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June 26, 1963 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1963-06-26

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail,
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Civil Rights Movemen
At Point of No Returi

AY, JUNE 26, 1963


Negro Success Hinges
On Unity, Determination

THE UNITED STATES is, at the present
time, in the midst of a civil war.
On one side stands the American Negro who
desires the civil rights which for so long have
been denied to him. Opposing him are South-
ern racists and Northern bigots who desire,
at a minimum, the maintenance of the status
Although federal troops have and will be
used in this battle, they will not in the end
be the decisive factor. Whether or not the
Negro achieves citizenship in this country will
depend on the Negro himself.

are allowed to attend Cent
while most Negro childreng
and cannot attend school b
work to help support their f
the Negro advance out of t
better educational opportuniti
How can the Negro spare
to school without raising his
And to complete the circle, h
better job without more edu
The Negro can\ expect ve
aid from outside quarters. Ti
ment will, as it has been in th

The Negro population must form itself into from pushing too strenuousl
an effective army to fight for wh*t it right- pediency and because of acti
fully deserves. Already, the Negro has shown At the cost of nearly $5 mi
a willingness to use all effective means at his dith is now attending "Ole M
disposal in this war. for freedom. in the right direction, but o
and gradual one. The plight<
THE FIGHT both in the North and in the Negro has been scarcely impr
South is indeed a war, in the most literal The lessons, of Birmingh
sense of the word. For the concept of Negro Oxford as well as New Rochel
equality is one which is too radical to. be won will have to be repeated be
without a fierce and bitter fight. substantial gains can be mad
A number of men have died and many more
have gone to prison in behalf of this cause. ORGANIZATION and unity
Undoubtedly, many more will suffer before and maintained among t
the final goal is achieved. tion. By listening to the mode
Since the Southern whites have "law and ment officials, the Negro has
order" on their side and use it to imprison condition much in over a hu
and legally murder Negroes whenever it suits The Negro population pre
their convenience, the Negro must use all economic, political and if n
the methods at his command. bloc of over 19 million. On
The time for waiting and gradualism are numbers in an effective mar
over. Perhaps, at one time these methods to achieve this unity of action
might have been acceptable. But they have that he already has unity of
proved to be futile. Token school integration will be forthcoming.
and. token desegregation of public facilities Negroes have fought and di
have little meaning within the larger frame- country against external foe
work of the problem. crush the type of governmen
Now let him fight for what h
HOW IS the goal of equality furthered when for under the constitution aga
fifteen Negro children from fine homes -A
College Is For hinkin

tral High School
grow up in slums
ecause they must
amilies? How can
he slums without
the time to go
living standard?
how can he get a
ry little effective
he federal govern-
he past, be blocked
.y because of ex-
ve opposition.
llion James Meri-
Miss." It is a step
nly a very small
of the Mississippi
oved because of it.
am, Albany and
Lle and Englewood
fore any type of
y must be set up
he Negro popula-
rates and govern-
not improved his
ndred years.
sents a potential
necessary physical
rly by using his
nner can he hope
n-for it is certain
purpose-no gain
lied defending this
s who desired to
nt we live under.
is country stands
inst internal foes.

1HE PRESIDENT, as his recent
speeches show, is becoming
more and more deeply engaged in
the cause of equality of rights and
status for the American Negroes.
He is bound to find himself drawn
further into far-flung and as yet
by no means clearly-visible com-
mitments. For historical experi-
ence shows that there is, so to
speak, a point of no return in a
movement for the redress of griev-
ances. That point is where gradual
reform and token appeasement
become suddenly not only insuffi-
cient, but irritating: the long-
standing grievances, which have
been patiently endured, are sud-
denly felt to be intolerable. Then
instead of putting up with a little
done slowly, there is a demand
that much must be done suddenly.
For us, the point of no return
was marked and symbolized in
After the point of no return has
been passed, events are likely to
take a course which is disconcert-
ing to men ofgood will. As action
is taken to redress the most ugly
grievances, for example discrim-
ination in theuse of public facili-
ties and accommodations, the
sense of grievance does not die
down. On the contrary, it becomes
sharper. Thus, we shall almost
surely see that the administra-
tion's legislative proposals, though
just and essential, will be followed
by more, not less, pressure and
* * *
THIS, OF course, is also the
view of the convinced and con-
firmed segregationists, and indeed
of all die-hard conservatives. To
give in a little, say with token in-
tegration, is, they insist, to
strengthen the demand, by feeding
it, for complete integration. The
answer to those who think this
way is that; for a century, their
remedy has been tried in several
states. There is no longer any
doubt that it can no longer be
carried on. The brutal truth of
the matter had better be spelled
out: it is, that the rebellion of the
Negroes against segregation can-
not be suppressed, because the
Am'erican people as a whole will
not consent to the use of the vio-
lence which would be necessary to
suppress the rebellion. The fire
hoses and the police dogs and the
mass arrests have shocked the
country. Yet, they are a imere slap
on the wrist compared with what
would have to be done to restore
law and order on the basis of
complete segregation.
The legal disabilities of Negroes

are being dealt with by the judi-
ciary and the executive and pre-
sumably by the Congress. The re-
sistance of the die-hards has be-
come a lost cause, and there is a
place in history waiting for the
southern senator who takes the
lead in the dismantling of the
remaining legalized discrimina-
But, close at hand, there are al-
ready manifest the beginnings of
a demand not only for legal equal-
Ity and for equality of statusuin
public places, but for the sub-
stance of equality. The National
Urban League, which is an old
and respected organization, has
just spoken out powerfully on this
subject. What the Negroes are now
demanding are better schools, bet-
ter housing and better jobs.
FEW WILL say them nay. But
the hard truthis that, while the
Negroes are making these de-
mands, the country is in fact short
of good schools, good housing and
good jobs. This makes the Negro
problem part of a generalized na-
tional problem. By law and with
good will, segregation can be wiped
out in airports, bus depots, lunch
counters, movie theaters, public
parks and the like, without sub-
stantial {difficulties. But it is not
possible to desegregate all the
schools and universities and pro-
vide equal educational opportunity
for Negroes and whites. There are
not enough good schools. The
same is true of housing and of
jobs. The basic fact is that the pie,
which is supposed to be divided
equally, is too small.
In thinking about this, I am
tempted to look into the crystal
ball and to ask from what is dim-
ly visible there a question. Is the
rising discontent which is show-
ing itself among the 20 million
Negroes going to change in im-
portant ways the shape and pace
of American politics?
Big popular movements, such as
Populism in the last century, the
Square Deal and the New Deal in
this century, have had an explo-
sive nucleus of popular trouble and
anger - the bankruptcy of farm-
ers, the ruin of small businessmen,
the mass unemployment in the
cities. The Negroes, besides suf-
fering the disabilities of caste
prejudice, are a badly-injured
Does the crystal ball say, then,
that there will be a new popular
movement of internal develop-
ment and reform - without which
the substantial grievances of Ne-
groes cannot be redressed?
(C) 1963, The Washington Post Co.

Location, Culture Mold Ideas

BEER IS FOR DRINKIN', songs are for
singin', dates are for funnin' around, and
college is for thinkin'. In theory, every college
student will agree with this simple bit of
"wisdom." In application, it's quite a different
story. Then, the college student agrees only
up to a point. "College is for thinkin'?" Well,
not exactly, he will say.
College is for coming to class and taking
good notes; for careful study of the textbook.
College is for making good grades on exams.
College is for getting a degree, since without
it a good job is impossible.
Thinkin'? It's not necessary, he will say;
all it takes is a good memory, to get the
grades, to get the degree.
If you agree with this college student, your
college education has been, or will be, a total
waste. College is for thinking? It is not for
memorizing facts by rote; for making in-
dividual studies of biology, mathematics, his-
tory, or philosophy.
THE FACTS become like individual pieces
of an intricate mosaic, scattered across
the floor of an auditorium. The pieces them-
selves are meaningless-only when they are
arranged into a picture do they take on
Learning must be an active process! It en-
tails analyzing each individual fact to ascer-
tain its truth, and then discovering why it is
so. The mind cannot be just a sponge, soaking
up anything that is wet. This is an inanimate
existence and man is a living entity! %
An educated person is not necessarily the
one with the most degrees, nor is he always the
one with the "A" and "B" academic record.'
To often this is the result of mere fact-
The educated person has the ability to dis-
cover the true nature of. what he observes;
the ability, then, to integrate it; in short,
he has the ability to think.
This is the purpose of college-not to get
the best grades or the highest paying job.
T HINKING IS NOT EASY; it requires a con-
certed effort. But the joy of actually think-
ing far surpasses the effort. True, a person
can muddle through some way without it.
But, in order for life to have any real mean-
ing, it is a vital necessity.
Editorial Staff
RONALD WILTON ....................... Co-Editor
PHILIP SUTIN.. ..............Co-Editor
DAVE GOOD .. ................. Co-Sports Editor
CHARLES TOWLE .............Co-Sports Editor
RUTH HETMANSKI ......,.............. Night Editor
JEAN TENANDER .................,.Night Editor
ANDREF'W ORLIN....................... Night Editor

Thinking is necessary from the very defini-
tion of man as a rational animal. By refusing
to think, the rational part is eliminated, leav-
ing only the animal.
Students have the ability to reason; some
more than others. Reasoning is the drawing
of logical conclusions from a series of facts.
But thinking is the prerequisite to reasoning.
How can you draw a logical conclusion with-
out understanding the facts?
Re-examine your college career. Have you
been kidding yourself into supposing that
you're learning? Do you ever think? As Shake-
speare said, "To thine own self be true."
-The Duquesne Duke
r Advertising
HANG YOUR HEAD in sorrow. No longer will
we be able to look forward with miserly
glee to the few days each semester when rep-
resentatives of tobacco companies pass sample
cigarettes to the eager hands of nicotine-
hungry students.
Most of the major cigarette companies an-
nounced Wednesday that they would discon-
tinue advertising in1 college newspapers, maga-
zines and football programs. The reasoning
behind this is that smoking is an adult habit.
To avoid confusion and misconceptions in the
public mind as to the position of tobacco com-
panies on this issue, they will discontinue ad-
vertising. This policy will also exclude hiring
of cigarette representatives on campus and
passing out of free samples. As far as we know,
no tests have ever been given to determine
when most people start smoking and for what
reasons. It seems, however, that most people
have begun to smoke before coming to college
and that the remaining smokers do not begin
to smoke because of advertising. For those who
do smoke, tobacco advertisers are sometimes
It would seem, then that the tobacco indus-
tries are "cutting off their noses to spite their
faces." This new policy may create good will,
but it is doubtful if it will sell more cigarettes-
and this is what the tobacco companies aim
to do. We encourage tobacco companies to
realize the maturity of college students and to
continue past advertising practice.
New KChallenge
THE UNIVERSITY'S Clements Library has
long been considered an historian's gold
mine. In the stately building on South Univer-
sity is housed one of the finest collections of

Daily Correspondent
RAPID CITY, South Dakota-
Bridging the gulf between the
Great Plains and the Rockies is
the oft forgotten state of South
Dakota. Often pictured in the
minds eye as a desolute land, it
is ignored by the molders of our
nation for being too sparsely pop-
ulated and too far away from
anywhere to be of significance.
Politically it is Republican, or
so the story goes, and by tradition
its farming population is intro-
verted and conservative, or so the
story goes.
But such is not really South
Dakota. True, it has few people,
and cities of size are few and
far between, but here is a state
that comes closer, to being the
American weathervane than pro-
verbial Maine or populous New
York or marginal Illinois.
* * *
kota is brief but colorful, It bears
many scars of its history even
today. These are the Black Hills
where Sitting Bull rampaged, the
vast ranches, where Teddy Roose-
velt hid himself away. This was
a frontier long after Santa Fe and
Denver and San Francisco were
well settled cities. This is a beau-
tiful land, for those who will go
out of their way to oehold it, and
here arewonderful leopler
The state boasts geographical
extremes. On the eastern border
lies Sioux Falls, a small metro-
polis, bustling with activity. Close
to both Minnesota and Iowa,
Sioux Falls proudly retains its
identity with South Dakota, and
it haughtily dares its neighbors
to challenge its self-proclaimed
supremacy. Meanwhile, far across
the state, Rapid City lies peace-
fully in the foothills of the Rock-
ies. Unlike busy Sioux Falls, Rapid
City is a more easy going place,
far flung in the Western tradition,
and oozing a particular charm that
suggests A blend of many cultures.
Here one will find the four races
working side-by-side in harmony.
Indians come and go everywhere;
Orientals hold many of the city's
white collar jobs; Negroes are on
equal footing with everyone else.
Rapid City is a place of peace and
tranquility, keeping up with the
times without being affected by
The citizens of South Dakota, I
think, are impressed by the sig-
nificance of the four famous stone
faces which are carved on Mt.
Rushmore some 25 miles into they
black forests southwest of Rapid
City. A replica of the monument
adorns the state's license plates,
and they refer to it as "The Shrine
of Democracy."
They identify with it as they go
about in the events of today. To
them, the events in Alabama and
Mississippi are very unreal. I talk-
ed with several who fervently hop-
ed that the newspaper accounts
were grossly exaggerated. "This
cannot happen in America," one
elderly Negro woman said to me.
"My people are not so thirsty for
justice that they themselves would

have preceived the problem per-
haps better than those who are
dealing with it.
* * *
THUS I was interested to sound
out some South Dakotans on poli-
tics; perhaps they are Americans
far enough removed from the bias-
ed controversies that cloud our
political scene to see what really
is going on. I recalled that South
Dakota has not remained in a
political rut. It's history is diverse.
Though most often it votes Re-
publican,nit was a strong pocket
of support for the Populist move-
ment and William Jennings Bryan
and Robert LaFollette. Today it
sports two United States Senators
of differing callings. On the one
hand we find the, conservative Re-
publican wheelhorse Sen. Karl H.
Mundt, and on the other hand we
find his junior collegue, a Demo-
crat and former governor who
most recently served the President
as d irector of the administration's
Food - for - Peace program, Sen.
George McGovern, an out-and-
out liberal.
In this framework, one might
expect South Dakota's politics to
be equally diverse, but such is not
the case. South Dakotas identify
closely with the spirit of Mt. Rush-
more. They are distressed to the
point of being alarmed about
Cuba. Several persons remarked
that President Kennedy has fallen
down badly inrforeign affairs and
has "cost us respect all over the
Citizens who admitted that they
had voted for Kennedy in 1960
and/or McGovern in 1962, flatly
stated that they would vote for
any Republican who might oppose
the President next year. "At least
the Republicans under Eisen-
hower preserved America's dig-
nity," one old man, who described
himself as a "Woodrow Wilson
Democrat," said.
As for the Republican Party it-
self, there doesn't seem to be any
great solidarity as to a candidate
who impresses the gi eat bulk of
South Dakotans. Sen. Barry M.
Goldwater of Arizuna finds per-
haps the most enthusiastic sup-
port, though how extensive it is
remains to be seen. Other Repub-
licans often mentioned are Gov.
Romney, Kentucky's Sen. Thrus-
ton B. Morton and, surprisingly,
Minnesota's ex-Rep. Walter H.
Judd. The candidacy of Gov.
Rockefeller is widely discounted on
two factors: His similarity in views
to those of Kennedy and his 'un-
fortunate" remarriage. And while
South Dakotans themselves do not
seem to oppose Rockefeller they
gravely echo the words that stop-
ped the late Sen. Robert A. Taft
of Ohio: "He can't win."
* * *
AS FOR KENNEDY himself, his
fate in South Dakota is hard to
see. It seems generally agreed that
he will not carry the state. Nixon
carried it comfortably in 1960,
and the President is in hot water
for unpopular farm and conser-
vation measures that he has pro-
In South Dakota, the political

high resolve is dimmed, if we trail
in the dust the golden hopes of
-Theodore Roosevelt,
in 'The Free Citizen'
Theirs is a concern for Amer-
ica's posture and stature at home
and abroad, and that is an issue
which cuts across the traditional
lines of political philosophies. It
will dictate the political actions of
South Dakota in the years to

View Albany Struggle from Jail

To the Editor:
T AM WRITING this from a cell
in the Albany, Georgia city jail,
in the hopes of letting students
know what the Southern civil
rights struggle, and Southern
"law" enforcement look like from
this side of the bars. Right after
school was over I came down here
to work with the Student Non-
Violent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC). Because Albany is a com-
pletely segregated and white-
dominated city, because city of-
ficials refuse to negotiate and be-
cause of the mood of the Negro
community marches and demon-
strations will be the only way to
wi freedom here. We have divid-
ed the city into districts and until
yesterday had several staff mem-
bers in each area talking to people,
canvassing, holding meetings and
organizing demonstrations.
At present there are about 100
people in jail, plus 19 of our 26
staff members. Pritchett's (chief
of police) tactics seem to be to
pick off all the leaders, no matter
how flimsy the charge may be,
in order to prevent massive dem-
onstrations. A couple of days ago
three staff members were arrested
for distributing handbills calling
for a mass meeting. The night be-
fore last, 300 people started march-
ing in one area. Twenty six were
arrested and two white boys on

our staff were beaten. One of
them was beaten again yesterday
in jail.
* * *
BECAUSE OF the demonstra-
tions, sit-ins and arrest yesterday
we called for an emergency mass
meeting in the evening. I was
canvassing in a residential neigh-
borhood with two other white
girls when we were arrested for
investigation of vagrancy. We laid
down and were dragged off to the
detective cars in sight of a crowd
of people. I think that this may
have done more to arouse them
than all the talking we have done
in the last few days.
There are sevenyof us in the
cell now. One girl was arrested for
"disorderly conduct" as she led
a demonstration of children. Two
others were picked up this morn-
ing for "vagrancy" as they crossed
a street to attend a mass meeting
in a church. The cell is about
eight feet by eight feet with 4
bunks and one mattress. As this is
the only cell for white women
they'll be bringing some drunks
in soon and I would like to finish
this letter first. They have taken
most of the white guys and many
of the Negroes, including all the
little kids, out to one of the
county jails, where the chances
of beatings by police are much
higher. One 12 year old Negro girl
was here yesterday.h

One of the most discouraging
things here is the separation from
the other "freedom riders," from
those sent to the counties, but
even more, from Negroes who are
in the other side of the jail. We
can't see each other but we yell
back and forth and sing freedom
songs to keep up spirits; "I ain't
going to let Chief Pritchett turn
me round." All of us are on a
hunger strike.
-Susan Wender, '65 LSA
More Classes . .
To the Editor:
CONCERNING Ellen Silverman's
editorial on the need for more
classes, I would 'say her essay is
a prime example of the non-fac-
tually oriented opinion. She cites
no authorities. She cites no real
surveys. We are expected to accept
her opinion, that University stu-
dents need more classes, merely
because it. is tei opinion.
She claims that she is taking
18 hours of classes and doesn't
find it too difficult, and therefore
apparently such a load shouldn't
be too. difficult for anyone else. I
wouldtsuggest that perhaps 'the
only student on this campus who
definitely needs more classes is
Miss Silverman, for she is cer-
tainly wasting her time writing
-John Kuenzel, '64
Immature Stunts...
To the Editor:
In her letter to the editor Miss
Doris Walsey protests the return
to the campus of Jim Crow in the
form of Greek-letter society stunts.
Her concern is honest but, I'm
afraid, somewhat misdirected.
Miss Walsey over-reacts because
of the connotation of the Negro
masqueraders when, because of
their immaturity, such demon-
strators would be equally offensive
as Indians or Italians. The issue
is not that they dress up as Ne-
groes, but that they parade for a
spring dance at all. I find their
action immature, but since not
clearly outrageous, I also find it
their business.
-J. Ethan Jacobs, '65L
Court Ruling
To the Editor:
Everyone must recognize the
recent Supreme Court ruling as


"You Don't Understand, Bay--You're Supposed
To Just Shuffle Along"
I ' y

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