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July 09, 1963 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1963-07-09

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I1tr Rutgan Daily
Seventy-Tbird Year
EDrrED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
JESDAY, JULY 9, 1963 NIGHT EDITOR: PHILIP SUTIN

Long Range Planning
Must Meet Human Needs

"Sorry, But You Have An Incurable Skin Condition"
d~eK7AL
. i
4!F

PT 109:
AThrill
Of Weak E
EVERY ONCE in a while you
wake up in the morning and
you know that no matter what
you do during the day you can do
no wrong. For most people it only
happens once in a while; for Jack
Kennedy, if you believe this movie,
it's a style of life.
Without flinching, Cliff Robert-
son (as Kennedy) zips through
two hours of epic pageantry un-
scathed. Without a flicker of emo-
tion he watches his boat and his
men go from bad to worse, and,
running on will power alone, per-
forms deeds of heroism unparal-
leled except maybe in Terry and
the Pirates.
While he doesn't exactly walk on
the water,, he does tread it all
night, and his crew, dying all
about him, loves him. His super-
ior officers, amazed and enchant-
ed, love him. His peers, respectful
and awed, love him. Strangers,
when he completely demolishes
their pier and boat shed in a puck-
ish fit, love him. Even island na-
tives on the prowl for enemies
throw down their rifles when he
appears and comply with his re-

'ng Blend
nchantment
quests; in their own way, they lov
him.
* * *
AND IT'S NOT that everyor
knows who he is. No, theseadve
tures belong to a time long ag
when only a secret few can whi
per remarks like "Shine his boot
porter, he'll need them when h
gets back to Hyanisport," or fee
him lines like "D'you think ti
men will do a good job for us?
The answer peals in with its fu
weight of historical inevitabilit
and rings ominously, "If we do
good job for them."
For the rest, there's plenty c
blood and gore, lots of shootin
bombing, burning, smashing, ey
ploding, and all the other goo
things that make war movies he
But the natives sing a chorusc
"Rock ofnAges," and that alone
worth waiting for.
The night I was there, there wi
a sneak preview of an exception:
film called "Spencer's Mountair
starring Henry Fonda as Spence
about which I quite honestly be
lieve that ifButterfield Theatre
brings it to. Ann Arbor, they wi
pay you to see it.
--Dick Pollinger

ANN ARBOR is engaged in massive city ners and opposition to its cost. Mayor Cecil O.
planning, but this planning does not go far Creal finally administered the death blow by
enough. It is generally planning for property vetoing an application for federal funds. At
rather than people and it will not meet present the time he sought to replace urban renewal
or future human needs. with city-aided local self-help. But this died
The Central Business District "Guide to Ac- out. Then the city turned to the CBD.
tion" is perhaps the best example of this trend So Ann Arbor is not putting in muchi effort
in city planning. This document sketches out on meeting human problems-housing, employ-
both short- and long-range plans for revitaliz- ment, education-that will grow as the city
gaaut buxdla[ .oj puv ago 2utdunis au kul expands to 100,000 by 1980. The city has done
the competition of fringe-area shopping cen- well in CBD planning and the University is
ters and stores. augmenting it. It is time city government
It is a complete document-attacking both turned toward planning for these needs.
public and private problems and assigning re- However, planning for human needs is much
sponsibilities for solving them. The city is more difficult than planning for the expansion
meeting its share, beginning work on alleviat- of property values. Many more factors must be
Ing CBD traffic problems. The chamber , of ;considered. The city's experience with urban
commerce is moving more slowly, hampered by renewal shows that a single method will not
the need to persuade diverse private interests solve these problems.
to follow the CyD plan. Planning has to be flexible and must at-
In a similar vein, the city council finished tack human problems from many sides. How-
recodifying the zoning ordinance to give future everhamaneplmnoinanproadesfor
Ann Arbor development coherence and direc- ever, a master plan outlining approaches for
tion. The city planning commission and - eliminating dilapidated buildings and racial
cil are currently wrestling with the knotty ghettos, for creating new jobs for an expanding
nny population and for educating an increasing
problem of multi-unit developments. They are number of children is needed.
attempting to decide whether to limit them to
the campus area and downtown or toy, allow OME OF the tools are al'eady at hand. The
apartment developments next to single-unit M
subdivisions, proposed fair housing ordinance can allevi-
ate the crush on substandard housing by allow-
MATCHING CITY planning, the University is Ing Negroes to move to better neighborhoods
and more modern homes.
sketching guidelines for its own develop-
ment. Out of a rough North Campus plan The city can use its own and federal funds
evolved a detailed Medical Center plan which to aid home owners to renovate deteriorating
called for its northeasterly development and neighborhoods. The city planning commission
the construction of a new entrance along the can offer advice. City housing codes can be
Huron River. A new guideline for Central Cam- more strictly enforced to eliminate sub-stand-
pus-the Central Campus plan-is nearly com- ard housing, perhaps with city aid where the
plete and will be revealed shortly. landlord cannot afford to make the necessary
But these basically deal with location and repairs without greatly increasing his rents.
use of property with the aim, on the city's part, Urban renewal is still available to remove
of expanding property values and business. hard-cdre slum or debilitating neighborhood
Similarly, part of University planning aims to influences like the junk yard in the original
minimize the dislocation of city interests as 75-acre urban renewal project.
well as to provide for orderly expansion of the The city-county job survey undertaken by
.University. Prof. George Odiorne of the business school
The Parks and Open Space plan comes closer is the first step in planning for increasing jobs.
to dealing with human needs by attempting to The research park is another laudable effort
maintain Ann Arbor's beauty and expand its in this area. Planning to create jobsshould be-
recreation facilities to meet future population come a permanent part of city activities.
growth. Another aspect of this plan is the at- A 20-year master plan of school needs might
tempt to balance recreational facilities for all help convince voters to support the local schools
parts of the city. as well as to prepare for educating an increas-
Ing number of students in the best possible
PARKS- ARE, unfortunately, as far as city manner. Such efforts should be an integral
officials are willing to plan to meet human part of city planning.
needs. Ann Arbor's first attempt at city re- The city already has some of the tools to
development was an effort to remove sub- do the necessary human planning. Now all it
standard housing to improve the lot of people needs is will and the effort.
living there through urban renewal. But this Ann Arbor had taken excellent first steps in
worthy project got caught in the cross-fires city planning. It now needs to go all the way.
of bigotry, divisions within the affected area, PHILIP SUTIN
brealdown of communications with city plan- co-editor
Kennedy Trip Successful
Y/ ,

TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Negroes Need Trust
In Power Structure-

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE:
Basic Philosophy Must Be Realized

AMERICANS, subservient to the interpreta-
tions of the news doled out by the Krocks,
the Restons, the Alsops and Time Magazine
and obliged to parrot those interpretations for
lack of first-hand information, are almost
sadistically happy when the pundits are proved
wrong.
The nation's citizens, who often ask why
the press doesn't run the country since its
writers are so all-wise, enjoyed themselves
immensely when Harry Truman outsmarted
them in 1948. A smaller dose of this gratifica-
tion was certainly felt here with the return
of a triumphant Mr. President from Europe.
It was a la mode two weeks ago to deplore
the proposed Kennedy venture into European
territory; it is now a la mode to call the trip'
a success. The New York Times even did it
in an editorializing headline on page one. The
pundits, prior to the trip, in an argument with
which we are all too familiar, noted that Ken-
nedy could not hope to achieve much in deal-
ings with lame duck European governments.
From the diplomatic point of view, the Ken-
nedy gains" were small: only the Germans have
shown interest in the Administration's high
priority mixmaster nuclear force. A substantial
strengthening of the Atlantic Alliance cannot
also be counted as one of the trip's gains, for
any momentous progress in this decision pre-
cludes French participation, and la belle
France was not even in the presidential map
this trip.
INTERESTINGLY enough, the same analysts
who underrated the youthful Kennedy's
chances for success in pre-presidential pri-
maries in 1959 again neglected to weigh a
most important consideration in an analysis
of this venture: the President's enormous
popular appeal.
There have been few receptions of an Ameri-
can president or another foreign leader in the
Editorial Stafff

past to rival the welcome accorded Mr. Ken-
nedy in Germany. It is not surprising that the
greatest crowds should have assembled in a
nation which is indebted to American foreign
aid and its role in the miracle of German
economic recovery and which at the same time
sees Kennedy as the embodiment of a young,
successful nation. The Germans are highly
susceptible to great personalities; their adula-
tion of Kennedy is certainly healthier than
earlier experiences.
The President reasserted an American policy
of defense of European cities in the event of
nuclear attack. His crystal clear declaration
was certainly reassuring to Europeans who
fear that America would sacrifice capitals
abroad to save herself. His sideswipe at de
Gaulle and those who would undermine the
Atlantic Alliance was important to the co-
operating, but discouraged members of the
Alliance.
Kennedy, then, reached the people; the
Italians, the Irish, the Germans, the English
all felt a little of that "Kennedy magic." The
European tour resembled an intense political
campaign more than a diplomatic venture. It'
was the best strategy; for through the people
Kennedy reached their leaders. The aging
Chancellor Adenauer, who looks down on JFK
from a fatherly vantage point, was notably
impressed by the President's tremendous mass
appeal. The French were alarmed enough at
the popularity of the President to issue com-
muniques answering his speeches. And Mr.
Khrushchev arrived in Berlin earlier than
scheduled in an attempt to somewhat soften
the Kennedy impact.
THERE IS LITTLE doubt that the European
trip was a personal victory for the President
who was encouraged to call it off. The Presi-
dent has returned to a Congress delaying work
on his programs for area redevelopment, civil
rights, tax reduction and tax reform. He has
also come back to a nation which had slowly
lost confidence in his leadership abilities: Ken-
nedy's Gallup poll rating had slipped below
50 per cent for the first time since his election.
It was beginning to look as though the Re-
publican presidential nomination would not

By ROBERT SELWA
AMERICANS may celebrate the
anniversary of the Declara-
tion of Independence, but Amer-
ica has yet to fully realize the
philosophy of the Declaration.
This is unfortunate since the
Declaration of Independence is
one of the most significant doc-
trines in world history. It not
only served to justify the move-
ment that launched what is now
the leading country in the world,
but it also has served to inspire
movements for liberty through-
out the rest of the world. The nat-
ural r.ghts philosophy may have
diminished, but the need for uni-
versal freedom and for an articu-
lation of fre edorn has not di-
minished. The Declaration as a
statement of American independ-
ence from, Great Britain may be
outdated but as a statement of
democracy it lives on, inspiring
those who will listen.
Lister; feel the harmony of the
phrases and the spirit of the
words; relive the fervor of those
daring rebels as they began a new
nation -
"We hold these truths to be
self-evident. that all men are cre-
ated equal, that they are endowed
by their Creator with certain un-
alienable Rights, that among
these are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness - That to
secure these rights, Governments
are instituted among Men, deriv-
ing their Just powers from the
consent of the governed That
whenever any Form of Govern-
ment becomes destructive of these
ends, it is the Right of the People
to alter or to abolish it, and to
institute new Government, laying
its foundation on such principles
and organizing its powers in such
form, as to them shall seem most
likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness."
* * *
ALL MEN are created equal, it
says, meaning politically that
there shall be equal justice under
law for all people and meaning
socially and economically that
there, shall be equal opportunity
for achieving Happiness in life.
Then comes the natural rights
sta t e me n t about unalienable
rights. Jefferson originally wrote
it like this:
"That from that equal creation
they derive rights inherent and
inalienable among which are the
preservation of life, of liberty, and
the pursuit of happiness."
When the Continentai Congress
finally adopted it, the Declara-
tion's "inherent and inalienable"
had become "certain unalienable"
rights. This change made the af-
firmation ot liberty more positive
and absolute. The absoluteness
was continued 15 years later in
the First Amendment to the Con-
stitution: "Congress shall make
no law . .. abridging ..l:e freedom
of speecn, or of the press; of the
right of the people peaceably to
assemb..e ..."
* * *
THROUGHOUT history before
the Declaration people had been
regarded as the servants of their
Rnovrnmentis The Declaratinn was

outlining a system of self-govern-
ment and civil liberty. There is a
notable correlation between these
grievances and the provisions of
the Bill of Rights 15 years later.
And there is correlation with the
aspects of an American democracy
woven by the eras of Jackson,
Populism and Progressivism. Note
some of these grievances-
"He has refused his assent to
laws the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good."
The turn-of-the-20th-century re-
forms of American democracy re-
sulted in a better realization of
the opposite of this grievance. The
initiative, referendum and:recall,
the popular election of Senators,
the secret ballot and the en-
franchisement of women all con-
tributed to public assent of laws
for the public good.
* * *
"HE HAS obstructed the ad-
ministration of justice by refus-
ing his assent to laws for estab-
lishing judiciary powers. He has
made judges dependent on his
will alone . . ." As American his-
tory unfolded, an independent Ju-
diciary unfolded that at least
part of the time protected the
/ rights of citizens. Today the Unit-
ed States Supreme Court defends
and furthers civil liberty, and the
same probably could be said for
most lower courts.
"He has kept among us, in
times of peace, standing armies
without the consent of our legis-
latures." Later the Third Amend-
ment protected citizens from the
quartering of soldiers in their
homes - a matter that the Dec-
laration also mentions. Today,
with the United States a warfare
state, there are standing armies
which violate the spirit of the
Declaration; buthat least no sol-
diers are quartered in private
homes.
"He has affected to render the
military independent of, and su-
perior to, the civil power." Today,
despite the efforts of some gen-
erals and other persons, the civil-
ian powers stand superior to the
military powers. But the military
is so gigantic and all-pervasive
today that the danger remains
that this principle of democracy
can be undermined.
"For protecting them (soldiers)
by a mock-trial from punishment
for any murders which they
should commit on the inhabitants
of these states; . . . for depriving
us in many cases of the benefits of
trial by jury; for transporting us
beyond seas to be tried for pre-
tended offences . .." Already the
concept of due process of law was
developing. The Bill of Rights
framed this concept, and Ameri-
can jurisprudence filled it in. To-
day American citizens are pro-
tected by a tradition founded on
the Fifth and Sixth Amendments
which provide for trial by jury,
protection from double jeopardy
and self-incrimination, a speedy
and public trial by an impartial
jury, the assistance of counsel for
their defense. and other rights.
* * *
"HE HAS waged cruel war
aaainst human nature itself. vio-

the exploitation of Negroes was
struck out of the Declaration by
Congress because South Carolina
and Georgia objected. Today
those two states continue to treat
Negroes with cruelty; but at least
Jefferson and the other members
of the drafting committee noted
the wrongness of racial exploita-
tion .Together with the equality
provision of the Declaration, this
grievance sought a democracy
based on equal opportunity . and
equal justicenunder taw. These
principles found their way into
the Constitution in the form of
the Fourteenth Amendment --
"Nor shall any state deprive any
person of life, liberty or property
without due process of law; nor
deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal protection
of the laws." Note the' resem-
blance of language - "life, liberty
or property" -'as well as thought,
to the Declaration.
The Declaration of Independ-
ence was a noble and inspiring
suggestion of the democracy that
was to develop in America and of
the ideal that was to spread
throughout the world. When Walt
Whitman and Woodrow Wilson
popularized demociacy, when the
Populists of the 19th century and
the civil libertarians of the 20th
century furthered democracy
along, the Declaration of Inde-
pendence came to be realized in
part. The responsibility of Amer-
ica today is to realize the Dec-
laration in full.

By WALTER LIPPMANN
SUDDENLY, AS IT WERE, the
struggle of the Negroes toward
equality of status in American so-
ciety has taken a sharp turn. The
demonstrations in Birmingham
have proved to be something more
than the work of outsiders playing
upon the imaginary grievances of
otherwise docile and contented
masses. Nobody can now doubt
that the grievances are genuine
and deep under the rule of such
men as Bull Connor and Governor
Wallace.
For a hundred years since Lin-
coln freed the slaves, this country'
has relied upon the education of
the Negroes and the persuasion of
the whites to bring about that
equality of status to which it is
committed. We are now realizing.
that ,the present rate of change
will not be fast enough. The re-
dress of the grievances of the Ne-
groes is, for the new generation,
too slow in coming. History teaches
us that when this point is reached
in the struggle for what men re-
gard as their just rights, a revo-
lutionary condition exists.
Then the supreme questions are
posed. Will the ruling and privi-
leged classes take command of the
coming changes? Or will they cling
to their privileges and become the
immovable object in collision with
an irresistible force?
The Negro rebellion is now led
by men like Martin Luther King
who preach and practice the Gan-
dhian doctrine of non-violence. It
is a difficult doctrine in any coun-
try, and this is a rather violent
country. The doctrine worked ef-
fectively in British India. But
there, the ruling power was under
the restraint of the long British
habit of constitutionalism.
We cannot count upon non-vio-
lence persisting in the face of bru-
tal and illiterate resistance. The
outstanding danger is not that
there may be rioting and brawling,
for these can be suppressed. The
outstanding danger is a loss of

confidence by the Negro people in
the good faith of the white people.
This is where the turning point
lies at the present time.
If confidence is lost that there is
a legitimate remedy for genuine
grievances, there will be lost at the
same time confidence in the doc-
trine of non-violence. What will
come after that is unpleasant to
contemplate.
* * *
THE TIME has come when there
must be a change in the American
policy, as it was laid down under
Eisenhower and continued under
Kennedy. This is the policy of
leaving desegregation, which is a
national commitment, to the con-
flict between private lawsuits and
local authorities. The cause of de-
segregation must cease to be a
Negro movement, blessed by white
politicians from the northern
states. It must become a national
movement to enforce national
laws, led and directed by the na-
tional government.
I think this is the direction in
which the President and his
brother, the attorney general, are
now moving. They should move
directly and boldly and take com-
mand of a cause which cannot now
be left to irresponsible people. If
it is still possible, and I think it
is, to hold and even to recover the
confidence of the Negroes in the
good faith of the whites, then this
is the basic principle by which to
do it. It is .to make plain by word
and deed that the Negroes are no
longer a weak and isolated minor-
ity trying to push the nation into-
doing what the national law and
American principles require it to
do.
Then, because the national power
is behind the movement toward
equality of status, that national
power, which will be more than
sufficient, can be exercised without
violence, with wisdom and with
restraint. For it is the very weak
rebels who feel that they must
resort to the extreme measures.
(c) 1963, The washington Post Co.

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