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October 26, 1958 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1958-10-26

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iir £irki gun Bailg
Sixt y-Ninth Year
EDruED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTs OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PuBucATIONs
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. & ANN ARBOR, MicH. * Pbone IO 2-3241

len Qp~nonsAre Fre

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writeri
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1958 NIGHT EDITOR: LANE VANDERSLICE

New Worlds To Conquer:
The Race for Space

IN THE 16TH CENTURY, Spain and Portugal
were engaged in a struggle to control a new
world. An overt clash was averted by appealing'
to an impartial, international authority-the
Pope-for an equable compromise. The Pope
split the new world in two parts and gave each
country one of these halves.
This was an "ideal" solution, but it ran into
one major snag: other countries like England,
Holland and France also wanted a share of the
new world and soon developed the naval power
necessary to stake out their claims. And several
wars were fought over the issue of possessions
in this world,
Man has now discovered a new world and
has begun the process of conquering it. This
new world is Space.
AT PRESENT, a situation quite similar to
the Spain - Portugal one has developed.
There are only two nations which show any
active intense interest in Space and, more im-
portant than interest, they are the most capable
of actually translating interest into achieve-
ment.
These two countries, the United States and
Russia, presumably could reach some bilateral
agreement on Space or they could go to war
over it-either out in Space or back here on
Earth. But the first possibility seems more
likely. This solution would also be "ideal," for
a while. But we should have learned from our
experience with our Atom secrets that, even
without espionage, one nation cannot enjoy a
monopoly on scientific information for very

long. It is only a matter of time until England
and then other nations start entering the Race
For Space.
If colonization of Space follows the usual
colonization procedures - including the "first
come, first serve" basis for ownership-it is
likely to follow the usual colonization procedure
in other areas. In other words, colonization
tends to lead to conflicts and wars between the
colonizing powers. Admittedly, it sounds fan-
tastic to talk of Space ships having dog-fights
on the far side of Jupiter, but there was a time,
a few centuries ago, when it would have seemed
equally fantastic for Columbus to propose to
sail off into the infinite void at the other end
of the Atlantic.
HOWEVER, this "fantatic" situation can be
avoided by the simple expedient of not
following the usual colonization procedures.
All of Space should be placed under the juris-
diction of the United Nations.
All nations interested ought to be granted
the right to explore space and set up scientific
observing posts, but this should be done under
UN authority. If the time ever comes when
any area of space has commercial possibilities,
or if someone wants to colonize it, this too
ought to be done only under UN license with
the UN retaining ultimate ownership and
jurisdiction over it. This way, perhaps, the
United Nations can maintain peace in the new
world-something they have not yet succeeded
in doing in the old world,
-JAMES SEDER

UlY Stirs Up Con troversy

SGC Election

CIRCUMSTANCES have made it imperative
that the coming Student Government Coun-
cil election be handled a good deal better than
it was last spring.
The Council cannot afford the same kind of
election mismanagement. Last year, unmanned
poll booths left opportunity for ballot box
stuffing. Nothing was done by the Joint Ju-
diciary Council, which had the power to dis-
qualify candidates for rule violations, although
questionable ballots were disregarded by count
night officials.
In an attempt to insure that future viola-
tions would be dealt with, the SGC Credentials
and Rules Committee was formed. From the
beginning, it was given the authority to rec-
ommend candidate disqualification to the
Council. And at Wednesday's Council meeting
the committee's power was further extended
to include the fining of votes of candidates
whose violations are not so offensive as to war-
rant their disqualification. The committee may
subtract, at its own discretion, any number
of first place votes.-
IN THEORY, the plan appears sound. es-
pecially as compared to money fining system
CAPITAL COMMENTARY:
Ike GoW ro
By WILLIAM S. WHITE
WASHINGTON--President Dwight D. Eisen-
hower is risking the substance of his criti-
cal last two years in the White House in try-
ing to become a "give 'em hell" politician in
the Congressional campaign.
Moreover, he is the wrong man in the wrong
war at the wrong time and in the wrong places.
This is not really his fight. First, it is not a
truly national election, but only a series of
highly mixed local and regional contests on
issues more parochial than national. Second,
he owes nothing to the very GOP wing for
which le is turning himself inside out in the
evening of his public career.
And even if it were his fight, his tactics are
not the tactics that have won for him the far
greater fights he has won in the past. Twice
he beat the Democrats by being exactly what
he is not being now - himself. He is not a
genuine partisan, antd never was. He is not a
"regular" Republican, and never was. He is
not even a politician - as he himself has
often said - and never was.
It is not possible to say that he is doing
the Congressional Republicans no good any-
where. It may even be that he has arrested,
here and there, what had seemed a pell-mell
rush to the Democrats.
IT IS ENTIRELY CLEAR, however, that in
highly critical races he is doing Republican
nominees more harm than good in obediently
-but not convincingly-presenting himself as
a "tough' Republican partisan flinging epi-
thets like "radical" at the Democrats.
He is also gravely injuring his own wing of
his party - the "modern" or liberal Republi-
cans,.
All this is made perfectly plain, for one 11-
lustration, in New York, There, Nelson A.
Rockefeller, the modern Republican candidate
for governor, has publicly if politely disavowed

which was proposed but-fortunately voted down
by SGC. Intelligently, the Council did not set
a minimum or maximum number of votes
which could be confiscated so as to allow for
any and all situations.
Much of the work which might fall to the
committee can be diminished by competent
election direction and the selection of honest
and thinking polling booth officials. Last year
at closing hours, booths were left unattended
and ballots left in the open. Instances were
reported where those students in charge of
the polls made deals, "Let me put in ballots
for this candidate, you can stick in a few for
that one." It was reported that some pollsters
exerted pressure on voters to vote for certain
candidates, and in at least one instance, a bal-
lot which was not completed was completed by
the poll booth official. The number of these
instances would tend to refute any possibility
of these occasions being "freak." Rather, a
slip-shod job at the least and dishonest prac-
tices at the most, turned the election into the
farce that it was. It is ceratinly hoped that a
duplicalon of last year's proceedings will be
averted. The Council does not have a great
deal of face left to lose.
--JUDITH DONER
riPolitically
The "new" Eisenhower is bad news to the
moderns, who can live at all only with some
Democratic support - and who can have no
national spokesman of any real power after
the Eisenhower retirement in 1960 unless Mr.
Rockefeller wins now in New York.
And the "new' Eisenhower is also bad news
to the President himself in two ways: It is
creating unnecessary animosities among the
Congressional Democrats, who on the voting
record have often been more useful to the
President than the Republicans. And it is set-
ting up a condition in which the regulars will
control almost everything in sight within the
GOP once, the November spasm is passed,
Except for such possible islands as might be
established by a Rockefeller victory in New
York, the regulars will have liquidated what-
ever is left of the Eisenhower wing before the
new Congress is two months old. They will have
done this regardless of which party is then in
control there,
F OR THE PRESIDENT, by heeding the regu-
lars and staking his prestige in a non-Presi-
dential campaign, has deeply compromised the
powerful independent position he has held so
long in the GOP. He is now only trying to do
what Vice-President Richard M. Nixon is do-
ing - and he is not doing it nearly so well.
He is doing it badly for two reasons: His
heart is not in it; and he is no Nixon on the
stump, just as he is no Harry S. Truman. Nixon
and Truman can dish it out and can take it.
The President cannot do either very easily. The
image now being offered of a "fighting" Eisen-
hower simply won't go down. The hard words
are too often accompanied by apologetic smiles.
All the same. President Eisenhower has
adopted the line of his junior, Nixon. Thus the
whole Republican national leadership has been
turned over to the faction made up of the
orthodox Republicans, like the Vice-President,
Sando henmtanr ~ ~;r.,,tLc

Hope for Future .. .
By DAVID TARR
Daily Associate Editor
IT HAS BEEN only a mere 13 years now since the United Nations
came into being and still much too soon to render any really definite
judgment for or against the United Nations. And while it is equally
difficult to fully assess the organization's progress, one thing can be
said -with assurance: the United Nations has not been a failure.
In examining the UN's usefulness and purpose, perhaps the most
frequently neglected point is the multi-purpose role that organization
must assume in an increasingly complex, interdependent and unstable
world.
It has been the tendency of critics of the UN to picture it in black
and white terms: has it succeeded or failed to prevent war and produce
harmony in the world? The question is legitimate, but to ask no others,
to fail to realize that the UN has social and economic as well as
political orientations would neglect a good part of the work the UN is
suited to handle.
The UN is young. but the concept of international organization

goes back far, being dated as earl;
field. In the 140 plus years since,
the idea of nations grouping to-
gether for their mutual benefit has
slowly grown, has passed through
hard and trying stages, until to-
day international organization is
an accepted but very essential
method of dealing with the prob-
lems of this age.
This idea of a working body-in
this case the UN-that can serve
nations in furthering their own,
and in many cases, other people's
welfare, should not be confused
with an overly optimistic, glowing
and naive belief that all countries
will cease their bickering, renounce
their special interests and live to-
gether in sweetness and light.
It is rather a recognition of the
need for some central organiza-
tion which can be used as a sound-
ing board for nations with com-
plaints, which can draw together
representatives of opposing claims
where they can shout instead of
shoot at each other, where inter-
national problems such as educa-
tion, better health, better food,
better homes, better labor condi-
tions, human advancement and
human rights can be approached
and perhaps solved.
INDEED, IT CANNOT be denied
that the UN has not solved the
sensational and serious political
difficulties in the world and de-
livered a brave new world from
one of chaos. But it has made
strides in resolving to a greater or
lesser degree some of them and
has gone even further in non-
political problems,
The UN was conceived and has
been until recent years mostly an
Atlantic Aliance dominated or-
ganization. It is only with the
surge of independence by the
smaller and newer states in the
world that the UN has begun to
function as something approach-
ing a world representative body.
This has and will continue to
cause anguish for Western nations
who have become used to doing
what they please in the General
Assembly.
As these states emerge in im-
.ortance' in theUNitis ti, t,

as 1815 by some students of this

DAG HAMMERSKJOLD .
. U. Secretary-General

DAG HAMMARSKJOLD:
A Changing Concept of

By NAN MARKEL
Daily Staff Writer
UNITED NATIONS Secretary-
General Dag Hammarksjold's
decisions are strictly his own, and
they must be made with principles
and not policy expediency in mind.

Since Hammarskjold accepted
the post of secretary-general, his
concept of his role and the deci-
sions he has to make has changed.
When he first came into office on
April 10, 1953, he pictured himself
as a higher civil servant. As Ham-

RED CHINA:
Recognition Hinges
Upon Quemoy, Matsu'

By CHARLES KOZOLL
Daily staft Writer
UEMOY and Matsu-manifes-
tations of Red China's aggres-
sive intentions in Asia - have
added a new slant to the question
of recognition of the Peiping gov-
ernment and their admission to
the United Nations.
While 45 nations still maintain
their faith in the Formosa strong-
hold, 19 nations have affirmed the
stability of Mao Tse Tung and his
grip on the mainland of China,
However, the recent attacks by the
Communists in the Formosa Strait
raise doubts as to how long the 19
nations will continue to maintain
a favorable opinion of the Peiping
government.
Certain neutral nations, includ-
ing India, have been led to believe
that the Communists would agree
to a type of peaceful co-existence.
But in restating American foreign
policy views on this point, Secre-
tary of State John Foster Dulles
noted, "the ultimate goal of the
Red Chinese is control of Asia."
His examples were Korea and now
the Strait area.
* *
THESE aggressive actions have
served to re-affirm the State De-
partment's view that recognition
of Mao Tse Tung and his possible
admission to the UN could only
bring harmful effects to the free
world bloc of nations,
Optimistically regarding the fu-

assumptions of the United States
and her "in-group." More than
realize their stability, neutrals feel
it imperative that Mas Tse Tung's
group be granted admission to the
UN.
As an aid to diplomatic negotia-
tions,the presence of the Red
Chinese would break down gaps
which hinder limited cooperation.
Cooperative discussion which could
involve disarmament and control
of atomic development is some-
thing to be desired.
Recent news from the General
Assembly's political committee re-
ports that the Chinese are within
reach of a very strong atomic
weapons program-a fact which
easily makes them the predomi-
nant military power in Asia.
This fact alone serves as a
,warning that the Communists are
no longer the protectorate of the
Soviet Union, but a. world power
to parley and negotiate with.
* 91
THE CHINESE have given indi-
cation that Moscow no longer
dominates activities in Peiping,
that agreements could be reached
with the West, that trade could be
beneficial to all parties. A seat in
the General Assembly and possibly
in the no-longer effective Security
Council could be influential in
widening the China-Russia gap
and moving the Asian government
closer to "free-world" opinions,

,
w
J
1
"i
J
1
t
t
t

. Or Relic of Past?
By JOHN WEICHER
Daily City Editor
IN THE WAKE of World War I, the victorious allies set up an inter-
national organization to insure that future wars would be avoided by
means of concerted action against any aggressors. But one of the
principal powers, the United States, remained outside, and as a result
the League of Nations had little effect-twenty years later the world
was at war again.
Consequently, in the wake of World War II, the victorious allies
again set up an international organization to insure that future wars
would be avoided by means of concerted action against any aggressors,
This time all the main powers joined. But, thirteen years later, the
United Nations, like its predecessor, has had little effect; it is con-
tinually bypassed by the great powers when really important matters
are under consideration,
This year, the world witnessed a graphic example of this in the
Middle East. While Secretary-General Dag Hammerskjold was busily
assuring the world that affairs in that area were strictly internal
matters, the United States, at the direct request of President Chamoun,
acted in Lebanon; the British, at
the request of King Hussein, acted
in Jordan; the Iraqis rebelled
against King Feisal and assas-
L e d rsh psinated him. The United Nations
de s idid nothing.
The inaction is characteristic.
In its thirteen years of existence,
marskjold sa Inegt to guided the United Nations has seldom
by a reasonable mandate from his acted decisively (or even acted at
byricpesonabele mnaerom this ll)on major problems. The shape
principles, the members of the of the world has changed radically
it was natural for the secretary- in the period of its existence, but
general to advocate a "quiet di- it has contributed little or nothing
plomacy." Technical and even apo- to that change,
litical, his background includes* *
degrees in law and political econ- IN PART, this flaw is due to the
omy received from Sweden's Upp- form of the UN. It is simply a
sala University and a session of collection of national representa-
teaching economics at the Univer- tives under one roof; few of those
sity of Stockholm, representatives have any particu-
He served as Secretary-General lar interest in making an organi-
of the Swedish government's zation such as the UN work.
finance department from 1936 to Under these circumstances, it is
1945 and then entered the diplo- perhaps not surprising that UN
matic service as a financial spe- has few accomplishments
cialist for the Foreign Office. In But the weakness is more basic
1949 he became Assistant Foreign than this. The UN was conceived
Minister and in 1951 Deputy Min- in the Concert of Europe plan,
ister. with the five major allies of World
Although Hammarskjold has War II uniting to eliminate any
spent much time in public life he possibility of aggression by an-
has never run for office. Rather other power - particularly per-
than a brilliant politician, he has many. The assumption was that
always been known as a mediator these five powers would always be
and an expert at a compromise. on the same side of vital questions.
But recently he has been becoming Few assumptions have been
less and less the "quiet diplomat." more wrong. Agreement between
the major powers has been, at
ON HIS ELECTION to a second best, a sometime thing. The prob-
five-year term as Secretary-Gen- lem is not simply that of the veto
eral last year, Hammarskjold told power, any rewriting of the UN
the United Nations General As- Charter would not settle matters.
sembly: "I do not believe that the There is a fundamental dichotomy
Secretary-General should be asked between the Western powers and
to act, by member states, if no the Communists that no interna-
guidance for his actions is to be tional organization can bridge.
found either in the Charter or in The Communists have recognised
the decisions of the main organs this, recognized the futility of any
f the United Nations; within the attempts at compromise through
limits thus set, however, I believe it the UN, and have simply used
to be his duty to use his office and, thatUogandahasawpon in d
indeed, the machinery of the Or- that organization as a weapon in
ganization to its utmost capacity

4

A

each stage by practical circun-
stances,
"On the other hand," he said,
stating his changing impression of
his role of world leader, "I believe
that it is in keeping with the
philosophy of the Charter that the
secretary-general should be ex-
pected to act also without such
guidance, should this appear to
him nnessrv "in nrer + oher

IN RESPONSE, the West has
taken notice of political reality,
formed private alliances among its
members, and worked out its
strategy outside the UN.
Like the Concert of Europe, any
international organization can
work only as long as its members
are willing to make it work. In
the world today, the Communist
countries at least hnvA memn-

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