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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
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)AY, MAY 2; 1959
NIGHT EDITOR: CHARLES KOZOLL
Conflicting Political Philosophies
Jnderlie Michigan's Financial Chaos
HIS EVENING'S concert by the Philadelphia Orchestra and Choral
Union Chorus in Hill Auditorium was that rare bird among May
Festival concerts -- a program entirely of unhackneyed masterworks of
the 20th century. Indeed, the audience was treated to no less than
two Ann Arbor premieres and one United States premiere. The end
result'of all this, however, was distinctly less than anyone had a right
The concert began with a case in point. "Flos Campi" by the late
Ralph Vaughan' Williams is a work carefully constructed within the
frame of aprecisely.pr(portioned sonority In a pred-ceto the scow$
the composer lists specific limits for 'the size of the performing body.
The composer says, for example, that there are to be "not more
than six" for either first or second violins, "not more than four" violas.
.and so forth; that the choir should consist of 20 to 26 singers: three or
four first sopranos, three or four second sopranos, and so forth. To
have bothered to be so explicit. obviously: must mean that he consid-
ered definite orchestra-vocal weights and colors to be essential to the
* * *
THIS EVENING'S performance brought a choral force of some 350
singers together with an orchestral complement doubled and tripled
at random. Having heard "Flos Campi" previously as performed by a
;group of the specified number leaves me in no doubt that the com-
poser knew best what he was about. Any performance, I suppose, faces
its interpretational hazards, but willful distortions of this sort are, to my
PERHAPS emergency federal aid is the only
way left to resolve the state's fiscal mess.
The Legislature headed home for the week-
end yesterday without solving the problem --
and there is no solution in prospect.
Perhaps the soundest proposal offered dur-
ing the controversy over the issue was the
suggestion on" the Senate floor Wednesday aft-
ernoon, "Why don't we- go home early today
so we can get some rest and approach this
thing fresh tomorrow morning?" But even this
proposal was defeated.
JE FRIGHTENING aspect of the situation
is the paradoxical nature of any solution.
The state must have money. Politicians and
newspapers have been trumpeting about "pay-
less paydays" and "crash day" since the be-
ginning of the year.
The time has unquestionably arrived.
There is ,ver $177 million in the state treas-
uries; but all but' $23 million of this total is
earmarked money. This earmarked money is
either constitutionally committed to certain
specific purposes, the personal savings of state
employees - in trust- funds - which is en-
trusted to the state treasurer for investment,
or federal grants for specific purposes. This
money cannot legally or morally be touched.
This leaves $23 million to pay the state's
bills through May 15. The state's bills during
this period will total $117 million. (A similarly
precarious situation would develop even if the
state could somehow scrape by until May 15.)
Barring federal aid or other deus ex machina
solutions, ,there is, only one place to get the,
money - the Veterans Trust Fund. The Vets
Fund differs from the other trust money held
by the state treasurer: it is state money, not.
money contributed by the veterans. The various
proposals to mortgage or liquidate the fund are
not, as: it might seem, unfair to the veterans.
The fund is used to pay veterans compensa-
tions of various sorts - these payments would
not be jeopardized -by this -legislative action -
The veterans would continue to receive their
payments (out of the general fund of the state,
instead of the Vets., Fund) 'and both parties
are pledged to the- restoration of the fund.
In -February; one legislator explained why
such a fund would not pass then, and his ana-
lysis apparently still holds true: many of the
legislators were scared of the opposition to the
measure expressed by the leaders of several of
the major veterans groups.
is necessary. The Republicans in the Senate
have decided that the logical solution would
be to tie both issues together and solve them
both at once.
This would be fine except that the Republi-
cans in the Legislature disagree with the gov-
ernor, the Legislature's Democrats and Ann
Arbor Republican Representative George W.
Sallade so completely that no compromise is
immediately in sight.
HERE LIES the second major complication.
The problem is two-fold. Many of the con-
servative legislative Republicans have a hatred
of the Governor which is nearly pathological.
It would be a charity to think that they were
merely delaying reaching a compromise with
the Governor until Williams received sufficient
unfavorable publicity to ruin his presidential
chances and destroy his political power in the
However, even aside from this, there is a
serious problem blocking a compromise. The
honestly-held political convictions of the dom-
inant Republican group in the Legislature are
extremely conservative. The honestly-held poli-
tical convictions of the Governor, and the
Legislative Democrats, are mderately liberal.
There is a fantastically large gap between
these two views. Ever since Gov. Williams took
office in 1948, there has been constant friction
between these two groups. But until now a
showdown has been avoided by stop gap taxa-
tion measures ("Michigan's- patch-work tax
crisis" is a nationally-known phrase).
BUT THE TAX structure won't take much
more patching. Some kind of showdow is
inevitable - and after that a major reform of
the tax structure.
But here lies another major complication.
Republican Representative Rollo Conlin;
chairman of the House tax committee headed
a non-partisan citizen's study committee to'
This committee came up with an apparently
fair and intelligent plan. Thus far, there has
been only one result of this group's work com-
ing from Republicans: two GOP legislators
wrote a letter to Michigan State University's
president, John Hannah, recommending the
firing of a faculty member who had helped
write the committee's final report and includ-
ed an almost universally accepted economic
principle - taxes tend to redistribute wealth.
This, the legislators concluded, was Marxist
doctrine; so, Hannah must fire the man.
Presumably, these men were perfectly sin-
cere. It is somewhat difficult to imagine that
these gentlemen will ever become reconciled
to' the New Deal, let alone the Fair Deal -
or Governor Williams,
THESOLUTION to this problem would be
to try, as best as possible, to reconcile their
differences until the next election. Then the
voters could decide.
But here lies the basic complication.
The majority of the voters of the state have
in six consecutive elections favored Governor
Williams - and, presumably, his policies. But
the- state voting districts are severely gerry-
mandered. The conservative Republicans are
entrenched in power in the Legislature. And
a moderate liberal - whether Democrat or Re-
publican seems destined to occupy the "front
THE ONLY SOLUTION seems to be emer-
gency federal aid - even the disaster is
political and not natural. By controlling the
state's purse strings, the President - or the
Secretary of Interior - could de facto run the
state. The squabbling Governor and Legisla-
ture would become mere puppets. The state
would be well run - Michigan has an excel-
lent civil service.
In a few years when the present political
generation is replaced, a constitutional con-
vention could be called - and Michigan could
formulate an effectively functioning govern-
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PROFESSOR, STUDENTS COMMENT:
West Germans Favor Reunifiation
DURING TBAT same month, the immediacy
of the crisis was postponed by the over-
whelming response of Michigan industry to the
Governors' plea that they pay their taxes early
(a procedure which cost these businesses a
great deal of money which otherwise could be
profitably invested). But this source is now ex-
hausted. Many of these companies have al-
ready pre-paid: taxes through June.
But while a cash windfall such as the Vets
Fund proposal would certainly relieve the im-
mediate pressure, even this proposal - which
it appears won't even pass - would not "solve"
the problem., The Vets Fund contains slightly
over $43 million dollars. This, added to the
$23 million the state already has, would make.
$66 million -- only a little over half of the
state's outstanding obligations. But the. state
could probably scrape by with this amount -
if it knew that additional, tax revenues were
BUT HERE lies the first major complication.
.Last Wednesday night the Governor' spoke
informally to the heads -of the various state
department heads. In a "non-political" history
of the crisis, the governor made the point that
the generous action of industry might have
actually hurt the state situation. It gave the
Legislature a feeling - of security, and all the
while the situation was rapidly deteriorating.
The February money could not be used to pay
all state obligations; it had to be conserved for.
the most pressing and this built up increasing
pressure of unpaid state obligations.
Temporary cash is not enough for a perman-
ent solution - in the form of more tax revenue
By PHHP SHERMAN
Daily Staff Writer
4o.,German government can
renounce the right of the re-
pressed portion of the German
nation to decide their fate freely
SUPPORT of reunification, Prof.
James K. Pollock, chairman of
the political science department
said, is the basic fact of German
political life. No party can succeed
that rejects it. The party of Chan-
cellor Konrad Adenauer, the Chris-
tian Democratic Union, is of course
in favor of reunification as are
the Social Democrats, the princi-
pal opposition party. Prof. Pollock
pointed out that, in his opinion,
an overwhelming majority of West
Germans support the ideal.
Amplifying Prof. Pollock's ob-
servation were two German law
students at the University. Helmut
G. Alexy, Grad., said there "was
no doubt" of support for reunifica-
tion, but posed the question of how
far Germans would go for reunifi-
cation, since it will probably mean
lower living standards, at least for
a time in the West. Acknowledging
some "indifference to political
ideas" in a prosperous society,
Alexy maintained that this factor
would not militate against reuni-
He said political sentiment for
reunification in Germany was not
so passionate as that after World
War I for recovery of the
territories taken in the treaty of
Versailles but that it would be a
mistake to say it didn't, exist. Ger-
mans are willing to wait for a time
for a political settlement of the
problem realizing the solution
must be conceived in the general
texture of European politics.
ANOTHER GERMAN student,
H. Christian Krueger, '59L, said
there were practical -'differences
between the two Germanies that
might work against settlement,
though he also said there was
unanimous emotional support for
the idea of reunification in West
Germany. He listed economic, psy-
chological- and political differ-
The Russians, he said, while
utilizing East. Germany as a pri-
mary producer in the satellite area,
have seriously depleted its re-
sources and increased the eco-
nomic differential between the two
areas. A decline of West German
propriety is almost certain if re-
unification takes place. (Alexy
called this reason insufficient.)
The characters of the East and
West Germans differ, the former
being influenced by Slavic forces
while Western French ideas have
been important to the latter.
Also a possible division is the
religious difference between the
Protestant East and the Catholic
West, Krueger said..
He predicted reunification would
bring about a more socialistic gov-
ernment in Germany. Krueger,
however, added that none of these
factors, either separately or pos-
sibly combined, are sufficiently in-
fluential in themselves to block
Krueger, a Berliner, said senti-
ment there was unanimous for re-
unification but that opinion might
be somewhat less pronounced in
the Federal Republic itself.
THE GERMAN political parties,
of course, conform to this view-
point. The Christian Democratic
Union, the party of Adenauer, is
the most pro-West, stamped with
"Der Altes" belief in reunification.
The Democratic Socialists also
support reunification, Prof. Pol-
lock said, but as it feels it is "the
duty of the opposition to oppose"
it makes ambivalent, meaningless
proposals for solution of the Ger-
man problem. As the opposition
which has never been in power,
Prof. Pollock commented, it has
developed 'neither a sense of re-
sponsibility nor policy unanimity.
A new Socialist plan for reuni-
fication specifies giving East Ger-
many equal representation on
groups to start reunification and
would require no previous East-
West agreement on security meas-
Between the two parties, recent
elections in the Rhineland Palati-
nate and lower Saxony, on the
East German Border show incon-
clusive results. Previous ratios of
voter support were maintained by
* * .
WHEN reunification will come
could only be answered by an
opinion sampling inside the Krem-
lin but two things seem certain.
As long as Germany remains
separated there will be trouble in
Central Europe. There is every in-
dication, for instance, that the
Berlin crisis, in its present sim-
mering form, will keep up for
many years to come.
The other is that, despite many
claims to the contrary, Russia,
and not the danger of a reunified!
Germany,, should be the primary
concern of the West. To forget
this, and not work whole-heartedly
for reunification is only going to
compound the problems of the
already beleagured Western allies.
mind, inexcusable. Ironically, this
performance was given "in mem-
ory of the composer."
Robert Courte, of the Univer-
sity School Of Music, gave an as-
sured and sensitive account of the
solo viola part. What finesse
could be attributed to the per-
formance was the contribution of
Mr. Courte, but he was outmanned
from. the start.
Poulenc's "Secheresses" fared
better, possibly becuase it is not.
so fragile. It sounded as 'though
it might be an interesting piece,.
given a chorus- that produced a
well-defined z tone. The Choral
Union 'this year is certainly not
Surely,: even when dealing with
mui- of the difficulty, of- "Sech-
eresses,' some time could be found,
in a semester's practicing to con-
centrate tn such elementary mat-
tees as breath support,. tonal. fo-
cus and projection.
* * *'
AFTER intermission, the orches-
tra was joined by thei young vio.
linist Sidney Harth, who gave a
magnificent performance of Pro-
kofiev's Second Violin Concerto.
Mr. Harth played 'with superb
rhythmic control and a. sureness
of intonation unmatched by most
other violinists -before the public
today. Passage after passage of
ferocious technical difficulty was
tossed off with little more than a.
But his performance was not
merely a- technical tour de force,
for HaIth played with a thorough
command of the score's intellec-
tual and emotional inflections.He
even managed to work ups more
than the usual sympathetic- sup-
port from the orchestra, which,
during an evening of disasters was,
awe-inspiring. Clearly, Mr. Harth
is an artist of the most remark-
The audience was soon brought
back to the reality that this was
the Choral Union's night, how-
ever, with a performance of Cha-
brier's uninhibited "Fete polon-
aise," in inimitable Choral Union
TIME OF Desire" is an unusual
motion, picture, unusual in
that it treats an "unmentionable"
theme without evasion, without
bias, without malevolence. The
-.theme is the sexual love of two
sisters for one another. When the
-younger sister, Ragni, meets, Algot,
an ex-convict, itappears that she
has merely been biding h1er time
until the right man came; her sis-
ter Lilly, in her unspeakable frus-
tration at having lost her lover,
'resorts at first' to somewhat un-
convincing heartbreak and later
to baptism. Ragni becomes preg-
nant; when Algot asks her- to
marry him, she refuses: she does
not love him. Algot leaves for
Stockholm; Ragni returns to Lilly
and has her child; and although
they speak of "a new life," it is
fairly apparent that the new life
will not be much different from
There is a parallel drawn be-
tween the sisters and the Biblical
wise and foolish virgins, but the
parallel' is superficial and. only
treated at short length; at any
rate, it would be debatable as to
which sister was the wise and
which the foolish. The "message"
of the film, spoken by the pastor,
is also Biblical and more directly
bearing upon the action: it is a
plea for tolerance, "for all have
sinned and come short of the glory
EVEN WITH such a loaded topic.
the. picture is- still a curiously un-
moving mirror, perhaps because it
is completely free from sentimen-
tality; the- imperturbability with
which .'the camera records' is., a-.
superb achievement. The excellent
photography is at its best in land-
scapes and portraits, and in sey-
eral critically placed extreme
close-ups. Of - paticular note are
the studies of the face and bodyIof
Nile, the young man who first sees
Ragni and Lilly making love, and
who is: a bystander to much of the
Sex symbolism is omnipresent:
the - horses that the girls' father
trains, lotus blossoms, the rain,
pouring over a cleft in a pile of
rocks. :is wife being dead, the:-
father has sexual escapades with
all the hired girls; they are handled
realistically and, with a touch of
humor. It is amazing that with all.'
the treatment of sex the film ar.
fords, it is not at all an - aphro-
Perhaps the Inglish sub-titles
tone the Swedish fiAn down, but as
it stands, it is difficult to see why
the film was banned at its last
showing. Perhaps its chief merit is
that it,:treats its theme at. all'
and considers female .hoosexu
ality an acceptable topic of dis-
cussion on a level' above that of
misconception and prejudice.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: -
Bikes Cause Pedestrian Problems
What Price,. Diplomacy.
THE AFFAIR centering around Mrs. Clare
Booth Luce has engendered more laughter
than anything else. And there is, admittedly,
a certain amount of humor in the whole epi-
sode involving the too-talkative Mrs. Luce.
But the laughter, heightened by her resig-
nation yesterday, in reality is the result of in-
grained cynicism, and the humor is actually
rather grisly. For the whole thing is just one
more indication of the bankruptcy of Ameri-
can diplomacy - or, more accurately, one
more proof that nothing was ever invested in
this area in 'the first place.
As now constituted, the United States diplo-
matic corps, is a patchwork affair comprised
of businessmen, party devotees, unsuccessful
candidates and, ever so occasionally, a real
live career diplomat. Unfortunately, the latter
are as rare as a dry' day in Ann Arbor, and
their presence in the higher echelons is so.
necessary social and political functions often.
soar high above the career man's pocketbook
and expense account, and so men with inde-
pendent incomes are recruited and given these
Of course, it may be said with justice that
the day of diplomatic initiative is gone, that
under the rules of the game being played now,
a diplomat need only smile, make friends, be
for the sound of the telephone from Washing-
ton. Certainly, no United States ambassador,
however much experience he has had, is per-
mitted to make his own decisions. And per-
generally agreeable, and keep his ear attuned
haps all that is really needed is a charming
woman to perform the necessary social func-
A nPERHAPS re is needed. Perhaps what
the United States needs now, more than
To the Editor:
IN REGARD to a letter by Messrs.
Bastian and Arneson, concerning
the bicyclist vs. pedestrian situa-
tion, perhaps one should consider,
the other point of view-that of
the bicycle rider. What with spring
weather drawing hordes of stu-
dents outdoors, it becomes increas-
ingly more difficult for the rider-to
weave his way through such
crowds; the "pedestrians" scarcely
seem to care whether they are"
knocked down or not. A prime ex-
ample of such a situation fre-
quently occurs on the Diag.
"But I digress"-the letter stated
that one of tht authors was "near-
ly clobbered by a bicycle emerging
from a line of halted cars, and
speeding through a stop-sign."
Many students cannot get from
one class to another on time
without a vehicle of some sort,
and, what with the restrictions on,
and the expenses of, cars-many
students resort to the bicycle as a
means of transportation. Anyone
who rides a bicycle in campus
traffic soon learns that neither the
automobile nor the pedestrian in-
tends to give the bicyclist a break,
unless there happens to be some
follow the old adage: Look before
--Nancy Frye, '60SM
To the Editor:
ANYONE who had not attended
the distinguished lecture of the
African leader Tom Mboya last
Friday afternoon might be mis-
led, in my opinion, by the front
page article in last Saturday's
Daily. Not that the facts stated
were incorrect, but the reviewer
missed the point in emphasizing
the "violent means" aspect of Mr.
Mr. Mboya is a strong adherent
to non-violence and stressed this
again and again in his speech. He
also stated that his main purpose
in coming to America is "to ex-
plain the African personality."
This was not mentioned in the
Would it not be possible for The
Daily to print, in part at least,
some of the most significant
speeches given on campus? In this.
way misunderstanding would be
minimized and the significant:
message of our guest speakers
could reach a wider audience.
-Jack C. Schuman
A LTHOUGH.the current screen
adaptation.of Fanny Hurst's
pansy fresh "Imitation of Life"
will undoubtedly generate con-,
siderable ,interest and appeal to
the matinee contingent, the more
discriminating and sophisticated
viewer will justifiably find Uni-.
versal International's glistening
extravaganza a grandiose disaster,
quite unforgettable and quite un-
While there are many reasons
accounting for "Imitation of Life"
bursting forth as spring's most
spectacular black orchid, credit
author Fanny Hurst -for contribu-
ting a share far beyond the call of
duty. It is not every day that a
writer is able to successfully inte-'
grate the stock success drama, the
inevitaale love triangle and the
turgid tale of a young Negro pass-
ing herself off as white. But then
one must not underestimate the
talents of Miss Hurst or her ability
in conceiving the glowing ,literary
.:emulsion. Indeed she is4 an inter-
esting craftsman. And when she
waves her magic wand, over pro-
ceedings such- as "Imitation of
CREDIT must also be extended
to producer Ross Hunter for re-
markable hindsight. In an era
when the K motion picture is sup-
posed to be coming of age, it-
requires a courageous man to pile
cliche upon cliche and pass the
product off as frank adult trauma.
And who else but the shrewdly
calculating Mr. Ross could achieve
'such expert casting,. Placing the'
aging- Lana Turner against the
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sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
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be sent In TYPNWRITTEN form to
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-Ing, before 2 p.mn. the flay preceding
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Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
SATURDAY, MAY 2, 159
VOL. LXIX, NO. 151
Teaching Candidates registered with.
Bureau of Appts. interested in chart-
ered- flight and group tour of Europe
contact the Bureau for info. Flight
leaves Detroit°July 5 and returns Aug.
12. Round tripstre is $360. Group tour,
optional; includes' travel in five coon-