covered placards.
Many shortened the long after-
noon hours by journeying to the
Red Lion, a nearby pub whose
hours were extended by licensing
officials during the Presidential
visit. Pausing momentarily, the
joyful manager announced that
business was 2000 per cent above
normal. He then returned to dis-
pensing more beer, ale, and cider
to the thirsty throng.
At 4:30 p.m. it was announced
that there would be an hour delay
in the President's arrival. Tired
groans arose from the crowd. One
woman exclaimed, "This is idiotic!
I'm going home and watch it all
on the tele." A man said, "I don't
think he really wants to come to
Finally the Presidential helicon-
ter was heard. It flew low over
the typical English Saturday af-
ternoon cricket match. As soon
as it had passed, the water-log-
ged, typical Saturday afternoon
cricketers hurried for shelter. It
had been the first game played
this year on the grounds.
* * *
side the walls of the estate, so
the demonstrators marched to the
gate and announced to the cap-
tain of police that they wished to
present the President with three
letters. The letters, welcoming the
President and urging him to take
further steps toward peace, were
signed by religious and peace
campaigners, and Labor party
A hurried conference ensued
producing "two high governmental
officials." They took the letters
and promised to personally give
them to the President.
Sunday morning President Ken-
nedy, Secret Service men, and his
personal bodyguards drove to Our
Lady of Forest Row. Over 1000
people dressed in their Sunday
finery were waiting for the Presi-
dent. They were disanointed

Elderly Father Dolman found
he had the most popular church
in the predominantly Anglican
town and had issued tickets for
the service.
After Mass Father Dolman es-
corted the President to his limou-
sine. The President started to get'
in, changed his mind, and strode
toward the crowd. A horrified
bodyguard exclaimed, "Oh, my
God, he's done it again!"
* * *
THE PRESIDENT grasped out-
stretched, hands in the straining,
enthusiastic crowd, while security
men tried to keep it from engulf-
ing him. A little girl smiled shyly,
looked down, and held out a red
rose. The President took it,
squeezed her hand, apparently
touched by the spontaneous ges-
Along the road, demonstrators
stood quietly holding signs with
quotations from his speeches and
Pope John's "Pacem in Terris."
One read, "Is not peace, in the
last analysis, a matter of human
rights. JFK 1963." The President
acknowledged them with a smile'
and a wave.
At Birch Grove a more vocal
group of protesters had gathered.
They rushed into the road shout-
ing, "Polaris Out! Out! Out!" It
was a tense moment for the Eng-
lish police, but they succeeded in
quickly getting the protesters to
the side of the road.
Late that afternoon the Army
helicopter bearing the President
departed. Newsmen, police, dem-
onstrators, photographers, a n d
mere spectators had had their
moments and were also leaving.
In a few hours West Sussex was
again the tranquil spot it had
been 10 days earlier.

ments seem small for all the an-
guish that the people have suf-
* * *
THE LEADERS of the move-
ment, the Kings, its president,
Charles Sherrod, head of the
Southwest Georgia Project of
which the Albany Movement is a
part, and Rev. Samual Wells have
been working toward the goal of
equality for a long time. They are
not tired nor do they intend to
give up. But there is discourage-
ment sometimes. C. B. King hand-
les all the court cases involving
Negroes. The job seems far too big
for one man to handle although he
is doing it. Slater King feels op-
timistic about future events in Al-
bany but he has seen a great deal
of pain. He was jailed a week ago
Sunday for trying to swim in the
Tift Pool. Sherrod is a quiet man.
He is constantly on the move. He
shakes off his tiredness in front
of a mass meeting and imbues the
audience once again with the
ability to look ahead. It is hard
to tell what he is thinking. Pre-
dicting events in the future is
somehow senseless when there is
so much at stake. Wells Is a cheer-
ful warm person. His hope seems
to give strength to those around
The movement is a mixture of
optimism and despair. But the pre-
vailing spirit is the hope. Despite
the lack of tangible gains it has
achieved it has brought a new
feeling to the Albany Negro. In-
distinct though it may be there is
now a goal in front of him.
Thing are not the same in Albany
and not even the thickest-skinned
white is able to fool himself into
believing they are. Outwardly
there is no change but the spirit
of freedom is in the air. People
have to breathe in spite of them-
STRATFORD-In an interesting
program of mixed fare that
sometimes rose to glory, the Cana-
dian Stratford Festival celebrated
its tenth anniversary Sunday.
Led by Adele Addison, Elizabeth
Benson Guy and John Boyden, the
Stratford troupe put on a brilliant
concert performance of Henry-
Purcell's opera, "Dido and Aeneas."
This work is one of the real
gems of English vocal writing, and
stands as evidence that Purcell,
had he lived beyond 36, might
have founded an important Eng-
lish operatic school. The perform-
ances, particularly by Miss AddIA
son in the great aria "When I am
laid in earth," were outstanding
throughout; Soloists, chorus and
orchestra, under the baton of El-
mer Iseler, brought a real sense of
the dramatic to the work.
However, I would like to regis-
ter a strong protest with the Strat-
ford management: after seeing the
often brilliant staging and dra-
matic effects which the Shake-
spearean directors contribute to
the Festival, one could expect that
Purcell's opera, following seven-
teenth-century tradition, would be
presented with imaginative dance
sequences (which were even printed
in the synopsis of the opera Sun-
day). With such an approach, the
short Purcell play could have been
considerably extended into a de-
lightful, homogeneous afternoon.
But the directors had a differ-
ent idea in this case, and added
other works to the Anniversary
Concert program: Ralph Vaughan
Williams' "Flo Campi," a sort of
watered-down British "Schelomo"
for viola (ably played by Lillian
Fuchs), small chorus and chamber
orchestra, and Handel's coronation
anthem "Zadok the Priest" (in
wvhich "long live the king" was
suitably modified). Between these

two last number the Stratfordians
showed they owed allegiance to
God as well as the Queen by call-
ing forth a minister to lead the
audience in responsive prayer,
ending with the Lord's Prayer.
-Mark Slobin
Wond erful
THERE ARE three times and
places in the last sixty or so
years that absolutely ooze with
atmosphere, Vienna in 1890, Paris
in 1920, and Berlin in 1930. A
glorious illusion took place last
night. Hill Auditorium was swept
back to Vienna. Elisabeth Schwarz-
kopf accompanied by Willi Bos-
kovsky and the Detroit Symphony
Orchestra gave a recital.
Miss Schwarzkopf is one of
those few great artists who has the
ability to completely transfix and
transform an audience. Her sing-
ing and acting are so exquisite.
And when she sigh brave field-
marshalls melt into lollipops. The
music was so beautiful and Miss
Schwarzkopf so divine. "Fleder-




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